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J c/^ Semi'Montbfy Journal of 



Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 

January 1 to June 16, 1906 






Academic Wblfabe 31 

Actob's Mxhories op a Fellow Actob Percy F. Bieknell 316 

Alabama in Wab-Timb and Afteb Jame$ Wilfard Oamer .... 160 

Ambbican Diplomacy, Mbaniko and Influence of . . Frederic Austin Ogg .... 190 

American Men of Lettebs, Two W.B. Simonds 119 

Ahebican UNiVEBsnT, Thbee Decades of the . . . F. B. R. HeUeme 289 

Apostle of Cleab Thinkino, An Percy F. Bieknell 285 

Cablyle's Bioobapheb, a Bioobaphy of Percy F. Bieknell 80 

Celtic Litebatube Charles Leonard Moore . . . 186 

Chbistlaitety, The Basis of T. D. A. Coekerell 323 


City, The, as Democracy's Hope Charles Zueblin 230 

CoMMEBCiAL Tbavelleb IN THE Land OF PizABBO . . TTtofMbs H. MocMde .... 322 

Continental Litebatube, A Yeab of 34 

Earth's Histoby, New Theobies of the H. Foster Bain 384 

Education, A New Hmtoby of Edward 0. Sisson 116 

England, An Oxfobd Histoby of 8t, Oeorge X. Sioussat .... 122 

English King, Two Views of a Obeat Laurence M. Larson 291 

English Natubalists, The Doyen of T. D. A. Coekerell 11 

EuBOPEAN Diplomacy in its Beginnings David Y. Thomas 9 

Fiction, Recent WUliam Morton Payne 16^153,262,364. 

FicnoN, The Cabdinal Vibtues of 221 

Field Libraries MelvU Dewey 75 

France, Monarchy or Republic in Henry B. Bourne 295 

French Dramatists, The Greatest of H. C Chatfteld- Taylor .... 192 

French Literature, Studies in Arthur O. Canflsld 13 

Garden Blooms and Ways Sara Andrew Shafer .... 359 

Gardeners, The Greatest of Modern Thomas H* Macbride .... 47 

Goethe Biography, A DsFiNiTiyE Lewis A. Rhoades 85 


Gbeek Tbagic Stage, A Philosophical Radical on the F. B. R. HeUems 389 

Ibsen, Henbik 351 

Ibsen Intime 379 

Immigration Pboblem, Studies of the ...... Frederic A%utin Ogg .... 257 

Ihmobtality, What Is ? T. D. A. CoekerM 228 

Ibish Patbiot, Autobiogbaphy of an Percy F. Bieknell 37 

Ibish Stoby-Telleb, A Rollicking Perey F. Bieknell 382 

Jackson, Andbew, to Andbew Johnson Bdwin B. Sparks 229 

Japan's Ancient Religion William Elliot Oriffis .... 255 

Japanese Abchitectube and Allied Abts Frederick W. Oookin .... 192 

Lamb's Latest Biogbapheb Perey F. Bieknell 6 

Landscape Abt, Modebn, The Foundeb of ... . Walter Cranston Lamed . . . 266 

LiFE^AViNG AS A MiLiTABY SciENCE William Blliott Ghriffis .... 388 

Masteby, The Mastebliness of Charles H. Cooper 254 

MnjTABY Cbiticism of the Late Wab William Elliot Oriffis .... 194 

Novel at the Bab, The 141 

Novels, Notes on New * 18 

Qbient, Re-shaping of the Frederic Austin Ogg .... 317 

Pagan Wobld, The Old Untboubled F. B. R^ HeUems 196 

Poet fob Poets, A 3 

PoETBY, Contempobaby, Notes ON Martha Hale Shaekford . . . 249 

PoETBY, Recent Amebican William Morton Payne .... 125 

PoETBY, Recent English William Morton Payne .... 325 

Point of Depabtube, A 109 

Pbecefts fob the Young, and Reflections fob the Old T. D» A. Coekerell 151 

Pbe-Raphaelitism fbom a New Angle Edith Kellogg Dunton .... 113 

Provence: Its Histoby, Abt, and Literature . . . Josiah Reniek Smith .... 39 

Railway-Rate Discussion, Some Current H Parker Willis 82 




Percy F.BicknM Ill 


Reading, Indisckiminate, The Deliohts of . . . 

Reason in Religion and in Abt A. K, Rogen 

Reynolds, Sib Joshua, and hib Work Charles Henry Hart . . 

St. Lawbence, Discoyebeb of the Lawrence J. Burpee . . . 

Sandwich Island Souyenibs Ferey F, Bieknell . . . 

ScHiLLEB, A Re-yaluation OF Starr WiUard Cutting . . 

School, The Libbaby in the 

Sea Poweb and the Wab of 1812 Anna Helaise Abel . . . 

Shakespeabe, Two Recent Books on Charles H, A, Wager . . 

Shakespeabean Table-Talk Edward £. Hale, Jr. . . 

Slayeby and Its Aftebmath W. F. Burghardt Du Bois . 

Social Science, Pabtisans and Histobians in . . . Charles Riehnumd Henderson 

Sociological Theoby, Main Cvbbents in Frank W. Blaekmar . . 

Spobtsman-Natubalist, Tales of a Charles Atweod Kofoid 

Teaching Pbofession, The 

Thobeau and his Cbitics Oilbert F. Coleman 















Tbayels by Sea and Land H B. Coblentz 360 

Tbayellebs in Many Lands H. B. Coblentz 232 

Tbee Book, The Ambbican Bohnmil Shimek 358 

Victobian Celebbities, a Gibl's Impbessions of . . Ferey F. Bieknell 188 

Walpole Lettebs, Old and New H.W. Boynton 320 

Whitman, The Real and the Ideal Ferey F. BiekneU 144 

Announcements of Spring Books, 1906 204 

One Hundred Noyels for Summer Reading, A Descriftiye List of 368 

Brdefs ON New Books 20,48,92,128,156,197,236,264,298,330,391 

Briefer Mention 24, 52, 96, 160, 202, 239, 333 

Notes 24,52,97,132,161,203,239,268,302,334,367,395 

Topics in Leading Periodicals 25, 98, 161, 240, 303 

Lists OF New Books 25,53,99,133,162,211,241,269,304,336,371,396 



Abbott,G.F. Throoffh India with the Prince 862 

Adama, Geoige Burton. PoUtical History of England. 1066- 

1216 :; 122 

Adj. Julia Cartwriffht. Raphael 160 

Aldis, Janet. Madame Geo Arin and her Salon 286 

Aldrich, Richard. Guide to the Rinir of the Nibelunff 97 

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey. Sonss and Sonnets. Riyerside 

Press edition 3M 

Alexander. Mrs. Francis. U Libro D'Oro 182 

American Catalog. The, 1900-4 96 

Andrews. Arthur Lynn. Specimens of Discourse 96 

Arms.M.W. Oarducci's " Poems of Italy " 858 

ArmstroniT. Walter. Sir Joshua Reynolds, popular edition 226 
ArmstroniT. Walter. The Peel Collection and the Dutch 

School of Paintinir 128 

Arthur. Richard. Ten Thousand Miles in a 7acht 861 

Ashley. W.J. Procress of the German WorUnff Classes. . . 297 

Aston. W.G. Shinto, the Way of the Gods 266 

Atkinson, F. W. The Philippine Islands 48 

Avery. Elroy M. History of the United States. Vol II 881 

Baffot. Richard. The Passport 19 

Baker, Franklin T.. and Carpenter. Geor«e R. Lancuace 

Readers 808 

Barine. Arrdde. Louis ZIV. and La Grande Mademoiselle 96 

Bastian. H. Charlton. Nature and Origin of Livinc Matter 882 
Batchelor, John. Ainu -English -Japanese Dictionary, 

second edition 806 

Bayne. Charles J. Perdita 127 

Baxter. James Phinney. Memoir of Jacques Cartier 200 

Beach.RexE. The BpoUers 864 

Beach. Beth Curtis. Daughters of the Puritans 160 

Beavan, Arthur H. Fishes I Haye Known 802 

Beecher. Henry Ward. Sermon Briefs 161 



Benson. E.F. The Angel of Pain 264 

Benton. Joel. Persons and Places 60 

Bemheimer, Charles 8. The Russian Jew in the United 

States 268 

Bernstein. Herman. Contrite Hearts 20 

Bielschowsky, Albert. Life of Goethe, trans, by William A. 

Cooper, Vol. 1 86 

Bigelow, MelviUe. Centralization and the Law 888 

Bindloss, Harold. Alton of Somasco 864 

Binns, Henry B. life of Walt Whitman 144 

Birrell, Augustine. Andrew Marvell 61 

Birrell, Augustine. In the Name of the Bodleian 158 

Blaekmar. Frank W. Elements of Sociology 202 

Boas. Mrs. F. S. With Milton and the Cavaliers 94 

Borrow. Gtoorge. Romano Lavo-LU, new edition 28 

Boulton, William B. Sir Joshua Reynolds 225 

Bourne, Henry E. A History of Mediaval and Modem 

Europe i* 

Bradley, A. G. In the March and Borderland of Wales. . 287 

Brady, Cyrus Townsend. The Patriots 268 

Brandes, Gtoorg. Main Currents in Nineteenth Century 

Literature. Vol. VI 157 

Braun. Wilhelm A. Types of Weltechmerz in German Poetry 24 

Brooke, Stopford. On Ten Plays of Shakespeare 148 

Brown, Horatio F. In and around Venice 268 

Brown, William Horace. The Glory Seekers 896 

Buley, B. C. Australian Life in Town and Country 197 

Campbell, Wilfred. Poems, collected edition 128 

" Carbery, Ethna." The Four Winds of Birinn 829 

Carpenter, George R. Model English Prose 161 

Carpenter. J. Bstiin. James Martineau 22 

Cams. Paul. Priedrlch Schiller 24 

Castle. Agnes and Egerton. If Youth But Knew! 864 



iJ. TteVatoof T«B|» 1» 

^'OutonTliinFftperGUMioa" 97. 2». 867 

Ghamberlin, Tlioiiiaa a^ mnd SaUabnnr, BoIUn D. GeolocT* 

Vola. n. and m 884 

CauuBben, Alfred B. Staodmrd Webster Pooket Dlciioiiary 288 

Cfhainhlfa. Jean. Ladj Bobi. her Brother, and 1 20 

Chariton, John. Bpeechea and AddresMa 88 

Chenej. John Vanoe. Inancoral Addreeaea. Johnson to 

Booserelt 188 

Churchill. Winston & Lifeof LoidBandolphChorohill... 886 
Clement. Bmest W. Handbook of Modem Japan, revised 

edition 24 

0oit,8tanton. MiU's ** The Sahjection of Wdmen " 288 

Ooleridce, Ernest H. Byron's Poems. one-Tolume edition 240 

Collins. J. Chnrton. Matthew Arnold's " Merope " 208 

Collins. Vammn L. BaTases of the British and Heesians 

inl7T8-7 886 

Cook. Theodore Andrea. OldProvence 80 

Condert, Frederic B. Addressee 61 

Coz, Isaac J. Joomers of La Salle 208 

Gram, Balph Adams. Impreesions of Japanese Architeotore 108 

Crockett, 8. B. FishersofMen 204 

Crockett, B. B. The Chenr Bibband 168 

Crosbj, Xmest. Garrison, the Non-Besistant 96 

Cnsb7. Oscar Terry. Tibet and Turkestan 884 

CroChen. Samnel M. The Paidoner's Wallet 22 

Davies. DnTld FCrangoon. Singing of the Patore 181 

Davis, Norah. The Northerner 16 

Dawson, W.J. Makers of BniTlish Fiction 61 

Dechanne. PanL Euripides and the Spirit of his Dramas. . 880 

DeOoervfUe. A.B. NewEgypt 286 

Devine, Edward T. EflUdency and Belief 288 

Dickinson. Edward. Study of the History of Music 28 

Dickinson. G. Lowes. TheOreek View of Life 186 

Dickson. Bichard Watson. Last Poems 888 

Diz, Beolah Marie. The Fair Maid of Graystones 166 

Dix,MorgBn. History of Trinity Parish, VoL m 186 

Downey, Wdnwind. CSiarles Lever 882 

Bcan,MamrioeF. The Ghost in Hamlet 288 

Elliot, Daniel Girand. Check List of Mammals 188 

XDis. Elizabeth. Barbara Winslow, Bebel 166 

Elson. Henry William. School History of the United States 208 

Elaon, LooIb C Mnsic Dictionary 888 

Sltzbacher. O. Modem Germany 888 

Ebss, Bamett A. Jews of Sonth Carolina 888 

'*XnfflishCataloffne of Books for 1906" 802 

Ertince, Bose, Memories of 96 

Farmer, J&mes E. Versailles and the Court under Louis 

XrV 60 

Fitch, Clyde. The Girl with the Green Eyes 96 

Flammarion, GamUle. Thunder and Lightninc 881 

Fleming, Walter L. Civil War and Beoonstruction in 

Ahibama 160 

Ford, Worthington C. Journals of the Continental Con- 
gress. 208,884, 886 

Foster, George Bnrman. Finality of the Christian Beligion 824 

Fowles, George M. Down in Porto Bioo 868 

Friswell. lAara Hain. In the Sixties and Seventies 188 

Fiy. Boger. Sir Joshua Beynolds's Discourses 226 

Oapon. Father. Story of My Life 896 

Gasiorowski, Wadaw. Napoleon's Love Story 168 

GeO, William Edgar. A Yankee in Pigmy Land 288 

George, Henry. Jr. The Menace of Privilege 297 

Oifford, Angrnsta H. Italy, her People and their Story 166 

Gilder. Bichard Watson. IntheHeights 126 

Oilman. Damiel C. The Launching of a University 288 

Oivler. Bobert Chenaolt. Poems 127 

Qlsdden, Washington. Christianity and Socialism 288 

Gladden, Washington. The New Idolatry 181 

Glasgow. EUen. The Wheel of Life 166 

Gore-Booth. Eya. The Three BesurrectionS and the Tri- 

umphof Maeve 829 

Goaee. Edmund. French Profiles 18 

Gosae, Edmund. Sir Thomas Browne 287 

"Gray. BCazweU." The Great Befusal 166 

Oreenslet, Ferris. James Buseell Lowell 119 

Greensheilds, E. B. Landscape Painting and Modem Dutch 

Artists 800 

GrinneU. William M. Social Theories and Social Facto... 297 

Ghierber, H. A. How to Prepare for Europe 894 

Haggard, Bider. Ayesha 20 

Halle, Martin. Queen Mary of Modena 882 

Haines, Henry S. Bestrictive Bailway Legislation 82 

Hale, Louis Closser. A Motor Oar Divorce 806 

Hall, Presoott F. Immigration and ito Effecto upon the 

United States 267 

Halsey, Francis W. Mrs. Bowson's** Charlotte Temple".. 68 

Hanotaox. Gabritt. Contemporary France, Vol. H 296 

Harding. Samuel B. FsBentiale in Mediaeval and Modem 

History *. 24 

Hardy. Thomas. The Dynasto. part second 826 

Harper. SamneL Bussian Beader 884 

Hart, Jerome. A Levantine Log Book 284 

Harvie-Brown, J. A. Travels of a Naturalist in Northem 

Europe 868 

Harwood, W. S. New Creations in Plant Life 47 

Hasluck, Paul N. Book of Photography 88 

Havell. B. B. Benares, the Holy City 861 

Heilprin. Angelo and Louis. Lippincott's Gazetteer, revised 

edition 87 

Helen, W.H. Aspeoto of Balzac 62 

Heller. Otto. Studies in Modem German Literature 867 

Henderson. T. Sturge. Constable 266 

Henry. Arthur. TiOdgingii in Town 19 

Herbert. Charles W. Poems oftheSeen and the Unieen... 888 

Herrick. Christine T. Lewis CarroU Birthday Book 88 

Hill. David J. History of European Diplomacy. Vol. 1 9 

Hill. George Birkbeck. Johnson's "Lives of the Poeto"... 208 

** Hobbes, John OUver." The Flute of Pan 18 

Hoflding. Harald. Problems of Philosophy 160 

Holder, Charles Frederick. Life in the Open 866 

Holder. Charles Frederick. Log of a Sea Angler 866 

Holland. Bobert Afton. The Commonwealth of Man 297 

Holman-Hunt. William. Pre-Baphaelitism and the Pre- 

Baphaelito Brotherhood 118 

Holt, Henry. *' Calmire " and " Sturmsee," new editions. . 209 

Hooper. Charles E. The Country House 200 

Hopkins. Herbert M. The Mayor of Warwick 866 

Hongh. Emerson. Heart's Desire 166 

Howe. Frederic C. The City, the Hope of Democracy 280 

Hudson. W.H. "Oie Purple Land, new edition 24 

Hughes. Bnpert. Zal 20 

Hulbert. Archer B. Washington and the West 96 

Hume, John F. The Abolitionisto 888 

Hume, Martin. The Wives of Henry the Eighth 298 

Humphrey. SethK. The Indian Dispoeseesed 21 

Hunt. Bampton. Green Boom Book 896 

Hunt. William. PoUtical History of England. 1760-1801 122 

Hunt. William, and Poole, B. L. Political History of 

¥B« yla.«H 122 

Hutton. Edward. Cities of Umbria 199 

Button, Bichard Holt. Brief Literary Criticisms 802 

Jackson, Charles T. Loser's Luck 17 

Jacobs. W.W. Captains AU 19 

JefTeries. Bichard. "Amaryllis at the Fair" and "After 

London," Dutton's reprinto 802 

Jenks. Tudor. In the Days of Scott 884 

Jones, Samuel L. Letters of Labor and Love 129 

Kelley. Florence. Ethical Gains through Legislation 28 

Kenyon. Frederic G. Bobert Browning and Alfred Domett 396 

King. Henry Churchill. Bational Living 161 

King. W. L. Mackenzie. The Secret of Heroism 801 

Konkle. Burton A. Life and Speeches of Thomas Williams 228 

Krausz. Sigmund. Practical Automobile Dictionary 808 

Kuhnemann, Bugen. Schiller 41 

Lane. Martha A. L.. and Hill, Mabel. American History 

in Literature 288 

Lane, Mrs. John. The Champagne Standard 200 

lAng. Andrew. New Collected Bhymes 827 

lAng, Andrew. Oxford, illustrated edition 24 

Umg.Andrew. Sir Walter Scott 894 

lAng. Andrew. The Secret of the Totem 266 


Lankester, E. Bay. Extinct Animals 288 

Le Boy. Junes A. Philippine Life in Town and OoontiT. . 196 

Legge, Arthur S. J. The Ford IM 

Leonard, John W. Who's Who in America, 1906 169 

Liljencrants, Ottilie A. Bandvar the Soncsmith 886 

Lincoln. Jeanie Gonld. The Javdin of Fate 18 

" Liquor Problem. The: A Summary of Inyestications con- 
ducted by the Committee of Fifty . 1888-1908 ** 208 

Lodge, George Cabot. The Great Adventure 126 

London, Jack. War of the Classes 297 

Long, Augustus W. American Poems, 1776-1900 896 

Lottrldge, Silas A. Animal Snapshots and How Made 9t 

Lounsbery, G. Constant. Love's Testament 829 

Lucas, E.V. Life of Charles Lamb 6 

Ludlow, James M. Sir Baoul 16 

Lyman, Henry M. Hawaiian Yesterdays 228 

lynde, Francis. The Quickening 262 

** Maartens, Maarten." The Healers 264 

McDermid, William A. Songs of the University of Chicago 808 

Macdonald, Bonald. The Sea Maid 268 

Mahan.A.T. Sea Power and its Belations to the War of 1812 46 
Maitland, J. A. Fuller. Grove's " Dictionary of Music and 

Musicians," Vol. n 267 

Major, Charles. Tolanda 19 

Margoliouth. D. S. Works of Flavius Josephus 896 

" Mark Twain's Library of Humor " 98. 268. 884, 896 

Marks, Mary A. M. The Tree of Knowledge 829 

Marston, Edward. Fishing for Pleasure and Catching It. . 896 

Marvin, Frederic Bowland. The Companionship of Books 96 

Masterman, C. F. G. In Fteril of Change 891 

Mathews, Bobert V. Child of the Stars 20 

MaxweU,W.B. Vivien 154 

Mayer, Alfred G. SespShore Life 288 

Mead, Edwin D. Dodge's *'War Inconsistent with the 

Beiigion of Christ" 269 

Mead, Lucia A. Patriotism and the New Internationalism 867 

Meaktn, Budgett. Model Factories and ViUaffes 109 

Medlicott, Mary. Abbreviations Used in Book Catalogues 97 

Meredith. George. Works of, " Pocket edition " 867 

MereJkowski, Dmitri. Peter and Alexis 108 

Merriam. George 8. TheNegroand the Nation... 294 

Michelson, Miriam. A Yellow Journalist 20 

Mifflin, Lloyd. Sonnets, collected edition 126 

Milford.H.S. Cowper's Poems. Oxfbrd edition 96 

Mill. HughB. TheSiege of the South Pole..- 860 

Millar. A. H. Mary Queen of Scots 266 

Miller, Joaquin. The Building of the City Beautiful 800 

Mims, Edwin. Sidney Lanier 119 

Minchin, Harry C. Simples from Sir Thomas Browne's 

Garden 84 

MitcheU, S. Weir. Pearl 289 

Mitton, G. E. Jane Austen and her times 106 

Monroe, Paul. Text-Book in the Histofy of Education .... 116 

Moore, Gtoorge. The Lake 268 

Moore, John Bassett. American Diplomacy 190 

Morris, Sir Lewis. The New Bambler 92 

Muller, F. Max. Life and Beiigion 162 

Murray, A. H. Hallam. The Hlgh-Boad of Empire 286 

" Musician's Library " 188 

"National Educational Association Proceedings," Meeting 

of 1906 97 

Naylor, James Ball. The Kentuckian 366 

Nevin, Blanche. Great-Grandma's Looking-Glass 208 

Newcomb, Simon. Compendium of Spherical Astronomy. . 896 

Newman, Ernest. Musical Studies 160 

*• Newnes' Art Library " 180 

Nicholson, Meredith. The House of a Thousand Candles. . 166 

Noyes, Ella. The Casentino and its Story 181 

Noyes, Walter Chadwick. American Bailroad Bates 82 

Nugent, Meredith. New Games and Amusements 62 

O'Brien, William. Becollections 87 

Ochlenschlager's '* Axel and Valberg." trans, by Frederick 

S.Kolbe 367 

* * Old South Leaflets " 97 

Oppenheim, E. PhUUps. A Maker of History 164 

Osier, William. Counsels and Ideals 98 


Ostwald, Wilhehn. Individuality and ImmortaUty.; 2» 

"Oxford Poets" 96 

Page, Curtis H. Chief American Poets 96 

Page, N. diffbrd. Twenty Songs by Stephen C. Foster. ... 884 

Painter, F.V.N. Great Pedagogical Essays 908 

Pais, Bttore. Ancient Legends of Boman History 201 

Palmer, Frederick. Lucy of the Stars 866 

Palmer, George H. Works of George Herbert 128 

Parker, William B., and Viles, Jonas. Letters and Ad- 
dresses of Thomas Jefferson 97 

Parrish, Bandall. A Sword of the Old Frontier 18 

Parrish.BandalL Historic niinois 94 

Passmore. T. H. In Further Ardenne 284 

Paul, Herbert. History of Modem iBngiimii, Vol. IV 96 

Paul, Herbert. LifeofFroude 80 

Pepper, Charles M. Panama to Patagonia 822 

Peters, Madison C. The Jews in America 280 

Pfleiderer, Otto. Christian Origins 828 

Phelps, Albert. Louisiana 167 

Phillips, L. March. In the Desert 288 

Phillips, Stephen. Nero 826 

PhiUpotts, Eden. The Portreeve 864 

** Photograms of the Year, 1906" 97 

Piatt, Isaac H. Bacon Cryptograms in Shakespeare 90 

Pollard, A. F. Henry VIH 291 

Potter, Margaret. The Genins 866 

Prince, Morton. The Dissociation of a Personality 266 

" Princess PriscUla's Fortnight" 18 

Prothero, Bowland S. Letters of Bichard Ford 266 

Prout, B!beneser. Songs and Airs by Hiindel 188 

Putnam, James J. Memoir of Dr. James Jackson 180 

Quayle, William A. The Prairie and the Sea 288 

Quick, Herbert Double Trouble 268 

Banc^, George W. The Bivouac of the Dead and its Author 98 

Bawling,C.G. The Great Plateau 285 

Beed, JohnC. The Brothers' War 92 

Beid, Forrest. The Garden God 267 

Bepplier, Agnes. In our Convent Days 51 

Bhys, Ernest. Everyman's Library 898 

Bichman, Irving B. Bhode Island 182 

Bickett, Leonard A. Poems of Love and Nature 828 

Bobertson, Morgan. Land Ho 19 

Bobins, Edward. William T. Sherman 289 

Bobinson, James H. Headings in European History 888 

Bobinson, Tracy and Lucy. Selections from the Poetry of 

John Payne 826 

Bogers, Julia E. The Tree Book 866 

Boosevelt, Theodore. Outdoor Pastimes of an American 

Hunter 4» 

Boss, Janet. Florentine Palaces and their Stories 160 

Bothschild, Alonzo. Lincoln, Master of Men 264 

* * Boyal Academy Pictures, 1906 " 202 

Bunkle, Bertha. The Truth about Tolna 867 

St. Maur, Kate V. A Self-Supportiug Home 180 

St. Pierre's ** Paul et Virginie," Biverside Press edition .... 894 
Salnte-Beuve's ** Portraits of the Eighteenth Century," 

trans, by Katharine Wormeley and George B. Ives 180 

Salter, Emma G. Franciscan Legends in Italian Art 199 

Sampson, John. Poetical Works of Blake 160 

Sanborn, Mary F. Lynette and the Congressman 16 

Sands, H. Hayden. The Valley of Dreams 126 

Santayana, George. The Lif e of Beason 87, 800 

Scarritt, Winthrop E. Three Men in a Motor Car 863 

Schillings, C. G. Flashlights in the Jungle, trans, by Fred- 
erick Whyte 282 

Schouler, James. Americans of 1776 299 

Schuyler, Montgomery, Jr. Bibliography of the Sanskrit 

Drama 886 

Soott. Duncan C. New World Lyrics and Ballads 127 

Seaman, Louis L. The Beal Triumph of Japan 888 

Sedgwick, Henry Dwight. Short History of Italy 166 

Selincourt, Basil de. Giotto 166 

SelouB, Edmund. The Bird Watcher in the Shetlands 198 

Sewell, Cornelius V. V. Common-Sense Gardens 860 

Shaler, Nathaniel. Man and the Earth 132 

Shand, Alexander I. Days of the Past 287 




aiiKrpk^. Hugo* A RMliat of the iBgeui 867 

Slidtoii. Louise. The Seeaons in a FlowerOanlen 880 

flhemuui, Fnak D., and SooHaid. CSlnton. A Boathem 

FUihfc U7 

Shflnrood, Maxsnret. The Oominff of the Tide 19 

ahnekbQz«b.S.8. Greece, fkom the Oominr of the HeUenee 

to A. D. 14 888 

Sidffwkk. Mn. Alfled. The Prof eMor's LccBQr u 

Simkiewks, Heniyk. On the Field of Glory 188 

Bieper. Brnet. Loncfellow's *' Svangeline " US 

Sinclelr, Upton. TheJnnde 988 

Sndsdr.WIUiamA. The Aftennath of Shivery 8M 

Sfaiccr.H.W. DrawincB of Von Mensel 908 

Bfaigleton. Bsther. HoUamd 808 

8kae.H0daT. Mary Omen of Boots 986 

Slater, Joaoph. Book-Prloes Cnrrent, 1805 87 

Slater. J. Herbert. How to GoUeet Books 9« 

BmaU. Albion W. General Bodoiocy Itf 

SmOej. James B. Mannal of Amerloaa literature 808 

SBdth. Goldwin. Irish History and the Irish Onestion 880 

8oilas.W.J. The A«e of the Earth 800 

8parfD.Jolui. The Bitter Cry of the Children 986 

Sparks, Edwin S. Incidents Attending Johnston's Cap- 

ttrlly 94 

Spears, John R. Admiral Farraffut 61 

** Spirit of the A«e Series" 808 

Stsnwood. Edward. James G. Blaine 48 

Stephen, air Leslie. Thomas Hobbes 107 

Steidieneon. Henry T. Shakespeare's London 88 

StkAney. TmmbolL Poems 185 

Stokes. Hmrh. Bfedilnga of Charles M6ryon 908 

Street. Georve B. MoontDesert 968 

StiOBC. Josiah. Tolman. W. H.. and BUas. W. D. P. Sodal 

ProCTSSB, 1806 886 

" Bopplementagy Papers of the American School of Classical 

BtadlesinBome.»'Vol.1 988 

Snttner. Baroaiess Tom. Groimd Arms, new edition 88. 161 

Swioett. Glen L. Milton's "Ode on the Morning of 

Christ's NatiTity" 188 

S wlnl wr ne. A. C. Trasedles, new Ubrary edition 880 

Srmons. Arthur. Splrltoal AdTentores 901 

Tarkington, Booth. The Conqnest of Canaan 165 

Tsylor, H. C. Acricoltoral Boonomlos 986 

Tennyson's ** In Memorlam," ** Golden Treasory " edition 188 

Thayer. Harrey W. Laurence Sterne in Germany 94 

Thomdike. Lynn. Place of Mafflc in the Intelleotnal His- 
tory of Snrope 188 

Tolstoy, Leo. Christianity and Patriotism 87 

Toat,T.F. PoUtieal History of Bnc]and,1916-18n 188 

Toynbee. Mrs. Facet. Letters of Horace Walpole 890 

Tranbel, Horace. With Walt Whitman in Camden 144 

Trent, William P. Greatness in Literatore 98 

TroUope. Henry M. Life of Moli^ 182 

Underhill. Evelyn. Mirscles of Oar Lady Saint Mary 867 

Vance. Loois Josoph. The PrirateWar 885 

Van Dyke, Henry. Esssys in Application 90 

Van Vorst, Marie. MissDesmond 19 

Vaoshn. John. WUd Flowen of Belbome 806 

Vedder, Henry C. Balthaaar Hubmaler 987 

WaUace. Alfred BnsseL MyLif^ 11 

"War in the Far East, The" 184 

"Ward.A.B." The B&ce Brash Parson 982 

Ward. H. Snowden. The Canterbury Pilcrlmaces 908 

Wardman. Brvin. The Princess Olga 886 

Warner. Beverly. Famous Introductions to Shakespeare's 

Plays 882 

Watson. Edward W. Old Lamps and New 187 

Watson. H. B. Marriott. Twisted Brlantine 17 

Watson. William. Poems, collected edition 94 

Wauchope, Georce A. Lamb's *' Esssys of Ella " 884 

Weale, B. L. Putnam. The Be-Shapinc of the Far East 817 

WeUs.H.G. AModemUtopia 986^ 

Wells.H.G. Kipps 17 

Wertbeimer, Edward de. The Puke of Beichstadt 21 

Weyman, Stanley J. Stanrecrow Farm 17 

Wharton, Edith. The House of Mirth 15 

Whelpley, James D. Problem of the Immigrant 908 

"Who's Who" (English) 1806 161 

Wilkina.W.H. Mrs. Fitsherbert and George FV 908 

WilUams. C. F. Abdy. Story of Organ Music 8fl|S 

Williamson, C. N. and A. M. My Friend the Chauffeur. ... 154 

Wilson, Francis. Joseph Jefferson 816 

WInship. Georse P. Sailors' Narratives of VoyMres along 

the New England Coast 801 

Wister.Owen. Lady Baltimore 885 

Wolff, JuUus. The Wild Huntsman, trans, by Balph 

Davidson 96 

Wood. W. Birbeck. and Edmonds, J. B. History of the 

CivU War 964 

Woodberry, George E. Swinburne 8 

Woodberry, Georse E. The Torch 986 

Woods,F.A. Mental and Moral Heredity in Boyalty 998 

"World's ChMsios" 886 

Wrli^t, Joseph. English Dialect Grammar 94 

Zimmem. Alice. Old Tales from Bome 808 

Zueblin, Charles. A Decade of Civic Development 800 


American Uterature in British Periodicals. M, B, A 

Bamss St Oo.'s Aoquiaition of the United Educational Co.'s 


Bibliocraphic Needs and Posslbaitles. Eugene Fairfield 


Book Advertising, The Principles of. George French 

"Bnriington Magazine " 

Editorial Career, A Distinguished. W.H.Johnean 

Emdlsh Metre. A New Theory of. Edward P. Morton.. . . 
Fax. Dnflidd St Co.'s AoQuisition of Herbert S. Stone St Co.'s 


Harland. Henry, Death of 

Harper, William Bainof . Death of. . 

** Hawaiian Yesterdays." The Author of. Sara Andrew 

Shafer 968 

Molmenti's Venice, Announcement of 6 

Naval Wartiue, Improvised Means of. F, H, Coatello 287 

" Paradise Lost," A Japanese Translation of 884 

Smith. Edwin Burritt, Death of 885 

Swinburne as ** a Love Poet" Franeta Howard Williama 79 
Swinburne as " a Love Poet," A Final Word about. Henry 

S. Paneo€t9t 112 

Swinburne's Poetry. Henry 8. Pancocut 86 

War of 1812. Late Discussions of the. F, H. Coatello 148 

War of 1812, Peace Terms of the. A,T.MaKan 288 

vB.^cV 7. 

p- ^ ^ 




} ^""in^"' CHICAGO, JAN. 1, 1906. 

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The Pardoner's Wallet 

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The Works of George Herbert 

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Important Macmillan Announcements 


The Life of Lord Randolph Churchill 


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The two volumes will contain more than eleven hundred pages ; several portraits and sotue 
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'/^Cl. Vik^ 

9 £emt*:0Bant||ls Jotnrnal of l^tttrarg Crttuwm, Btscuftsfon, an)i Information. 

THE DIAL (founded in 1890) U publUhed on the l»t and mh 
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pottage prepatd in the United Statee^ Canada^ and Mexico; 
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eoHotu thould be addretted to 

THE DIAL, Fine Artt SuHding, Chicago. 


No. 469. 

JANUARY 1, 1906. 

Vd. XL. 




The Principles of Book Advertifliiig. George 


F.BiekneU 6 


David Y. Thomas 


T. D. A. Cockerdl 11 


G. Cai|/£eW 13 

RECENT FICTION. Wmiam Morton Payne ... 15 
Wharton's The Honse of MirOi. — Davis's The 
Northezner. — Sanborn's Lymiette and the Con- 
gresBman. — Ludlow's SSr Raonl. — Parrish's A 
Swoid of the Old Frontier. — Jackson's Losers' 
Lock. — WatBon's Twisted %lantine.— Weyman's 
Staryecrow Fann.— Wells's Kipps.— The Princess 
Prisdlla's Fortnight.— Craigie's The Flute of Pan. 
— I^dgwick's The Professor's Legacy. 



A book of good sense and sound ideals. — The Uot 
on our national escutcheon. — The son of Napoleon 
and Marie Louise. — A pardon for our peccadillos. 
—The greatest of Unitarians. — A handbook d 
musical history. — Some ethical gains through 
legislation. — Ileasant papers on literary themes. 
— The Romany Word-Book. 






" Liberty, melody, passion, fate, nature, love, 
and fiune are the seven chords which the poet's 
hand, from its first almost boyhood touch upon 
the lyre, has swept now for two score years with 
music that has been blown through the world." 
These words strike the key-note of Professor 
Woodberry's appreciation of Mr. Swinburne's 
poetry — abook in form, an essay in dimensions, 
and a nugget of pure gold in critical quality. 
We are indebted to Mr. Woodberry for many 
precious earlier gifts — for much noble verse of 
his own and for much finely-tempered discourse 
upon the verse of other men — but to no piece of 
his writing more than to this, in which the poet 
speaks of the poet straight to the heart of all 
who love poetry. 

We started to read Mr. Woodberry's essay 
with some misgivings. He has been charged with 
defective sympathies, with putting too much of 
the New England conscience into his judgment 
of Poe, for example, and of other writers in 
whose temperament the puritan spirit has no 
part. We are not sure that this charge is jus- 
tified, but the plaintifiFs at least have a case. 
Remembering the utter failure of Lowell to do 
anything like justice to the poet of ^^ Atalanta," 
we feared lest his latest successor might exhibit 
the same sort of spiritual blindness. On the 
other hand, there stood Mr, Woodberry's record 
as a lover of Shelley, and to share the inspiration 
of Shelley is to have the franchise of the poetic 
kingdom of heaven. We recalled, moreover, cer- 
tain of Mr. Woodberry's earlier poems which 
distinctly showed the mark of the Swinbumian 

Considered thus in its a priori aspect, the 
question of what the critic would have to say 
about the greatest of living poets seemed a little 
doubtful, but whatever misgivings we may have 
felt were soon dispelled. The words set at the 
head of this article were alone sufficient for 
that purpose, and they were found to be supple- 
mented by many otibers which left no doubt 
concerning the writer's sympathies. Such words, 
for example, are these : *' Strength is dominant 
in his genius : the things of strength are in his 
verse ; it is English genius and English strength. 


[Jan. Ir 

racial in lyric power, in free intellect, in bold 
speech, — none more so — and English also in its 
poetic scholarly tradition." And besides these 
general appraisementB, there are such specific 
dicta as the following : ^^ The stream of his rev- 
olutionary song is unmatched in volume, splen- 
dour, and force ; it has flowed life-long, and 
still wells ; it is blended of many loves of per- 
sons and histories and memories, of time and of 
eternity ; it is a great passion, great in personal 
intensity, great in its human outreaching and 
uplifting aspiration, great in sincerity." ^' He 
achieves the most genuine appearance of belief 
in the gods that has fallen to die fortune of any 
English poet, perhaps of any poet in any mod- 
em literature." " Such poetay [as ^Tristram '] 
brings back that early world in which old 
Triton blew his wreathed horn, and not in a 
vision only, but as the everlasting life of nature 
and man." 

In view of the grotesque misconception of 
Mr. Swinburne's poetry that is still current 
with a large section of the public, the critic who 
deals honestly and intelligently with him is 
under bonds, as it were, to cast his gauntlet 
boldly in the &ce of ignorance and prejudice. 
This Mr. Woodberry does without hesitation. 
^^ He is a very thoughtful poet" is his simple 
but adequate correction of the stupid notion 
that the author of '' Hertha " and '' The Last 
Oracle " is a poet of sound without sense. Those 
who condemn the poet for exaggeration, whether 
in praise of Hugo or censure of Louis Napoleon, 
will do well to weigh the counter-opinion that his 
study of Hugo bdongs to " a treasure of intui- 
tive criticism such as no other English poet has 
left," and the characterization of the " Dirae " 
as ^* curses to rejoice the heart," which ^' mark 
their victims indelibly for hell." Mr. Wood- 
berry says with entire truth that criticism of 
this poet hitherto ^' has never been adequate, 
just, or intelligent." '^ The truth about him is 
the exact opposite of what has been widely and 
popularly thought ; weakness, affectation, exotic 
foreignness, the traits of sestheticism in the 
debased sense of ihat word, are far from him ; 
he is strong, he is English, bred with an Euro- 
pean mind it is true like Shelley, like Gray and 
Milton, but in his own genius and temperament 
and the paths of his flight charged with the 
strength of England." 

Such statements as these clear the air won- 
derfully. They are inspired criticism ; and Mr. 
Swinburne has been the victim of so much crit- 
icism (if it deserve the name) of the dull and 
uninspired sort that its drone still lingers in our 

ears. Sound and fury, debased sensualism^ 
vacuity of thought — tibese are honestly sup- 
posed by many well-meaning people to be the 
essential attributes of his work. Sound and 
fury, and we think of the severe and tempered 
style of "Mary Stuart"; debased sensualism, 
and we recall <he austere idealism of " The Pil- 
grims"; vacuity of thought, and we wonder- 
ingly repeat ihe deep gnomic utterances of 
" Hertha " and " The Laat Oracle " ! But of 
course the people who use these glib phrases 
are either unacquainted with the poet's really 
significant work, or they are to be reckoned 
among the unfortunates who are impervious to 
the appeal of pure poetry. This latter class ia 
a larger one than is commonly suspected, for 
there are great numbers of readers everywhere 
who think and say that they love poetiy, when 
what really attracts and impresses them is some 
adventitious quality that has little to do with 
poetical character. . The comfortable conserva^ 
tism of a Wordsworth, the domestic sentiment- 
ality of a Tennyson, the cryptic moralizing of a 
Browning, bring to the works of these poets a 
host of admiring readers who mistake for ses- 
thetic satisfaction the delight with which they 
greet the echo of their own sentiments or prej- 

We are not sajring that these three are not 
great poets, for that they unquestionably are ; 
but we are asserting with much confidence that 
they would be no less great as poets were their 
writings divested of nearly everything that 
makes an appeal to nine-tenths of their admir- 
ers. They would lose their popularity, no doubt^ 
and become merely poets for poets, and for the 
small minority of those others who, without pos- 
sessing for themselves the creative faculty, are 
still of the elect whose spirits are finely touched 
to fine issues, and whose cumulative verdict 
determines the final rank of every poet in the 
hierarchy. Landor is one of the greatest En- 
glish poets despite his failure to win populax 
applause ; Mr. Swinburne is one of the great 
English pc^ts despite all the efforts of the 
" homy-eyed " to prove that he is not by their 
danmable iteration of catchpenny phrases. Mr. 
Woodberry, himself a poet of distinction, sees 
this fact clearly enough, and gives abundant 
reasons for the faith that is in him. It is afact^ 
moreover, that has already been seen by nearly 
all the competent critics of the present genera- 
tion, which is equivalent to saying that the only 
contemporary judgment which will count in the 
ultimate reckoning has already ranged itself 
upon the side of those who have, through good 



and ill report, acclaimed Mr. Swinburne's 
genius, and found his work to exhibit, in very 
high degree, the qualities of artistic expression, 
of intellectual stimulus, and of ethical inspira- 
tion. To quote Mr. Woodberry's simple clos- 
ing words, " there are, in the wide world, here 
and there a few — a number that will increase 
ever with passing generations, and is even now 
perhaps manyf old greater than the poet knows 
— in whose hearts his .poetry is lodged with 


(To ihe Editor of Tax Dull.) 

The question of the advertising of books has recently 
beeome one of interest, through discussion in the liter- 
ary journals, and the opinions and experiences made 
pi^lic have been of considerable value. The Dial has 
expressed itself soundly on the subject, especiaUy in 
the issue of December 1. 

It occurs to me that the consideration of the general 
question of the proper methods to be followed in the 
advertising of books has not been placed upon a foun- 
dation as broad as it may profitably be placed. The 
DiAi< asks this question: « Do the principles that apply 
to the advertising of shoes apply also to the adverting 
of books? '' If the question had been. Are the methods 
that are foimd effective in the advertising of shoes 
adequate for the advertising of books? there would be 
no ground for an argument dissenting from the proposi- 
tions laid down in The Dial article; or, at least, the 
intelligent reader would have recognized the logical 
force of the conclusions drawn from such a premise. 
But the principles that underlie advertising apply with 
equal force to all advertising, whether of shoes or of 
books. It is because the discussion of advertising does 
not, in this case and usually, consider principles that 
confusion often results. The student of advertising 
recognizes the fact that it is the confusion of principles 
with methods that leads to nearly all the differences of 
opinion existing with respect to advertising, is at the 
bottom of much of the futile discussion, and is respon- 
siUe for the differing views expressed by those who 
have recently written upon the subject, llie failure to 
diseriminate between principles and methods accounts 
also for a majority of the failures in advertising, and 
for a large proportion of the unprofitable margins 
recognized as the result of even what are known to be 
on the whole successful campaigns. 

While it is an old shibboleth of advertisers that there 
are no well-defined principles underlying advertising, 
considered scientifically, it is beginning to-be recog^nized 
that that shibboleth is merely an expression of igiAr- 
anee rather than a demonstrable propositieo: It is 
quite true that as ye^ there has been n%defiiiitive and 
authoritative formulation of the principles that under- 
lie advertising, but there is steadily accumulating a 
mass of material which wUl soon make such formula- 
tion possible. To those students of the question who 
have carefully followed the work of the psychologists 
in several of the American, English, German, and 

French universities, it is already evident that enough 
has been imcovered relative to the workings of the 
human mind to form a basis for at least an intelligent 
discussion of what those principles are, and to indicate 
with some degree of certainty the chief lines upon 
which a fundamental credo of advertising must be con- 

It is in the nature of a fascinating recreation to ex- 
amine the work of the professors of psychology, for the 
purpose of discovering therein those habits and tenden- 
cies of the mind that may be appealed to by adver- 
tising, and which may be relied upon to come into some 
degree of activity when the sympathetic suggestion 
arouses them. As it would be too long a process care- 
fully to indicate what has been established bearing upon 
this advertising problem, in this brief note, may I be 
allowed to afiten that the work of the psychologists, as 
revealed in the printed reports of several universities 
and in their writings, suggests to me that all advertising 
depends for its power upon three broad qualities, which 
may be defined as attraction^ iuggestian, and assertion. 
The quality of attraction must arrest the eye of a reader 
who may not be conscious of any desire to read the 
advertisement; the quality of suggestion must come 
into play the instant the eye is arrested, and carry the 
reader's attention along the line of sequence to the 
assertion, which is the final vital element of the adver- 
tisement — the argument and appeal which furnishes to 
the reader the purchasing motive. The effective adver- 
tisement must attract the eye, suggest something by its 
most obvious printed expression, and assert the fidl force 
of its argument by that to which its attractive and sug- 
gestive elements induce attention. 

This progressive influence of the advertisement has 
been pretty well established by the experiments and in- 
vestigations of the psycholog^ts. It is easy to conceive 
that there are many members going to the composition 
of each of these elements. That of attraction, for ex- 
ample, involves some most interesting new facts that 
have been recently discovered in optics; or, more ex- 
actly, in relation to the action and capacity of the eye 
in the act of reading. Certain forms of type are more 
willingly noted by the eye than other forms. A cer- 
tain number of printed letters is taken cognizance of at 
one « fixation " of the eye — one glance, or without a 
movement to bring other groups into focus. Lines 
within certain definite limits of length are easily read, 
while those that are longer subject the eye to a straiiL 
that it resents. The form of the advertisement, con- 
sidered as an object intended to please and attract, » 
must be in accord with the artisti^iiffilciples of compo- 
sition — balance, proportion, harmony, "^lor, etc. The 
psychological elementoi>f the two remaining qualities 
of the advertisement ^^suggestion and assertion — are 
more comple^^tid variecfj and would require much space 
to state them. The]i^u*e of more final importance than 
those^psychological elements I have named as being 
ifiai^Tent in *lhe advertising quality of attraction, and 
therefore may make a more emphatic appeal for the 
attention of the student. 

I think it will appear evident to any one who gives 
the matter thought that the principles affecting adver- 
tising are universal in their appli(^ation, equally oper- 
ative in shoe advertising and book advertising. The 
methods of applying these principles differ: It is too 
often the fact that no attention is given to the prin- 
ciples, and none too much to the methods. The trouble 
with much current book advertising is that it seeks to 



[Jan. 1, 

appeal to people who are not mtereeted in books. The 
merchandising of books is a problem by itself. Once a 
year — at the holiday season — books are sold as mer- 
chandise. The stress of the requirements of the season 
drives many people to the book-counter, where they 
buy books for presents, with little thought or concern 
for the literary contents. At other times books are sold 
as literature, and there is nothing to justify adyertising 
attempts to sell them on other grounds. How to reach 
the small proportion of book-buyers existing in the 
mass of the people, is the problem the publisher has to 
consider. It is a question of method, not of principle. 

I think that it must be admitted that the relative 
proportion of book-buyers has steadily increased since 
progressive publishers began the policy of advertising 
in mediums having general circulations, such as the 
better class of newspapers. It is certain that there are 
potential book-buyers, many of them, among newspaper 
readers. It is not my belief that the publishers who 
have done good general advertising have suffered there- 
for. In looking the field over, wi&out special prepara- 
tion, it seems apparent that nearly all of the large 
publishing houses — those supposed to be financially 
strong, and successful with their books — are liberal 
users of advertising space in the better newspapers. 

The reason for the inefficiency of book advertising, 
if it is more inefficient than other advertising, does not 
seem to me to lie in the choice of mediums so much as 
in the methods employed in preparing the advertising. 
The great bulk of book advertising appeals only to 
such resolute buyers as are determined to seek out 
books to minister to their developed and acknowledged 
literary appetites. It is not calculated either to create 
a literary taste or to arouse a dormant literary appetite. 
And, after all, the object of book advertising is to pro- 
mote the sale of books, not merely to notify book lovers 
where they can obtain satisfaction. George French. 

Bostany Mas$,, December SO, 1905, 

Mebbrs. a. C. McClurg & Co. announce that they 
have just completed arrangements with The University 
Press of Cambridge, Mass., for the publication, in con- 
junction with Mr. John Murray of London, of a work 
of more than ordinary interest. This is Molmenti's 
** Venice: Its Individual Growth from the Earliest 
Beginnings to the Fall of the Republic," now appear- 
ing in It^y under the imprint of the Institute Itidiano 
d'Arti Gn^chi. The author. Signer Pompeo Molmen- 
ti, a senator at Rome, is a gentlemen of high social 
standing, and the leading historical writer in Italy at 
the present time. The translator is to be Mr. Horatio 
F. Brown, himself an authority on Venice, whose books 
on that city, and the distinguished position he has held 
there for nearly twenty years as " British Archivist," 
have won for him the reputation of knowing more 
about Venice than any other living Englishman. The 
work will be issued in three sections of two volumes 
each, the first entitled « Venice in the Middle Ages," 
the second « Venice in the Golden Age," and the 
third « The Decadence of Venice." Each volume 
will contain forty full-page plates and a frontispiece 
in full color printed in Italy. The volumes will be 
distinguished typographically by being printed in the 
beautiful Italian type cut by Bodoni, which the Uni- 
versity Press has just revived. Besides the library edi- 
tion, there will be an edition on Italian handmade paper, 
vrith the illustrations printed on Japanese vellum. 

t %t^ §00kd. 


To have at last a full portrayal by a loving 
hand of ^^the most lovable figure in English 
literature " is cause for no small congratulation. 
Mr. Edward Y. Lucas's eleven hundred octavo 
pages, with their many portraits and other illus- 
trations, give not only an elaborate life of Lamb, 
but an almost equally detailed account of his 
alter ego^ Mary Lamb, and very full sketches 
of the friends with whom he talked and walked^ 
drank a convivial glass, and cracked a harmless 

That the biography is constructed after the 
most modem methods, as compared with Tal- 
fourd's, Barry Cornwall's, and all previous 
lives of Lamb, its very length and general 
appearance sufficiently indicate. The care and 
skill with which references to persons and places 
have been hunted down, and aU available sources 
of information explored, become increasingly 
manifest as one turns the pages and notes the 
frequency and fulness of quoted matter. Li a 
final and authoritative life, to accompany the 
same author's scholarly edition of Lamb's works^ 
this is as it should be, although the man of little 
leisure might prefer a shorter, more fluently 
narrative treatment of the theme, with fewer 
insertions of autobiographic matter from the 
easily accessible Letters and Essays. In other 
words, as Mr. Lucas has shown himself to be 
the ideal editor and annotator in his recently- 
published seven-volume edition of Lamb's works, 
so here he demonstrates his unequalled qualifica- 
tions as a compiler of all discoverable material 
bearing on the life-history of his chosen author. 
The method adopted was the best for the pur- 
pose in view; and as the chief charm of all 
previous accounts of the inimitable Elia haa 
been due to the more or less of self-portrayal 
introduced into their pages, so here again the 
chapters that most delight are those wherein 
Lamb himself has been allowed, with least of 
editorial assistance, to tell his own story. Ta 
Mary Lamb also, to Crabb Robinson, Leigh 
Hunt, the Cowden Clarkes, Hazlitt, Coleridge^ 
De Quincey, N. P. Willis, John Wilson, and 
countless other contemporaries of Lamb, we are 
made debtors for a touch here and a stroke 
there toward the completion of the full-length 
portrait. Letters hitherto unavailable for such 
uses have been drawn upon for still further 

• Thb Life of Charles Lamb. B7 B. V. Lucas. In two 
TOlumM. ninstrated. New York: G. P. Patnam's Sons. 



finiflhing touches to this careful likeness, and 
the final impression is one of unsurpassable com- 
pleteness. Not that other and shorter studies, 
like those of Canon Ainger and Mr. Percy Fitz- 
gerald, will henceforth be superfluous ; but the 
prosecution of research can hardly be carried 
beyond the point now reached, nor is it likely 
to be attempted. 

Without too much poking about in the gene- 
alogical dustbins, the biographer introduces us 
briefly and pleasantly to honest John Lamb 
and his little &mily at No. 2 Crown Office Row, 
and to the excellent Samuel Salt, Bencher of 
the Inner Temple, to whom the elder Lamb 
acted as assistant and servant. All that relates 
to Charles Lamb's education at Christ's Hos- 
pital is of course faithfully reproduced from the 
Letters and the Essays, with additional inform- 
ation from various sources. To show with what 
painstaking devotion to detail the biographer 
has executed his task, let us call attention to the 
table (an enviably long one) of holidays which 
the blue-coat boys enjoyed a century and a 
quarter ago, and which Mr. Lucas sets down in 
chronological order to give the reader a realiz- 
ing sense of the frequency with which our little 
pupil from the Temple must have trotted back 
and forth 'twixt parent and pedagogue. Sun- 
dry bits of information, even as to the hebdom- 
adal bill of fare and the liours of bedgoing and 
uprising, are gleaned from Coleridge and Leigh 
Hunt, themselves likewise wearers of the blue 
coat. Another noteworthy Christ's-Hospitaller 
was Charles Valentine Le Grrice, a wit and 
punster dear to Lamb's heart, who at Tal- 
fourd's request wrote out some reminiscences of 
his famous schoolfellow. A passage from his 
pen is worth requoting here as recalling some 
of the peculiar circumstances that helped to de- 
termine Charles Lamb's character. 

**JjBmb was an amiable, gentle boy, very sensible 
and keenly observing, indnlg^ by his schoolfellows and 
by has master on accoimt of his infirmity of speech. His 
eonntenance was mild; his complexion clear brown, with 
an expression which might lead you to think that he 
was of Jewish descent. His eyes were not each of the 
same colour, one was hazel, the other had specks of 
grey in the iris, mingled as we see red spots in the 
blood-stone. His step was plantigrade, which made his 
walk slow and peculiar, adding to the staid appearance 
of his figure. I never heard his name mentioned with- 
out the addition of Charles, although, as theie was no 
other boy of the name of Lamb, the addition was un- 
neeessaiy; but there was an implied kindness in it, and 
it was a proof that his gentle manners excited that 
kindness. His delicate frame and his difficulty of ut- 
terance, which was increased by agitation, unfitted him 
for joining in any boiaterous sport. The description which 
he gives, in his ' Recollections of Christ's Hospital,' of 

the habits and feelings of the schoolboy, is a true one 
in general, but is moie particularly a delineation of him- 
self — the feelings were all in his own heart — the por- 
trait was his own: < While others were all fire and play, 
he stole along with all the self -concentration of a young 
monk.' These habits and feelings were awakened and 
cherished in him by peculiar circumstances: he had 
been bom and bred in the Inner Temple; and his pa- 
rents continued to reside there while he was at school, 
so that he passed from cloister to cloister, and this waa 
all the change his young mind ever knew." 

On the subject of Lamb's romantic passion 
for " Alice W " Mr. Lucas offers the fol- 

« To come back to Lamb, whom we left on February 
8, 1792, laying down his pen in the Examiner's office 
at the South-Sea House for the last time and returning 
home with his earnings. Whether or not he had heard 
of the opening for him at the East India House, I can- 
not say; but he did not enter that company's employ 
until April 5th, two months later. To this we come 
shortly. At the present moment there is a more roman- 
tic topic for consideration, for my impression is that Lamb 
filled part at least of the interval by visiting his grand- 
mother, and at the same time began to cherish aif ection 
for the girl whom he afterward called Alice W — , but 
who is thought to have been Ann Sinunons of Blenheims, 
near Blakesware. My reasons for believing this to be 
the case are, (1) that on April 5, 1792, he passed into 
harness from which he never escaped, except for annual 
holidays — at first, probably, very brief ones — or single 
days when he could not have reached Widford; and (2) 
that Mrs. Field died in August, 1792, thus closing 
Blakesware to her gprandchildren. We have no knowl- 
edge of any other ^ends with whom Lamb could have 
stayed after her death, while it is hardly likely that so 
young a clerk could have afforded to stay at Mr. Clem- 
itson's inn at Widford, except very occasionally." 

A phase of Lamb's inner self that is seldom 
dwelt upon has to do with his religious or more 
properly his theological beliefs, so far as he had 
any fixed belief. In later life, as his biographer 
remarks, his religion ceased to be articulate and 
became merged in conduct ; '^ but in his twenty- 
first year his interest in Priestley and his Uni* 
tarian and fatalistic creed was intense," writes 
Mr. Lucas ; and still further : ^^ To the end, I 
think, although this point is a Uttle vag^e, Lamb 
remained nominally a Unitarian, a profession of 
faith to which probably he was first led by his 
Aunt Hetty (a constant attendant at the Essex 
Street chapel), and in which he was fortified by 
Coleridge." In one of Lamb's earlier letters to 
Coleridge he writes : ^^ I have seen Priestley. I 
love to see his name repeated in your writings. 
I love and honour him almost profanely." 

The tragical event of Lamb's young manhood 
receives of course full treatment. But in spite 
of calamity and grief one must push on and ful- 
fill one's destiny ; and Lamb's destiny, as we 
are assured, was to write. In the November fol- 
lowing that awful 21st September, 1796, his 



[Jan. 1, 

interest in writing had reviyed, and he sent to 
Coleridge the fragments of verse that he wished 
to have printed with his friend's poems and dedi- 
cated to his sister. Thenceforward he turned 
more and more to authorship for solace. As to 
the adoption of the famous and often mispro- 
nounced pseudonym, a letter from Lamb to John 
Taylor the publisher, written in July, 1821, con- 
tains the following pertinent passage : 

« Having a brother now there [at the South-Sea 
House] , and doubting how he might relish certain de- 
scriptions in it [the essay on the South-Sea House], I 
clapt down the name of Elia to it, which passed off 
pretty well, for Elia himself added the function of an 
author to that of a scrivener, like myself. ... I went 
the other day (not having seen him for a year) to laugh 
over with him at my usurpation of his name, and found 
him, alas! no more than a name, for he died of con- 
sumption eleven months ago, and I knew not of it. So 
the name has fairly devolved to me, I think; and 'tis 
all he has left me." 

In the adoption of a pseudonym Mr. Lucas 
finds a possible explanation of ^^ the difference 
between the comparative thinness of Lamb's 
pre-Elian writings and the Elian richness and 
colour." For, he adds, " there are some writers 
(paradoxical though it seems) who can never 
express themselves so freely as when, adopting 
a dramatic standpoint, they affect to be some 
one else." And a similarity in this respect is 
traced between Goldsmith and Lamb. In both 
writers the innocent imposture served to fortify 
a feeble courage and overcome a natural diffi- 
dence. Before dropping this subject, it is inter- 
esting to note a remark once made by Lamb 
himself, that ^^Elia" forms an anagram of ^^a lie." 

Among matters of not the first importance, 
the whole story of Coleridge's quarrel with 
Lloyd, in which Lamb was somewhat involved, 
and which has already been related in Mr. 
Lucas's '^ Charles Lamb and the Lloyds," is 
rather tiresomely repeated here. Yet it need 
not be regarded as a total wa£(te of printer's ink, 
so sweetly unquarrelsome by natural tempera- 
ment does Lamb appear through it all. Even 
Scotchmen, with whom he professes to entertain 
'* imperfect sympathies," he cannot roundly vitu- 
perate when he tries. Contrast Carlyle's un- 
fortunate characterization of Lamb, harshly 
abusive and opulent in epiiJiet, with these gentle 
strictures from Elia's pen on Carlyle's country- 

« I have been trying all my life to like Scotchmen, 
and am obliged to desist from the experiment in despair. 
They cannot like me — and, in truth, I never knew one 
of that nation who attempted to do it. . . . The brain 
of a true Caledonian (if I am not mistaken) is consti- 
tuted upon quite a different plan. His Minerva is bom 
in panoply. You are never admitted to see his ideas in 

their growth — if, indeed, they do grow, and are not 
rather put together upon principles of clockwork. You 
never catch his mind in an undress. He never hints or 
suggests anything, but unlades his stock of ideas in per- 
fect order and completeness. . . . His understandii^ is 
always at its meridian — you never see the first dawn, 
the early streaks. — He has no falterings of self- 

From some recollections of Lamb by Mr. 
J. Fuller-Robinson, published forty years ago 
in " The Guardian," we quote the following as 
given in Mr. Lucas's pages : 

" I was admitted into a small and pleasantly shaded 
parlour. The modest room was hung round with fine 
engravings by Hogarth, in dark frames. Books and 
magazines were scattered on the table, and on the old- 
fashioned window-seat. I chatted awhile with Miss 
Lamb — a meek, intelligent, very pleasant, and rather 
deaf, elderly lady. . . . < Elia ' came in soon after — a 
short, thin man. His dress was black — a capacious 
coat, knee-breeches, and gaiters, and he wore a white 
neck-handkerchief. His head was remarkably fine, and 
his dark and shaggy hair and eyebrows, heated face, and 
very piercing jet-black eyes gave to his appearance a 
singularly indld and striking expression, llie sketch of 
him in Fraser^n Magazine gives a true idea of his figure, 
but no portrait, I am sure, could do justice to his 
splendid countenance. He grasped me cordially by the 
hand, sat down, and taking a bottle from a cupboard 
behind him, mixed some rum-and-water. On another 
occasion, his sister objected to this operation, and he 
refrained. Presently after, he said, < May I have a little 
drop now, only a leetle drop ? ' < No, be a good boy.' 
At last he prevailed, and took his draught." 

And so on, with much more that is well worth 
picturing out before one's mind's eye. 

Like so many of his countrymen. Lamb won 
popularity in America before he had become 
popular in England. His ^^ Essays of Elia " had 
little vogue among English readers until long 
after the writer's death, whereas in America, as 
Mr. Lucas says, they so pleased the public on 
their first appearance here in 1828 that the pub- 
lishers, Carey, Lea and Carey, of Philadelphia, 
hastened to issue a second series of their own 
compiling, wherein they generously included, 
along with selections from Lamb, three essays 
from the pens of Allan Cunningham and Bairy 
Cornwall. N. P. Willis, in talking with Lamb 
in 1884, found that this American success had 
gratified the English essayist not a little, and 
that he was well pleased with the Second Series, 
despite the error in its compilation. 

The modest and judicious suppression of self 
which Mr. Lucas has exercised in the accom- 
plishment of his task is deserving of praise. 
The fitting word is supplied at need, but he 
has wisely refrained from emulating those long- 
winded orators who make their introduction of 
a visiting celebrity the occasion for self-display. 
The four "Appendices," on the "Portiraiits 




of Laanb," '^Lamb's Commonplace Books," 
"LamVs Books," and "John Lamb's * Poet- 
ical Pieces,' " are full of interest ; but of equal 
value with any of these, and more valuable than 
the last, would have been a Lamb bibliography, 
especially since neither the preface nor the body 
of the book makes perfectly clear exactly what 
and how much new material has been drawn 
upon in the present work. 

A few slight errors of execution, amid so much 
excellence of design, may be noted for correc- 
tion in a second edition. "The late Mrs. Coe, 
bom Elizabeth Hunt of Widford," and " Mrs. 
Augustus DeMorgan, bom Sophia Frend," 
attract attention as examples of extraordinary 
parental prevision. Uncertainty as to sex, if no 
other reason, commonly acts as a hindrance to 
the pre-natal christening of offspring. " Few 
journalists but he " grates on the grammatical 
ear. The first page of Appendix II. teUs us 
that " the best of all Lamb's commonplace books 
has been printed — the Specimens of English 
Dramatic Poets "; but the very next page de- 
clares on the other hand that "the best of liunb's 
oommonplaoe books is the large-paper copy of 
Holeroft's TVetvels.^^ A curious insl^ce of mis- 
copying or misprinting, whereby the exact oppo- 
site of the intended sense is conveyed, occurs 
in a passage from a letter to Wordsworth de- 
flcriptiYe of the guileless and lovable George 
Dyer. " But with envy, they [the gods] excited 
curiosity also," is what we read. The original 
letter, as edited by W. Carew Hazlitt, has 
" excided " instead of " excited." Other slips 
are met with, probably mere typographiod 
errors for the most part. The index to this 
work is unusually exhaustive, filling fifty-eight 
closely-printed double-column pages, and the 
illustrations are of more than passing interest. 
Percy F. Bicknell. 

sitropxan dlpix>mact in its 

The raUon d'itre of Dr. Hill's ''History 
of Diplomacy," as given by the author in Iub 
preface, is that, although special questions and 
particular periods of diplomatic history have 
been ably presented, no general history of Eu- 
ropean diplomacy exists in any language. At 
the outset the author was coi^ronted with two 
practical problems of no small moment. The 


OPMBZIT OP SuBovx. Bj Dftvld Jayne Hill« LL.D. Volmne I., 
Tbe SCnmrle for Uniyenal Empire. New Tork 

first arose out of the vast field of research pre- 
sented by the archives now at the command of 
the investigator. The second was to determine 
the proper point of departure. Dr. Hill cannot 
accept the Peace of Westphalia as the starting 
point of diplomacy, but rather it must be re- 
garded as die result of long preparation. 

Accepting this view. Dr. Hill begins his story 
with a description of the organization of Europe 
under the old Roman Empire. The system of 
government is described at some length because 
it furnished the model for the organization of 
the church, which was the next power to aim at 
universality. Even amid all llie confusion of 
the Barbarian invasions this idea of universal 
empire never lost its hold upon the imagination 
of thinking men. The significance of the so- 
called fall of the empire (476 A. D.) lies in this, 
^^ that it serves to fix in the mind the substitution 
of local and racial authority in western Europe 
in place of the waning influence of univernJ 
imperial rule." It separates the period of the 
old Empire from that long period of change and 
effort to secure order through the organization 
of the Barbarian kingdoms, the revived Empire, 
feudalism, the influence of the chiuxsh, which 
finally resulted in the great national states of 
modem times. 

One of the most interesting studies in Euro- 
pean history is the birth of the modem states 
and their realization of nationality through a 
slow and painful process. The idea of universal 
empire had so dominated the world that the new 
idea had a desperate fight for existence. The 
old idea did not perish in a day, with the &11 
of Rome ; for some time longer the West felt 
itself a part of the Empire which centered about 
Byzantium. To be outside the Empire was to 
be outside the pale of civilization. With such 
unity there could be no real field for diplomacy. 
But gradually the feeling of real unity became 
leas strong. The East looked down upon the 
West as barbarian, and religious differences be- 
came more and more accentuated. The head- 
ship of Rome in religion was now asserted, and 
the Pope claimed the supremacy for himself 
over all the orthodox West, and at times even 
asserted it over the Arian heretics of the East. 

But even this claim was not put forth in its 
entirety all at once. It arose somewhat gradu- 
ally from the actual condition of things. For a 
time the Pope remained at least the nominal 
subject of the eastern Empire, but soon became 
the only effective authority in Italy. Finally, 
when Leo III. put his ban upon image worship 
in Rome, opposition broke out into open rebel- 



[Jan. 1, 

lion. Papal diplomacy now had its birih in the 
policy of Gregory II., who wished neither to 
destroy the Lombard power, when Liutprand 
was seeking to unite It^y in one kingdom, nor 
to annihilate the influence of the Emperor, but 
rather to increase his own prestige by playing 
off the one against the other. Ajs the interest 
and power of the eastern Emperor decrea^sed in 
the west a substitute had to be provided to check 
the Lombards, and this Gregory III. found in 
Pepin, King of the Franks. This marks the 
first instance of interference in Italian affairs by 
a northern prince, — a practice followed there- 
after for centuries, to the detriment of both 
nations. The Pope was seeking to establish his 
own temporal rule in Italy, and in so doing in- 
augurated a policy which wss a strong barrier to 
national growth. It was not until more than 
half a century after the last of the phantom 
emperors that Germany and Italy realized na- 
tional unity. 

' The usurpation of the imperial chair by a 
woman, Irene, gave a fitting opportunity to 
revive the empire in the west. Disorder had 
become chronic in Italy. In the hope of secur- 
ing a power capable of curing this, the Pope 
crowned Charlemagne on Christmas day, 800, 
and invested him with the diadem of the CsBsars, 
only it was now the " Holy Roman Empire." 
But herein were sown the seeds of a long and 
bitter contest, — the struggle for supremacy be- 
tween the Empire and the Papacy. Should the 
Popes be allowed to make and unmake tem- 
poral rulers, or should they be subject to the civil 
power ? Along with this went die great ques- 
tion as to whether the world empire should live 
again, or whether great states should develop 
along national lines. 

One thing which boded well for the growth 
of nationalities was the custom of dividing king- 
doms by inheritance, like so much real estate. 
After the death of Charlemagne his great em- 
pire was divided up. After a contest among 
his heirs, diplomacy was called into play, and 
an arrangement effected at Verdun which Dr. 
Hill thinks ^^ the most important international 
document ever written " in its influence upon 
European history. On the west was a territory 
of tolerable geographic and ethnic unity which 
was soon to develop into the powerful state of 
France ; on the east the territory of the later 
Germany. In between, the kingdom of the 
Emperor Lothaire stretched from Holland to 
Rome, possessing neither ethnic nor geographic 
unity. Upon the death of Lothaire his uncles 
of the east and west divided up his inheritance 

and began to court the favor of the Pope for 
ihe imperial dignity. 

It is not to be presumed that Rome was an 
indifferent spectator to these struggles. Even 
her own citizens were divided, some contending 
for the civic freedom of the city, others for the 
supremacy of the Pope, and still others for the 
supremacy of the Emperor. As a result, Italy 
was the scene of disorder after the coronation of 
Charles the Bold. There the conflict of author- 
ity was sharpest. The whole story of Italian 
politics was summed up in an epigram by the 
Bishop of Cremona, — ^^The Italians always 
wish to have two masters, in order to hold each 
of them in check by the other." In attempting 
to follow this principle for the conservation of 
its own power, the papacy sometimes gained, but 
often fell a victim to the general anarchy. 

Passing over the greater part of this struggle, 
it is interesting to come to tiie appearance of 
Venice on the scene as practically marking the 
birth of modem diplomacy, lliere, in May, 
1177, met " the first European congress in which 
independent civic communities had ever freely 
represented their own rights in the presence of 
princes — the prototype of the great interna- 
tional congresses of a later time." Venice was 
careful to select men of eminent qualification to 
represent her interests, to instruct them in the 
arts of diplomacy, and consequentiy soon be- 
came ^^ the school and touchstone of ambassa- 
dors." Secrecy and urbanity were the cardinal 
principles of Venetian diplomacy, and this sys- 
tem was soon to be put in practice by all the 
Italian states, the numerous city-states so het- 
erogeneous in character and inspired by motives 
so Averse. Each city within itself was the seat 
of intrigue, owing to the mutually hostile ele- 
ments of tradesmen, artisans, the official aris- 
tocracy, and the feudal nobles whose swords 
threatened the population in the streets. The 
espionage and intrigue of partisans within the 
city were extended to the relations with neigh- 
boring cities. " To know the intentions of one's 
neighbor, to defeat his hostile designs, to form 
alliances with his enemies, to steal away his 
friends, and to prevent his union with others, 
became matters of the highest public interest. 
Less costiy than war, diplomacy now, in large 
measure, superseded it with plot and counter- 
plot." And when these failed, the foreigner was 
called in to increase the general complication. 

Out of this system was bom the conception 
of " equilibrium " as a necessity of defense. The 
transitory alliances and counter-alliances of the 
Italian princes and republics give us the real 




^^ prototype and epitome of what all Europe was 
soon to become npon a grander scale." T\m 
natural correlate of all this would have been a 
code of public law to regulate the intercourse of 
these states ¥rith each other, but such a thing 
was not yet possible. The moral sense did not 
demand it, but its birth was witnessed on the 
sea, where the demands of commerce made it 
imperative. The customs of the sea were re- 
duced to writing in the *'*' Tables of Amalfi," 
which later gave place to the ^^Consolato de 
Mare" — the ^' first example of law international 
among the nations of Europe." 

Such in its larger outlines is the story Dr. 
Hill has told in his first volume. In reaiity it 
contains a great deal of matter which has only 
a very remote connection with diplomacy. If 
it were really new, it might be justified as neces- 
sary to a proper understanding of the main 
th^e, but a great deal of it is not new, and 
indeed may be found in the ordinary text-books 
on European history. Despite the formidable 
array of sources and authorities cited at the end 
of each chapter, the work does not impress one 
as making any really noteworthy contribution to 
historical knowledge. It is valuable, however, 
for bringii^ into one view the larger facts of 
the period treated, and emphasizing their influ- 
ence upon the growth of national states. Much 
may be expected of the succeeding volumes, 
which will deal with a period when diplomacy 
was coining into its own. 

David Y. Thomas. 

The I>oyex of Ei^^glish Natubaxists.* 

The Victorian age, whatever its shortcomings, 
will always be remembered for the brilliancy of 
its scient^c achievements. What the twentieth 
century may have in store for us, it is too early 
to predict ; but it is difficult to believe that any- 
thmg will be accomplished more important for 
intellectual progress than the establishment of 
the doctrine of evolution on a scientific basis. 
This great work is justiy credited to Darwin, 
but with his name must always be linked that 
of Wallace, who independently thought out the 
theory on which Darwin's work is bajsed. 

Dr. Wallace occupies a unique position among 
scientific men. Bom in 1823, he has not only 
witnessed great changes in scientific opinion, 
but has had a large share in bringing them 
about. Living most of his life in comparative 

*Ht Lxfb. a Record of Syents and Opinioiu. By Alfred 
Rvasel Wallaoe. In two Tolnmee. Dlnstrated. New York: 

isolation, and never being tied down as many 
men are by professional or official custom and 
etiquette, he has always been recognized as an 
independent. Orthodoxy is not peculiar to the 
church ; it is a tendency common to all organi- 
zations, and in a large measure necessary for 
their continuance. At the same time, it is a 
perpetual obstacle to progress, and the hetero- 
dox are the true prophets of the dawn. Dr. 
Wallace has lived to see port of his once hetero- 
dox opinions become orthodox, while others are 
still rejected by the majority as unworthy of 
consideration. Consequentiy, to the ordinary 
'^ well-behaved " scientist, he seems to be a sort 
of double personality, a mixture of genius and 

In the case of any man of great intellectual 
power, it is not to be expected that all his opin- 
ions will be justified by subsequent knowledge. 
Darwin was undoubtedly in error in respect to 
certain matters ; and presumably the same will 
have to be said of Wallace. But this should 
not blind us for a moment to the immense 
service performed, or should we hastily assume 
that the opinion of the day is correct. I recall 
a littie matter which well illustrates Dr. Wal- 
lace's power of reasoning, and at the same time 
the shortsightedness of naturalists. Some fif- 
teen years ago there was in preparation a new 
edition of ^' Island Life," in which Dr. Wallace 
discussed the animals of the British Islands, 
and ai^ed that there ought to be some species 
and varieties peculiar to Britain. Lists of sup- 
posed peculiar forms were prepared, but zoolo- 
gists and botanists were alike skeptical. Some 
were "probably not distinct," others *' would 
certainly be found on the continent." The 
general attitude was one of incredulity or even 
contempt. Since that time, however, particular 
groups have been studied much more carefully 
than ever before (following the methods intro- 
duced by certain American naturalists), and 
although it is true that some of the kinds for- 
merly listed must be stricken out, a whole series 
of insular forms has been detected among the 
mammals, which were supposed to be " p^rfectiy 
known " I Only last year, even, a very distinct 
new species of mouse was recorded. Dr. Wal- 
lace has thus been justified beyond his expecta- 
tions, and when the same careful methods are 
applied to the whole of the British fauna and 
flora, the results will no doubt be such as would 
make the orthodox nineteenth-century natural- 
ist stare. 

I refer to this matter, because I have some 
personal knowledge of it, and because it shows 



[Jan. 1, 

how facts which are perfectly evident when 
brought to light, may remain undiscovered be- 
neath our very noses. 

Probably the most objectionable of Dr. Wal- 
lace's opinions, in the eyes of orthodox science, 
are those relative to spirtualism. Without 
knowing anything particular about the matter, 
most people will exhaust their language of abuse 
up<m this subject. Those scientific men who 
reject the whole body of evidence are proclaimed 
as sound of mind, diough their metkods of re- 
search may have been such as* would be called 
ridiculous if applied to any other subject. Those 
who become convinced that there is something 
not explained by known ^^ laws of nature " are 
held to have ^^ a screw loose somewhere," though 
they may be known masters in research, such as 
Crookes, Oliver Lodge, William James, and 
Wallace. It is perfectly evident, and thor- 
oughly recognized by all those who have given 
much attention to the matter, that the laws gov- 
erning spiritual existence cannot at present be 
defined. It is held that the ^^ supernatural " is 
as ^^ natural " as anything else, but it is con- 
fessedly difficult to comprehend. Some day, 
perhaps, there will arise a Darwin of spiritual- 
ism, who will put the whole subject on an intel- 
ligible basis ; and then it will be seen that we 
were groping in the dark before like the pre- 
Darwinian evolutionists. 

It will be clear to the reader that the life of 
such a man as Wallace cannot fail to be of sur- 
passing interest. Like Herbert Spencer, he has 
chosen to present it to us in considerable detail, 
and with absolute frankness. In it, we trace the 
development of generalizations from apparently 
trivial beginnings, and are presented with a pic- 
ture of past times, which seem now so remote as 
to be almost prehistoric. There is a good deal 
of matter in ^e book which does not strike one 
as being particularly valuable or important; 
but on the other hand, the variety of subjects 
discussed, and the wide human interests of the 
author, cause it to appeal to a far larger circle 
than the usual biography of a man engaged in 
the investigation of technical matters. The 
splendid courage and honesty exhibited cannot 
fail to be inspiring, even to those who do not 
agree with the views advocated. They teach a 
lesson which is sorely needed by the present 
generation, with its altogether too slavish sub- 
servience to the powers that be. It is interest- 
ing to find that with all this, there went a shy- 
ness and timidity in the presence of others, 
which was never quite overcome. In discuss- 
ing certain humiliating and ill-suited punish- 

ments of childhood, attention is called to the 
ifght of each individual to have his personality 
respected, even in blame. It is remarked that 
this is far better recognized in China and Japan 
than with us. 

" With them this principle is taught from childhood, 
and pervades every class of society, while with us it 
was only recognized by the higher classes, and by them 
rarely extended to inferiors or to children. The feeling 
that demands this recognition is certainly strong in 
many children, and those who have suffered under the 
failure of their elders to respect it, can well appreciate 
the agony of shame endured by the more civilized 
Eastern peoples, whose feelings are so often outraged 
by the total absence of all respect shown them by their 
European masters or conquerors. In thus recognizing 
the sanctity of this deepest of human feelings these peo- 
ple manifest a truer phase of civilization than we have 
attained to. Even savages often surpass us in this 
respect." (Vol. 1, p. 62.) 

The author's travels in South America and the 
Malay Archipelago are not described at great 
length, because he long ago published books 
about them. The best part of his South Ameri- 
can collection was lost through the burning of 
the ship on the homeward voyage, of which a 
graphic account is given. Only some drawings 
of palms and fishes were saved ; the latter have 
recently been examined by a specialist, and it 
turns out that many of the species have never 
been obtained again to this day. A short chap- 
ter is devoted to the memory of H. E. Wallace, 
a brother of Dr. Wallace, who went out to Brazil 
to assist him in his work, and died of yellow 
fever at Para. Herbert Wallace was not a nat- 
uralist, but was very fond of writing verse, and 
several of his productions are printed. In one 
of them we find the lines : 

" For here upon the Amazon 
The dread moBquito hites — 
Inflames the hlood with fever," etc. 

At that time, of course, it was wholly unknown 
that the mosquito carried the germ of yellow 
fever ; but these lines seem curiously prophetic. 

The journey to the Malay region was more 
successful from every point of view. The mate- 
rials obtained were enormous, including almost 
innumerable new species. Some of the insects 
have not been described yet, from the lack of 
specialists to study them. 

Although Darwin and Wallace might have 
been considered rivals, the fact that they had 
independently worked out the same theory never 
led to anything but warm friendship between 
them. Each always tried to give the fullest 
credit to the other, and Wallace called Ins book 
on the theory of evolution " Darwinism.'* Stress 
has sometimes been laid on the fact that Wallace 
disagreed with Darwin about several matters; 




tiiese are discussed fully in the Life, but it is 
sliown that they were insignificant in company 
scm ¥rith the great and fundamental agreement. 
Darwin's last letter to Dr. Wallace is given, 
and the latter adds this interesting comment : 

M This letter is to me, perhaps, the most interestiiig 
I ever xeceired from Darwin, since it shows that it was 
only the engrossing interests of his scientific and liter- 
ary work, performed nnder the drawback of almost 
constant ill-health, that prevented him from taking a 
more active part in the discussion of those social and 
political questions that so deeply affect the lives and 
happiness of the great bulk of the people. It is a great 
satisfaction that his last letter to me, written within 
nine months of his death, and terminating a correspond- 
ence which had extended over a quarter of a century, 
should be so cordial, so sympathetic, and broad-minded.*' 
(Vol. 2, p. 16.) 

In 1886-7 Dr. Wallaee visited America, 
travelling from the Atlantic to the Pacific. He 
gives a full account of his experiences, with many 
observations on matters biological and sociologi- 
cal. I should like to quote his conclusions at 
some length, but it is impossible in a short no- 
tice. While enthusiastically admiring the gran- 
deur and beauty of the Rocky Mountains, the 
Calif omian Sierras, and other regions, and fully 
appreciating the good qualities of America and 
Americans, he deplores the spread of sordid com- 
mercialism, and tiie way in which man has in so 
many places destroyed the beauty of nature. 
The same is true in England, he says : ^^Both 
countries are creating ugliness, both are de- 
stroying beauty ; but in America it is done on a 
larger scale and with a more hideous monotony " 
(p. 193.) 

The book is well illustrated ; but one cannot 
help wishing that instead of some of the plates 
which have little to do with the narrative, or 
little intrinsic value, we could have been favored 
with portraits of some of the great naturalists 
with whom the author was associated, — such, 
for instance, as Bates and Spruce. 


Studies in Frexc^h IjIteratvre.* 

The agreeable and informing essays that 
make up Mr. Gosse's recent volume of ^^ French 
Profiles" are not new. Most of them have 
appeared in print before, and some of them date 
back nearly twenty years. But readers of Mr. 
Gosse's other books and those who. had the 
pleasure of reading these essays on their first ap- 
pearance will not be disposed to complain that 

*FBKircH Pbopelbb. Bj Edmimd GoMe. New York : Dodd. 
Mead & Co. 

they are now rescued from their hiding places in 
magazines and reviews and given a more access- 
ible abiding place in a book, as befits their em- 
inently companionable nature. In subject they 
range all the way from the *^ Portuguese Let- 
ters," — ^those passionate outpourings of devotion 
and indignant reproach with which, from her 
convent at Beja, the abandoned ^^ Mariana in the 
South " pursued the receding footsteps of the 
conquering and inconstant Marquis de Chamilly , 
and which 4une from the press almost at the same 
moment with the Tartuffe of Moliere, — to the 
poetic novelties of the year 1904 ; and in scope 
from the full length silhouette, like the studies of 
Alfred de Vigny, Mademoiselle Aiss^, Alphonse 
Daudet, Barbey d'Aurevilly, and Ferdinand 
Fabre, to the few swift strokes with which a 
feature or an expression is caught and fixed, as in 
the pages devoted to Mallarm^, Albert Samain, 
M. Emile Yerhaeren, and M. Paul Fort, or to 
recent books of M. Paul Bourget, M. Pierre 
Loti, M. Henri de B^gnier, and M. Anatole 
France. Not the least welcome is the sketch that 
informs us about the modest (in every sense) 
b^innings of one of the newest immortals, M. 
R^^ Bazin ; and not the least interesting is the 
study of the short stories of Zola, in which Mr. 
Gosse discovers that deep spring of idealism 
that put on strange disguises in the novels of the 
Rougon-Macquart series, but asserted itself so 
clearly in his last works. 

In spite of this wide variety of theme and com- 
plete lack of sequence and connection between 
the papers, the resulting book does not lack a 
certain kind of unity. This results partly from 
the unfailing qualities of Mr. Gosse's style ; and 
partly from the point of view from which the sub- 
ject is uniformly r^arded, which is the ^^ incom- 
plete and indirect " point of view of ^^ one who 
paints a face in profile." If the task essayed is 
thus a modest and restricted one, it is not on that 
account easy. The two blocks of stumbling are 
clearly indicated in the preface when Mr. Gosse 
thus defines his purpose : 

*< I have tried to preserve that attitude of sympathy, 
of general comprehension, for the lack of which some 
English criticism of foreign authors has been valueless, 
because proceeding from a point of view so far out of 
focus as to make its whole presentation false; and yet 
I have remembered that it is a foreigner that takes the 
portrait, and that it is for a foreign audience, not for a 
native one. 

« What I have sought in every case to do is to give 
an impression of the figure before me which shall be in 
general harmony with the tradition of French criticism, 
but at the same time to preserve that independence 
which is the right of a foreign observer, and to illus- 
trate the peculiarities of my subject by references to 
English poetry and prose. " 



[Jan. 1, 

It goes without saying that the programme 
thus traced is admirably realized. Few men of 
English speech could bring to its accomplish- 
ment so happy a gift of characterization, so 
engaging a style, so much intelligence and 
sympathy, so large a stock of precise informa- 
tion, so extended an outlook over the long and 
wide expanse of modem literature. To what 
other, indeed, could a conmiittee of discriminar 
ting French critics have turned so confidently 
with the invitation to address the Voci^t^ des 
Conferences of Paris on "The Influence of 
France upon English Poetry"? We should be 
very ungracious indeed were we to lament that 
the profiles are not something different, and that 
if we have made already a first-hand acquaint- 
ance with the subjects whom he introduces he 
does not lead us much further into their intimacy, 
or throw upon the intricacies and obscurities of 
their message, if such there be, a more searching 
illumination. We are glad to take them grate- 
fully as they are, and to feel that in their kind 
they could hardly be better. Never have the fea- 
tures and expressions of the familiar faces that 
pass in procession before us been caught more 
nicely or fixed on canvas more dexterously. And 
even when those of whom Mr. Gosse discourses 
are old acqiiaintances, we shall get something 
more than an SBsthetic pleasure from his compan- 
ionship. We can hardly listen half an hour to his 
well-informed talk without receiving manifold in- 
struction. There are even two or three positive 
additions to the sum of knowledge. Thus, in 
the study of de Vigny, our knowledge of the 
extent and promptitude of his response to En- 
glish influences is enlarged at several points ; 
and in the paper on the " Portuguese Letters " 
much exact information, drawn from conceal- 
ment in the papers of a provincial society, is 
turned to account for establishing the source and 
original sequence of these letters. 

In view of all this it will not detract appre- 
ciably from the interest of the general reader 
who is likely to take up such a volume at all 
that almost every page betrays the professional 
bias of the man of letters and of the historian 
of literature. The men and works observed are 
viewed in their historical connections, as mo- 
ments in a changing and developing theory and 
practice of poetic art. That is inevitable, of 
course, when Mr. Gosse is dealing with poets 
like M. Henri de R^gnier, St^phane Mallarme, 
or M. Paul Fort, who have been much pre- 
occupied with the technique of their art. But 
when speaking of de Vigny also he is much in- 
terested in the question of his artistic originality 

and his relations to the main literary influences 
of the time. It is as a historian of literature that 
he insists, with rather too much emphasis, we 
suspect, on the immediate and great influence of 
the " Portuguese Letters " on prose style, both 
in England and in France. It is as a historian 
again that, by way of preface to his sympathetic 
sketch of M. "Reni Bazin, he comments with 
much shrewdness on the ^' curious condition of 
the French novel " at the particular moment in 
question. It is preeminently as the historian of 
English literature that he appears in the address 
on ^^The Influence of France upoh English 
Poetry " which here sees the light for the first 
time in its original English form. Within .the 
brief limits of such an address no attempt is 
made, of course, to enumerate all the debts that 
English poetry owes to France. Mr. Grosse 
rather tries to distinguish broadly between two 
different ways in which English literature has 
borrowed from its neighbor, and the more con- 
spicuous results in each kind. 

These two kinds of borrowing are, the one 
superficial, the other material ; the one of 
" color," the other of " substance." The sub- 
stantial borrowing is that exemplified by the 
drama of the Bestoration ; imitation is gross and 
slavish, and individuality has been resigned. This 
is the sign of an unhealthy condition. ^^ These 
are cases where an exhausted literature, in ex- 
treme decay, is kept alive by borrovring its very 
body and essence from a foreign source." On 
the other hand the times when a literature takes 
on a color from a foreign source are likely to be 
moments of health and vigor. This second man- 
ner of influence Mr. Gosse illustrates by the ex- 
ample of the Roman de la Rose and the part 
of the French poets in forming the talent of 
Chaucer, and again by Pope. The address is 
suggestive, especially of questions. We find our- 
selves wondering if literature is really conceived 
of as a living organism, imposing itself upon 
the series of individuals that seem to produce it, 
which would be to out-Bruneti^re M. Brune- 
tiere's evolving literary species. Or is this 
impression but one of those illusions that the 
insufficiency of human speech is , constantly 
creating for us? Does Mr. Gosse mean any- 
thing more, after all, than that your small 
talent imitates crudely and slavishly, and your 
great talent originally and creatively, whether 
the models be imported or domestic? 

Suggestive as the address is, it is not the part 
of the book that will be most enjoyed, even by 
those who may have a kind of professional in- 
terest in literary history. It is perhaps when 




Mr. Grosse is least erudite and draws upon his 
store of personal reminiscences of men he has 
known in the body that he is most charming. 
The brief, fugitive glimpse of Yerlaine is deli- 
cious, and from this a quotation must be taken. 

** It was all exceasively amnaing [he has been dining 
with a mixed company of lyrical symbolists at a res- 
taurant of the Latin Quarter], but deep down in my 
eoBsciousness, tolling like a httle bell, there continued 
to sound the words, * We hare not seen Yerlaine.' I 
was losing all hope, and we were descending the Boule- 
vard, our faces set for home, when two more poets, a 
male and a female, most amiably hurried to meet us 
with the intoxicating news that Yerlaine had been seen 
to dart into a little place called the Caftf Soleil d'Or. 
Thither we accordingly hied, buoyed up by hope, and 
our party, now containing a dozen persons (all poets), 
rushed into an almost empty drinking-shop. But no 
Yerlaine was to be seen. M. Mor^as then collected us 
round a table, and fresh grenadines were ordered. 

"Where I sat, by the elbow of M. Mor^as, I was op- 
posite an open door, absolutely dark, leading flown, by 
oblique stairs, to a cellar. As I idly watched this square 
of blackness I suddenly saw some ghostly shape flatter- 
ing at the bottom of it. It took the form of a strange 
bald head, bobbing close to the ground. Although it 
was 80 dim and vague, an idea crossed my mind. Not 
daring to speak, I touched M. Mortfas, and so drew his 
attention to it. ' Pas im mot, pas un geste, Monsieur! ' 
he whispered, and then, instructed in the guile of his 
race, insidious DanaUm, the eminent author of Le$ Can- 
tSknes, rose, making a Tague detour towards the street, 
and then plunged at the cellar door. There was a pro- 
longed scuffle and a rolling down stairs; then M. Mo- 
r^as reappeared, triumphant; behind him something 
flopped up out of the darkness like an owl, — a timid 
shambling figure in a soft black hat, with jerking hands, 
and it peeped with intention to disappear again. But 
there were cries of * Yenez done, Maitre,' and by-and- 
by Yerlaine was persuaded to emerge definitely and to 
sit by me." 

All in all, Mr. Gosse's "French Profiles" 
is a volume to strengthen the present entente 
cordiale between English and French by con- 
tributing towards mutual understanding and 
appreciation. One or two evidences that our 
historian's memory is not infallible (as the 
apparent oversight of Otway's "Titus and 
Berenice," p. 353), or that, felicitous as his 
phrase is, he can absent him from felicity on 
occasion (e. g. " a surprising narrative is well, 
though extremely leisurely, told," p. 105), do 
not matter. Arthur G. Canfield. 

Two important educational books now in preparation 
by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. are a volume of 
** Selections from Newman," edited by Dr. Maurice 
f^ran, of the Catholic University of Washington; and 
an edition of Bacon's Essays, with introduction and 
notes by Miss Mary Augusto Scott, Professor of En- 
glish Language and Literature, Smith College. Dr. 
Egan has recently been decorated by King Leopold of 
Belgium « for distinguished literary merit." 

Recent Fiction.* 

<'The House of Mirth " appears to be the novel of 
the season in the sense that it is the novel that has 
occasioned the most discussion of a serious sort It 
is a work which has enlisted the matured powers of 
a writer whose performance is always distinguished, 
and whose coupling of psychological insight with the 
gift of expression is probably not surpassed by any 
other woman novelist of our time. It is a story 
elaborated in every detail to a high degree of refine- 
ment, and evidently a product of the artistic con- 
science. Having paid this deserved tribute to its 
finer characteristics, we are bound to add that it is 
deficient in interest The reason is not far to seek. 
There is no section of American society — or of society 
anywhere, for that matter — so absolutdy devoid of 
appeal to the sympathies of normally-constituted 
intelligences as the vain and vulgar element that 
disports itself in our larger cities as the only society 
worth considering, this pretension being based upon 
wealth alone, with its natural accompaniment of self- 
seeking display and frivolity. A novelist of arch- 
angelical powers could not make interesting so 
sorry a phase of humanity as this, and because Mrs. 
Wharton has described for us this type and this 
alone, we turn her pages impatiently, and look in 
vain for relief from their emptiness. What she can 
do with real material she has evidenced in ^^The 
Valley of Decision," a book that we admire heartily 
enough to permit us the severity with which we are 
appraising the content, as distinguished from the 
form, of the present work. What justification may 
be offered for the book as a portrayal of any sort of 
human life is found in the plea of its satiric intent 
— of its character as an American "Vanity Fair," — 
but this will not take us very far. The pungent 
wickedness of Becky Sharp gives her a reasonable 
excuse for being, but we cannot find in Lily Bart 
the positive qualities for either good or evil that 
make it worth while to follow her fortunes through 
five hundred and more pages of print. When she 

*Thb Hovbb op MntTH. By Sdlth Wharton. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Thb NoBTKBBNXB. By Nomh Davls. New York: The Oen- 

Ltnbttb and tub Oonobbbsman. By Mary Farley Ban- 
bom. Boston: Little, Brown, A Oo. 

Sib Raoul. A Tale of the Theft of an Empire. By James M. 
Ludlow. New York: The Fleming H. ReveU Oo. 

A BwoBD OF TBB Ou> Fbomtibb. A Tale of Fprt Chartres 
and Detroit By RandaU Parrish. Chloaco : A. G. MoClnrr A Oo. 

LosBBS* LuoK. By Charles Tenney Jackson. New York: 
Henry Holt A Co. 

TwisTBD EoLAimRB. By H. B. Marriott Wat4M>n. New 
York: D. Appleton&Co. 

Stabvbobow Fabm. By Stanley J. Weyman. New York: 
Loncmans, Oreen, A Oo. 

Kipps. The Story of a Simple Sonl. By H. Q. Wells. New 
York: Charles Soribner's Sons. 

Thb Pbincbss Pbxscilla's Fobtnight. By the author of 
" Elizabeth and her German Garden." New York ; Charles 
Bcribner's Sons. 

Thb Flutb of Pax. By John Oliver Hobbes. New York: 
D. Appleton A Co. 

Thb Pbofbssob's Legacy. By Mrs. Alf^red Sidffwlck. New 
York : Henry Holt A Co. 



[Jan. 1, 

has come to the end of her tether, the moral of her 
story is embodied in an impressive paragraph. 

" It was DO long^er, however, from the Tiaon of material 
poverty that she tuned with the greatest shrinking. She 
had a sense of deeper impoverishment — of an inner deeti- 
tntion compared to which outer conditions dwindled into 
insignificance. It was indeed miserable to be poor — to look 
forward to a shabby, anxioiis middle-age, leading by dreary 
degrees of economy and self-denial to gradnal absorption in 
the ding^ communal existence of the boarding-house. But 
there was something more nuserable still — it was the dutch 
of solitude at her heart, the sense of being swept like a stray 
uprooted growth down the heedless current of the years. 
That was ^e feeling which poasessed her now — the feeling 
of being something rootless and ephemeral, mere spin-drift of 
the whirling surface of existence, without anything to which 
the poor little tentacles of self could cling before the awful 
flood submerged them. And as she looked back she saw 
that there had never been a time when she had had any real 
relation to life. Her parents too had been rootless, blown 
hither and thither on every wind of fashion, without any 
personal existence to shelter them from its shifting gpusts. 
She herself had grown up without any one spot of earth 
being dearer to her than another: there was no centre of 
early pieties, of grave endearing traditions, to which her 
heart could revert and from which it could draw strength 
for itself and tenderness for others.*' 

This is so fine and true that it reconciles as in part 
to the complex of empty talk and petty intrigae and 
ignoble aim through which, as through a desert 
waste, we have toiled to reach it. But the question 
remains persistent whether it was worth while to 
describe at such length and with such infinite pains 
the career of any woman of whom it must be said 
in the end that she had never had any real relation 
to life. We are much inclined to doubt that it was 
worth while — for a writer of Mrs. Wharton's ex- 
ceptional gifts. 

"The Northerner," by Miss Norah Davis, is a 
novel of the new South struggling with the old, of 
the modern infusion of enterprise into the shiftless- 
ness of the past, of the conflict between rational ideas 
and crusted prejudice. The protagonist of this con- 
flict is a northern capitalist settled in Alabama as the 
owner and manager of the street railway and light- 
ing plant of a small town. His ways are not the 
ways of the natives, and he incurs their hatred. This 
leads to such unpleasant consequences as social os- 
tracism, underhanded conspiracy to ruin his business, 
and the actual wrecking of his establishment The 
situation becomes so strained that only the precau- 
tions of his two or three friends save him from a 
summary disposal at the hands of the mob. The 
negro problem, and the irrational temper of the pop- 
ulace in any question that concerns a negro, fig^e 
largely in the story, and prepare the way for a lynch- 
ing scene that is described with ghastly picturesque- 
ness. The author seems to have gained a singularly 
subtle insight into the southern way of regarding the 
color question, but leaves it hardly less a mystery 
than before to the anal3rtic intelligence. The book 
has a softer side, ako, and embodies a charming love- 
story, in which the hero comes out as successfully as 
his failure is cx)mplete in other respects. It is an un- 
usually strong book, with an unusually strong man 
for its central character. 

Just a love story — and a particularly nice one — 
is what we have in " Lynette and the Congressman," 
by Miss Mary Farley Sanborn. Lynette is a young 
woman who lives with her mother in a Washington 
boarding-house, and is employed in one of the gov- 
ernment departments. She is a Virginian, and not 
the least of her charms is her soft and appealing 
southern speech, which is so reproduced in the text 
as to make its delicious accent sound in our ears. 
The congpressman is from Michigan, and is a wid- 
ower with two half-grown boys. He is besieged in 
the citadel of his affections by a pettish and opulent 
beauty who has distinctly vixenish characteristies, 
and his acts sometimes verge upon indiscretion. But 
his love for Lynette is the real thing, and saves him 
from the assaults of her designing rival. We do not 
quite like Lynette's daring experiment, which leads 
her, under an assumed name, to enter her rival's 
service as a maid, in order that she may find out 
whether the former is really deserving of the con- 
gressman's regard. The situation is, however, deftly 
managed, and not as unpleasant as it would seem from 
this description. 

The Rev. James M. Ludlow,who achieved a brilliant 
success with " The Captain of the Janizaries " about 
twenty years ago, and who has since been moderately 
successful with certain historical romances upon bib- 
lical themes, is to be congratulated upon his return 
to a subject similar in type to that of his first and best 
book. His new romance, " Sir Raoul," is a story of 
the Fourth Crusade, and of its diversion, through 
Venetian intrigue, from its primary object to the raid 
upon Constantinople, which resulted in the brief res- 
toration of the Emperor Alexius, the temporary union 
of the Greek and Roman churches, and the estab- 
lishment of the Latin Empire of the East under 
Baldwin. Here is material enough and to spare ; 
the richness of the material, in fact, is responsible for 
the chief fault of the book, which huddles one event 
upon another to confusing effect. Mr. Ludlow's hero 
is a youthful knight of ^e Black Forest, who suffers 
disgrace early in his career, and is given out for dead, 
but who in reality remains very much alive, and par- 
ticipates, under an assumed name, in the exciting 
happenings with which the romance is concerned. 
The interest is sustained at a high pitch throughout, 
and the author's knowledge of his subject seems to 
embrace both the broad historical issues of the period 
and a diversity of curious matters of detail respectr 
ing such things as chivalry, topography, and the 
secret ways of Venice and Constantinople. A neat 
and pointed style provides the story with an added 
element of attractiveness. 

Mr. Randall Parrish has given us a spirited ro- 
mance of Fort Chartres and Detroit in the days of 
the conspiracy of Pontiac, when Frenchmen were 
still clinging to a forlorn hope in their Mississippi 
valley outposts, and dreaming that a change in the 
political kaleidoscope might yet restore to them the 
dominion that had been lost forever when Wolfe had 
scaled the rock of Quebec four years earlier. "A 




Sword of the Old Frontier" ib the title of this work, 
which describee a perilous journey from the Ohio 
Biver through the wilderness to Detroit, the hero 
being entrusted with the care of a young woman, 
who spurns him at first, as all haughty and well- 
eonducted heroines are expected to do, and graciously 
yields in the end, which we are all the time comfort- 
ably assured is inevitable. The story is strictly con- 
ventional in type, but the type is one that has justi- 
fied its right to exist, which is the chief matter. 

'< Losers' Luck," by Mr. Charles Tenney Jackson? 
is a story of " the questionable enterprises of a yachts 
man, a princess, and certain • filibusters in Central 
America." The yachtsman, a reckless American 
millionaire, with a trio of his friends, is kidnapped in 
the harbor of San Francisco by the princess and the 
filibusters. The yacht and its legitimate proprietors 
are hurried to the coast of Central America, the un- 
willing captives warming up to the enterprise as their 
indignation cools. This fact is to be accounted for 
by the winsome charm of the princess and the dare- 
devil characteristics of the yachtsman. They are 
soon plunged into the thick of a revolutionary upris- 
ing, and some veiy pretty scrimmages ensue. The 
revolution is a ffulure, and the heroine for whose 
heattx yeux the yachtsman has committed himself to 
the dangerous enterprise, has the bad taste to prefer 
a Spanish to an American lover, which leaves the 
yachtsman disconsolate. Nevertheless, his last re- 
mark is to the effect that he would like to do it all 
over again. This lively book may be described as 
a blend of Bret Harte and Mr. Richard Harding 
Davis, and the mixture is commendable. 

"Twisted Eglantine," by Mr. H. B. Marriott 
Wateon, is an English novel of the days of the 
Regency. A rustic beauty, who has character as 
well as charm, is the heroine, and her favor is 
assiduously sought by two persons — one an impet- 
uous young soldier, her associate from childhood, 
the other an accomplished rake and dandy of the 
court For a time the latter seems to prevail, and 
when he succeeds in enticing the g^l to London, 
and dazzling her with the spectacle of fashionable 
society, the hopes of her soldier lover are at low 
ebb. But when the villainous intentions of Sir Piers 
are disclosed, and when at the call of the harassed 
damsel, Faversham deserts from the army in Flan- 
ders and hastens to her rescue, the situation is 
changed, and the conventional romantic ending is 
assured. Despite his selfishness and his cynicism. 
Sir Piers is presented to us as so attractive a figure 
that we are almost sorry for his discomfiture. He 
puts his rival so neatly in the wrong whenever the 
two men come into conflict, that we cannot blame 
Barbara from being tempted by his blandishments. 
Whatever the author may think of him in the char- 
acter of the moralist, there is no doubt that he fav- 
ors him in the character of the artist And we are 
not abasing the word artist in this connection, for 
Mr. Marriott Watson has never given us a finer 
character-study than this of Sir Piers. It is hardly 

necessary to say also, for those who are to any 
degree acquainted with his work, that the book has 
a distinction of style which siets it far above the 
level of most books of its class. 

Another novel of abont the same period is Mr. 
Weyman's "Starvecrow Farm," which stands in 
sharp contrast to the sort of historical romance 
which we associate with his name. Here the her- 
oine elopes with the villain in the first chapter, but 
the villain is a very low scoundrel indeed, and his 
victim is soon undeceived. Soon abandoned by him, 
she has a variety of distressing experiences, which 
include a sojourn in jail, and a hairbreadth escape 
from a gang of cutthrcMits. Captain Clyne, who loves 
her after a fashion, and who saves her from the 
consequences of her imprudence, is by no means a 
hero of the romantic type, but is so vast an improve- 
ment upon the fellow who had so nearly been the 
cause of her undoing, that she accepts him grate- 
fully in the end, after the usual measure of misun- 
derstanding. This is by no means the best of Mr. 
Weyman's novels, but it has a considerable interest 

The appalling vulgarity of EngHsh lower-class 
society, its absolute aloofness from everything that 
gives a spiritual meaning to Uf e, its utter imper- 
viousness to ideas of any kind, are the impressions 
that chiefly remain after reading "Kipps." Mr. 
Wells describes the hero of this realistic narrative 
as '^ a simple soul," but the description is inadequate, 
for he is represented as an esprit homi beyond our 
powers of credulity, if we are to regard him as 
being in any way of a normal type. For experi 
ence wiU knock even the meanest of normal natures 
into some sort of conformity with a new environ- 
ment, but Kipps, born in poverty, and unexpectedly 
raised to affluence, shows no adaptabOity whatever, 
and proves incapable of sloughing off even the 
externals of the habit that has been fashioned for 
him by his instincts and his surroundings. Per- 
sistence of essential character under changed con- 
ditions is undoubtedly one of the deepest lessons of 
psychology, but average human nature is capable 
of a good deal of transformation to superficial seem- 
ing. Kipps, the draper's assistant, however, when 
he becomes Kipps the opulent, courted by society, 
remains a shop-boy no less in manner than in soul, 
and this despite his most resolute determination to 
acquire the ways of the class into which he has been 
suddenly elevated. This serves the author's pur- 
pose of humorous exaggeration, but it is not good 
science, and science is supposed to be Mr. Wells's 
trump suit Nevertheless, the story of Kipps and 
his social mishaps is fascinating because of its merci- 
less analysis of the irredeemably vulgar type of 
mind, because of its truthfulness of sordid detail, 
and because of its satirical side-lights upon the fads 
and follies of the i^e. We cannot easOy forget, for 
example, such a characterization as that of one of 
the minor fig^ures, the young man ^^who had been 
reading Nietzsche, and thought that in all proba- 



[Jan. 1, 

bility he was the Non-Moral Oyerman referred to 
by Uiat writer." We are quite prepared, after this, 
to expect the eventnal crash in the finances of 
Kipps, who has rashly placed his property under the 
management of the young man thus neatly described. 
The book offers many such bits of entertainment as 
this, besides displaying an almost Dickens-like g^ 
for the portrayal of eccentric traits and types of 

The author of ^< Elizabeth and her Grerman Gar- 
den" has given us, in "The Princess Priscilla's 
Fortnight," the most charming extravaganza imag- 
inable. The Princess Priscilla, it seems, is a demure 
young thing who conforms outwardly to the life of 
the Grrand Ducal court of Lothen-Kunitz, to the 
manner whereof she is bom, but privately enter- 
tains her own views of things. Under the insidious 
influences of her tutor, the HoJTnbliothekar, an 
impossible idealist of grandfatherly age, she has 
learned to despise the worldly advantages of her 
lot, and to yearn for the simple life. The crisis is 
reached when a nuuriage is planned for her with a 
prince whom she does not know. She informs her 
astonished tutor that in flight must be her salvation, 
and that he is to be her accomplice and companion. 
This innocent soul, transformed perforce into a con- 
spirator, plans t|ieir secret departure, and, good luck 
aiding them, the strangely-assorted pair of adven- 
turers make their way to England, and bury them- 
selves in a country village, where they obtain a 
rose-embowered cottage. They take with them 
Annalise, reckless of the possible consequences. 
This menial seems a properly subdued and inoffen- 
sive person, but she has capabilities, and their devel- 
opment leads to the undoing of her mistress. But 
this is to anticipate. Settled in the village, Pri»- 
dlla proceeds to demoralize its inhabitants by means 
of what the scientific philanthropists call indiscrim- 
inate charity. She invites the neighborhood chil- 
dren to Sunday parties, feeding their sinful bodies 
and imperilling Uieir immortal souls. She employs 
help at unheard-of wages. She ruins the character 
of the model pauper of the village — a bedridden 
old woman — by gifts of five-pound notes and bot- 
tles of rum. She causes both the son of the vicar 
and the son of the great lady of the parish to fall 
wildly in love with her (she can't help that, poor 
thing ! ) and thereby stormily agitates the breasts of 
their respective mothers. It is all' one bright dream 
of realized ideals until the money g^ves out, when 
clouds encompass the scene. Then Annalise be- 
comes obstreperous, reveals the whereabouts of the 
truants, and the prince appears to bear away his 
betrothed. It is a lovely story, and the f ortoight 
which it describes is all too brief for our enjoyment, 
although it proves quite sufficient to cure the prin- 
cess of her vagrant fancies, and to reconcOe her to 
the existence upon which she had impulsively turned 
her back. 

"The Flute of Pan," which is the latest of the 
inventions of that accomplished woman of letters. 

" John Oliver Hobbes," is also about a princess, and is 
quite as fantastic a tale, in its way, as the one pre- 
viously under discussion. This princess, however, 
does not desert her principality, but, finding it threat- 
ened by armed invasion, imports a husband to com- 
mand her forces, and share with her the cares of state. 
He is an eccentric Englishman of tide and wealth, 
who has renounced the world of vanity, and is engaged 
in the pursuit of art She finds him in his lodgings 
at Venice, and bends him, not altogether unwiUingly, 
to her purpose, he, however, tniLln'wg the condition 
that when order shall be restored to the agitated realm, 
she shall abdicate, and return to share his humble 
life as an artist in Venice. The subsequent naxrar 
tive is occupied, not so much with warlike adventure 
as with the private misunderstandings which keep 
the two at cross-purposes for a long time. Briefly 
stated, each suspects the other of an illicit entangle- 
ment When these dark suspicions are cleared away, 
and when the enemy is defeated, the princess car^ 
ries out her part of die bargain in good faith, but in 
the end new difficulties arise which compel her and 
her consort to take up once more the burden of role. 
The whole story is told in the vein of comedy, and 
is but a trifling performance. For the explanation 
of the symbolical title, we must refer readers to the 
book itself. 

A pleasing story of love, misunderstanding, and 
reconciliation is told by Mrs. Alfred Sidg^ck in 
"The Professor's Legacy." The professor is an 
eminent German authority on corals, and the legacy 
is his daughter, whom he leaves to the care of an 
Englishman of mature years, who has collaborated 
with him in the work which he does not live to com- 
plete. The Englishman offers marriage to the girl, 
as the simplest means of taking care of her, and she 
accepts, despite a girlish infatuation for a Grerman 
musician. The scene then changes from Fichten- 
stadt to a country estate in England, but relations 
between husband and wife remain strained, he not 
seeing that she has really come to care for him, and 
she not discovering the genuine love concealed be- 
neath his cold exterior. This device keeps the story- 
going until it has attained the requisite length, when 
the mutual misunderstandings are cleared away. 
The story is, as we said at tihie beginning, a pleas- 
ant one, embodying no very deep passion or subtle 
analysis of character, but nevertheless an agreeable 
composition of nicely-adjusted parts. 

William Mobtok Paynb. 

Notes on New Novei-s. 

« The Javelin of Fate," by Miss Jeanie Grould Lin- 
coln, is distinguished from the mass of current fiction 
by the technical skill with which it presents a plot that 
has in itself real movement and vitality. It is a Civil 
War story, its action centering in that hot-bed of rebel- 
lion, Baltimore. But it begins twenty years before the 
war, in a little mountain cabin in Virginia, where a dis- 
tracted young mother deserts her child amid the pro- 




phetic imprecatioiiB of the old mammy in whose care she 
leaves it. For years she escapes the nemesis of fate, 
hat throughont her hrilliant career there is one motiye 
hehind her social activities and political intrigues — the 
wish to punish the man who spoiled her youth and 
robhed her of the capacity for happiness. At last her 
opportunity arrives, but old instincts and old affections 
assert themselves. She forgives the man and goes to 
find her child. Then the javelin strikes her. This is 
the main thread of the narrative, which is skilfully inter- 
woven with others less sombre. (Houghton, Mifflin & 

In '< Miss Desmond " (Macmillan) Marie Van V orst 
has made a long stride toward the writing of significant 
fiction. She has evolved a situation that Mr. Henry 
James would revel in; and without resorting to Mr. 
James's familiar method, she has brilliantly suggested, 
if she has not always developed, its subtleties. Her 
heroine. Miss Desmond, is a middle-aged recluse, a 
Bostonian Puritan, who has sacrificed her youth to an 
exacting old mother and has just awakened to the con- 
viction that she has never really lived. In this mood 
of tentative, half-frightened dissatisfaction and longing 
she is suddenly simimoned to chaperon a niece, — the 
sophiatieated but unspoiled daughter of a thoroughly 
disreputable sister, — on a Swiss tour. A week htter 
the object of the sister's latest love-aifair comes by 
chance to their hotel. He finds in Miss Desmond the 
bodily appearance of the woman he had left in disgust, 
united to a spiritual beauty that he is in a mood to 
appreciate by contrast. The development of the theme 
is dramatic, though at times a little unsure; and the 
characterization is imcommonly delicate and significant. 

" The Passport " (Harper), by Mr. Richard Bagot, is 
a rather slow-moving story of love and intrigue, in an 
Italian setting. A parish priest with a mysterious past 
ia the ruling character. He has an interest, dating back 
to the time when he was a canon at Rome, in the young 
hero and heroine; and he finally manages to convince 
the girl's step-mother that young Rossano and not the 
gambling Belgian baron, d'Antin, is the more suitable 
husband for her charge. The baron has a coadjutor in 
the person of the Abb^ Roux, as great a scoundrel as 
himself, bnt not so clever. Peasant revolts add an ele- 
ment of variety to the plots and counter-plots of the 
viUaina. Mr. Bagot's style is clever and finished, and 
one wonders a littie why his book does not make more 
of an impression. It may be safely recommended as a 
good story, likely to carry the reader pleasantly to the 
end of its four hundred closely-printed pages; but it 
husks a definite, clear-cut motive that should give it 
force and value. 

Mr. W. W. Jaoobs's httest book, ''Captains All" 
(Scribner), is named after the first story in a collection 
of tales, only three of which are really nautical. But 
any disappointment that the reader may experience on 
this score is soon forgotten in his enjoyment of the au- 
thor's hnmor. Mr. Jacobs makes the doings and say- 
ings of a certain type of English low-life irresistibly 
funny in the telling. His sailors ashore, his constables, 
night-watchmen, small shop-keepers, pigeon-shooters, 
and their wives and friends, are delightful studies, de- 
picted with the same penetration and the same joyous 
appreciation of the comedy of life that distinguish all 
Mr. Jacobs's work. It is hard to pick out any stories 
d^^rving of special mention, for the workmanship is 
wery even; bnt certainly none are better than «The 
Constable's Move," which tells how Policeman Evans's 

worst enemy unwittingly got him made a sergeant; and 
«The White Cat," the story of a strange legacy that 
brought as much trouble on its various owners as the 
proverbial white elephant. 

« Land Ho " (Harper) is the title chosen for a collec- 
tion of Mr. Morgan Robertson's sea stories. In several of 
these are told the adventures of Scotty, an original old 
fellow forced by circumstances to be deck-hand on a 
freight barge in New York harbor, but leading a life 
full of interest and excitement none the less. Tbe sea, 
as Scotty and the rest of Mr. Robertson's heroes know 
it, is a hard mistress, exacting a heavy toll of labor and 
sorrow and making little return; and as a whole Mr. 
Robertson's book does not make cheerful reading. A 
strange case of sonmambuliBm is the theme of «The 
Cook and the Captain "; « The Lobster " and his friends 
are only amateur sailors, and a few stories at the end 
of the book have no connection with the sea or its folk. 
It is a pity that Mr. Robertson does not occasionally 
choose to exploit a thoroughly pleasant theme. His 
style is powerful, but his insight is always exercised on 
gruesome situations. 

Mr. Charles Major's new romance '' Yolanda " (Mac- 
millan) resembles « When Knighthood Was in Flower " 
more than it does any of this author's other books. 
There is a piquant and spirited heroine who braves 
everything for the man she loves, and the hero is satis- 
factory enough, though distinctly subordinate in the 
reader's interest, as was Brandon. The love affair leads 
the pair through many extraordinary perils and dilem- 
mas, but in the end the prince nuuries the princess ex- 
actly as their parents had planned, though the step is 
by no means taken out of deference to parental wishes. 
For some unexplainable reason Mr. Major has chosen 
to have the story related by Count Maximilian's tutor — 
a method which has its disadvantages when a passion- 
ate, and let us hope a private, love-scene is to be con^ 
fided to the reader. In spite of this mistake, however, 
Mr. Major has written another good story, which his 
public will be glad to welcome. 

Miss Margaret Sherwood's new novel, « The Coming 
of the Tide " (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.), has much of 
the choice pastond quality of her earlier book, '' Daphne." 
This latter tale was so charming that it helped to set a 
fashion in fiction-writing; and perhaps it is only the 
host of perfunctory imitations that have come between 
to dull our appetites that makes « The Coming of the 
Tide " seem a little commonplace by comparison. It 
tells the story of a simimer on the Maine coast, whither 
the heroine, a Southern girl, goes to forget a great sor- 
row. The plot, which is very simple, involves a study 
in heredity. The hero, a dreamy philosopher, is mo^ 
bidly conscious of his inheritance of ancestral traits and 
ancestral quarrels. But the girl from Virginia makes 
him feel the joy of living, and understand the song of the 
tides. The charm of the book lies largely in Miss Sher- 
wood's delicate humor, delightful fancy, and carefuUy 
finished, but never coldly classic, style. 

Like all of Mr. Arthur Henry's stories, « Lodgings in 
Town " (A. S. Barnes & Co.) is more fact than fiction. 
It tells how the author came to New York with a clean 
collar, eight dollars, and a poem, what he found in the 
city to hold his interest, and how he finally chose the 
obscurity of a mountain farm, in preference to material 
advancement in town. Much of the interest of the story 
springs from the keen analysis of New York's peculiari- 
ties, as Mr. Henry, fresh from a strenuous career in the 
Middle West, interpreted them. But the core of the 



[Jan. 1, 

book is its philosophy. If a man works not for money 
or for himself, but, '' searching events for the soul of 
them," takes miaffected pleasure in what he can do for 
other men, he can be happy anywhere — and most easily 
perhaps in a Baxter Street tenement. The intimate, 
straightforward, and lively style in which Mr. Henry 
writes, and his large and convincing optimism, make a 
strong appeal to the reader's sympathy. 

The success scored by << In the Bishop's Carriage " 
lends special interest to Miss Miriam Michelson's new 
novel, « A Yellow Journalist " (Appleton). Like its 
predecessor this is a novel with a heroine; and the new 
heroine, Rhoda Massey, has a strong individuality — 
a pluck, perseverance, and a certain feminine charm be- 
neath her masculine energy — that suggests Nancy, 
minus the curious moral attitude that made Nancy so 
unique. Rhoda finds newspaper work as intoxicating as 
most g^ls do cotillons, and thinks of nothing but pleas- 
ing her chief and « scooping" her rivals. Reporting 
in San Francisco seems to furnish an abundance of sen- 
sations, but the reader is not surprised when Rhoda 
gives it all up to marry the reporter that she had always 
secretly admired, though professionally they were at 
swords' points. 

After these many years Mr. Rider Haggard has writ- 
ten a sequel, or rather a continuation, of *< She." It is 
called ** Ayesha " (Doubleday, Page & Co.), and is the 
story of the further adventures of Mr. Holly, the real 
author of « She," and Leo Vincey in the mountains of 
Tibet, whither they went to seek the wonderful Spirit of 
the Moimtain. This time the token of verity which 
Mr. Holly sends with his manuscript is the sceptre with 
which Ayesha was wont to rule the shadows in her 
mountain temple. The story opens with an accoimt of 
a vision in which the lovely Ayesha tells her mortal 
lover how to return to her. The adventures of the trav- 
ellers are of no ordinary kind. Seven years of awful 
hardship are dismissed in a brief paragraph, and only 
the last crucial moments of the search are detailed. It 
will be interesting to see how the new " She " strikes 
twentieth century tastes. 

Mr. Rupert Hughes, the author of « American Com- 
posers " and « The Love-Affairs of Great Musicians," 
has turned his insight into the emotional make-up of the 
musician to account by writing a novel. He calls it 
« Zal," which is a Polish word signifying the hopeless 
homesickness of the exile. The hero is a Polish musi- 
cian, named Ladislav, who wins a slow recognition and 
then an overwhelming success in America. But it is 
his love affair with a rich American g^l, rather than his 
concert career, that engrosses the reader's attention. 
As a study of the artistic temperament « Zal " is very 
interesting, but Mr. Hughes makes a mistake in forcing 
his hero to choose between saving his mother or his 
sweetheart from drowning. Such an episode cannot be 
satisfactorily handled in fiction. Otherwise, particularly 
for a first novel, << Zal " shows very good workmanship. 
(Century Co.) 

<< Lady Bobs, her Brother, and I " (Putnam) is already 
familiar to readers of « The Critic," where it appeared 
serially. Miss Jean Chamblin has followed a passing 
fashion in using the letter form for her story, and in 
supplementing plot interest with animated accounts of 
life and scenery in the Azores. Her protagonist is a 
young actress, who, being tired and so impressed with 
the futility of her dramatic efforts, goes off to rest in a 
for comer of the earth and finds there most of the people 
she has particularly wished to get away from — includ- 

ing the inevitable lover. It is a pity that Miss Chamblin 
has felt it necessary to resort to meaningless slang and 
cheap humor in order to enliven her heroine's letters. 
In these days there is surely no good reason why an 
actress should not be represented as a cultured woman, 
exercising good taste in the choice of a vocabulary as 
in other matters. 

<< Child of the Stars " is the mystical title of a some- 
what mystical tale by Mr. Robert Valentine Mathews. 
The narrative altogether lacks unity, but at certain 
points it has decided charm in spite of its annoying in- 
consecutiveness. At first it purports to be the autobi- 
ography of a man who began his life as a foundling in 
a Jesuit orphanage. Running away one day, not because 
of unhappiness but merely to explore the neighborhood, 
he found a little girl playing by the river. After this 
the story is more hers than his, and the title is the name 
of a famous picture which her faithless husband painted. 
The picture, again, is in no sense the pivotal point of 
the story. Mr. Mathews has some interesting material 
at his command, but he must either learn plot constnio- 
tion or else avoid altogether the novel form. His 
'< Child of the Stars " is a confusing hybrid, — neither 
novel nor simple narration. (Eklwin C. Hill Co.) 

Mr. Herman Bernstein, already known as the author 
of several novels of Jewish life, in " Contrite Hearts " 
(A. Wessels Co.) presents still another picture of the 
simple yet picturesque manners of his people in Russia 
and New York. Mr. Bernstein's tale is sincere and 
quite devoid of artifice. It tells the story of two Jewish 
girls, the apostate daughters of Israel Lampert, cantoc 
and reader of the law in his village. Both girls love 
Gentiles and are cast out from their father's house. 
They go singly to New York, meet there by chance, and 
in the end renounce the new thought that is disturbing 
their people's ancient beliefs, and become reconciled to 
their old father. The story has a curious interest, as an 
interpretation, from the inside, of a theory of life utterly 
foreign to the average reader's ideas. 

Brisfs on :N£W Books. 

A bookofgood Holdingthatlifeisthetestofthought, 
aeme cmd not thought the test of life, Dr. Hemy 

toundideau, yg^ Dyke puts forth a volume of 
<^ Essays in Application" (Scribner), being ideas 
and ideals tested by experience and removed from 
the domain of theory to that of fact On an early 
page he refers feelingly to *' those hours of despond- 
ency and disappointment when the g^rasshopper and 
the critic become a burden." Nothing that is to be 
said of his book by the present critic will in the least 
intensify the gloom of those despondent hours ; for 
the essays are all exceUent, both in substance and in 
form. The writer stands with both feet planted on 
the solid earth, while his *' dome of thought " reaches, 
not into the clouds, but beyond them. In other words, 
practical good sense and lofty idealism are happily 
married in his pages. Wise counsel is offered on 
education, religion, literature, — its production and 
its consumption, — the simple life, and many other 
matters of universal interest. In his general reflec- 
tions on the progress of the world, he is optimistic, 
or, rather, melioristic and hopefuL ^^ PessimiBm 




neyer gets anywhere/' he declares. ^^ It is a poor 
wagon that sets out with creaking and groaning." 
His definition of literature recalls Matthew Arnold's. 
^ literature/' writes the later essayist, '* is made up 
of those writings which translate the inner mean- 
ings of nature and life, in language of distinction 
and charm, touched with the personality of the au- 
thor, into artistic forms of permanent interest." 
Three evil tendencies he finds in our modern world 
against which the spirit of Christianity embodied in 
a worthy literature can do much to guard us. These 
are the growing idolatry of military glory, the grow- 
ing idolatry of wealth, and the growing spirit of 
frivolity. The last-named tendency gives occasion 
for mildly rebuking a brilliant contemporary British 
essayist, much given to paradox, who will need no 
more particular designation. Touching on educar 
tion. Dr. van Dyke deprecates the term *' finished 
scholar," which to him has a mortuary sound, like 
an epitaph. The right education teaches to see 
dearly, to imagine vividly, to think independently, 
and to will nobly. Terse and striking phraseology 
is not wanting in these suggestive chapters. The 
whirl of fashion shows us the ''busy emptiness of 
life at top speed." Would-be art connoisseurs *' go 
into raptures over a crooked-necked Madonna aft^er 
they have looked into their catalogues and discovered 
that it was painted by Botticelli." This, in Caiv 
lylesque language, is ''the veriest simian mimicry 
of artistic enthusiasm, a thing laughable to gods 
and men." A book so admirably combining enter- 
tainment and edification is not published every day, 
or every month. 

The blot an ^ " "^^ Indian Dispossessed " (Little, 
our national Brown & Co. ) , Mr. Seth K. Humphrey 
eaeuteh^on. describes the treatment by the United 
States government during the last three decades of 
the Reservation, or peaceful, Indian. The book con- 
sists principally of extracts from the reports of Indian 
agents and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, con- 
nected by a thread of narrative. It is the old and famil- 
iar story of the ruthless occupation of Indian country 
by white men who recognize no right aq belonging to 
the original owner. The Introduction briefly traces 
the steps by which the Indian was pushed back 
^m the frontier, until finally there was no longer a 
frontier and he was then placed on the Reservation. 
The account of the treatment of the Reservation 
Indians is from the Indian point of view, and gives 
only one side of the question at issue ; but there is no 
doubt thaty according to the reports of its own officials, 
the government has been guilty of criminal negligence 
and gross injustice in its treatment of the peacefol 
red man. The author selects for discussion the cases 
of the UmadiUas, Flat Heads, Nez Percys, Poncas, 
and the Mission Indians of California. The history 
of the four first-named is the same : a treaty is made 
with the United States securing to the Indians good 
reservations ; then come the white settlers who want 
the Indian lands: next the government, influenced 
by the politicians, forces the Indians to less desirable 

land, or to the Indian Territory — '* the grave of the 
Northern Indian"; and then follows the gradual 
extinction of the tribe. The treatment of the civ- 
ilized Mission Indians seems to have been the worst 
of all. They had good homes, were peaceful and 
good citizens, yet the government would admit to 
them no rights at alL — or, in the language of the 
Senate Committee, '^ the Indian had no usufructuary 
or other rights therein which were in any manner to 
be respected "; and the whites took their lands and 
homes. One of the final chapters describes the late 
method of dividing the spoils taken from the Indian. 
As long as there was a frontier the rule was, " first 
come, first served." Next, when reservations sur- 
rounded by settled territory are thrown open, the 
government fixes the day and hour, and thousands 
of home-seekers line up to race for homes, — as was 
done at the opening of the Cherokee Strip. Finally, 
the government makes use of the lottery, as in the 
case of the Rosebud Reservation, to divide out the 
prizes, — a method condemned as illegal by the 
national postal laws. The author disavows any in- 
tention of claiming that all men are equal or should 
be given equal privileges; but he maintains, how- 
ever, that " no man has a place or fair chance to 
exist under the government of the United States 
who has not a part in it" From the government, 
influenced by politicians, the author expects little 
consideration for the woes of the Indian. The 
proper way to secure relief is, he says, to '^ instill in 
the public mind a deep persistent distrust of the 
National Congress." 

T?ie aon of "^^ personality and career of the son 

Napoleon and of Napolcou and Marie Louise have 
Marie Louise. always attracted interest both histoid 
ically and as a matter of curiosity. A new study of 
his position and importance is now offered in a vol- 
ume by Edward de Wertheimer, entitled " The Duke 
of Reichstadt" (John Lane Co.), presented in a 
pretty binding decorated with the Napoleonic bee, 
and containing a number of excellent portraits. The 
volume is essentially an historical study, not a mere 
collection of gossip and rumor ; for the author has 
made a careful search of many archives, understands 
thoroughly the historical setting, and is more con- 
cerned to give an account of the diplomatic intrigues 
centering about the Duke and his mother than to pre- 
sent a striking personal characterization. One learns, 
indeed, very little about the qualities and ideas of 
Reichstadt himself, for necessarily his ideas were of 
much less contemporaneous importance than were 
the ideas of such men as Mettemich and Talleyrand 
as to what should be done with him. It is difficult 
to realize to-day that he really had so much impor* 
tance, and that courts and cabinets were agitated for 
fear of movements and conspiracies to place him 
upon the throne of France. The plans solemnly 
proposed (when he was but seven years old) that he 
should be forced into monastic life, or precluded 
from ever marrying, in order forever to cut off the 
Napoleonic heritage, seem absurd to-day ; yet to the 



[Jan. 1, 

statesmen of that time his existence, even in the 
secluded circle in which he moved at Vienna, was 
a matter for constant surveillance. Mr. de Wert- 
heimer traces the principal events, and narrates these 
diplomatic manceuvrings, from the time of his hero's 
birth in 1811 through the twenty-one years of his 
life. Naturally, the central figure of the story is 
Metternich, — the man whose patriotic statecraft is 
responsible for whatever seems heartless in the treat- 
ment of Reichstadt and of Marie Louise. The lat- 
ter is in no sense excused by the author for her 
conduct toward Napoleon, or in her later relations 
with Neipperg, — unless to portray her as a woman 
without imagination, or any perception of great prin- 
ciples, is an excuse. But personalities have little 
place in the author's method. His work is not in- 
tended for the merely curious, but it is of real his- 
torical value. 

Our hearts do not leap up when we 
trT^mio,. behold a halo on the tifle-page. So 

says the entertaining author of '* The 
Pardoner's Wallet " (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.), and 
therefore he will perhaps not thank a reviewer for 
designating him as the Rev. Dr. Crothers, especially 
as he has studiously shorn his name bare of idl titles, 
sacred or profane, on his own title-page. But when 
the book-appraiser proceeds to balance this possible 
disservice by reminding the purchasing public, should 
it need any such reminder, that the author of the 
book in question is also the author of ^' The Gentle 
Reader," — a fact also excluded from the title-page, — 
possibly the Pardoner will grant the offender an in- 
dulgence from his well-filled wallet Of these eleven 
essays, three, if we mistake not, have already ap- 
peared in <^The Atlantic"; the rest appear to be 
new. We find here, as in the author's earlier vol- 
ume, a succession of pleasing fancies and humorous 
conceits, steadied with a due ballast of sober thought 
and moral purpose. Common sense, alert observa- 
tion, a varied experience of life in divers longitudes 
of our broad land, gentle satire, delicate humor, all 
tastefully adorned with a sufficient garnish of liter- 
ary allusion, quotation, and anecdote, — combine to 
produce a book that stimulates while it amuses, and 
promotes thought at the same time that it drives away 
dull care. The title finds its appropriateness in the 
fact that most of the chapters deal with faults and 
foibles that are not inexcusable, although open to 
friendly criticism. The essay that affords the purest 
inteUectual delight is the jeu d^ esprit entitled '' How 
to Enow the Fallacies," wherein "^ Scholasticus " is 
represented as yielding so far to modem educational 
methods as to throw his treatise on logical fallacies 
into the form of a series of lessons in botany. '' Let 
us go out in the sunshine into the pleasant field of 
thought," says the botanist-logician. "^ There we see 
the arguments — valid and otherwise — as they are 
growing. You will notice that every argument has 
throe essential parts. First b the root, called by the 
old logicians in their crabbed language the Major 
Promise. Growing quite naturally out of this b the 

stem, called the Minor Premise ; and crowning that 
is the flower, with its seed-vessels which contain the 
potentialities of future arguments,— this is called the 
Conclusion." A genial first^personalism (unkind the 
critic who should call it egoism) pervades the book 
and admits one quite intimately into the writer's 
confidence — or at least seems to do so. Finally, 
Dr. Crothers, to use the language of a brother divine, 
belongs to that best class of essayists who *' clarify 
life by gentle illumination and lambent humor." 

Among the greatest of the leaders of 
^Unua^n,, English thought in the nineteenth 

century, and the greatest of all in 
the Unitarian denomination, was James Martineau. 
It is fitting, theref oro, that the centennial of his birth 
should be marked by the publication of an elaborate 
study of his life and work, prepared by Mr. J. Estlin 
Carpenter, an old pupil of Martineau and for many 
years his co-worker in Manchester College, and pub- 
lished by the American Unitarian Association. The 
book IB really a model of what a work of this kind 
should be. FvXLj to understand the achievements 
of a thinker we must know the conditions of thought 
which surround him and his effect upon those condi. 
tions. Martineau's life covered nearly the entire 
century (1805-1900), and his biographer furnishes 
from time to time graphic and illuminating sum- 
maries of the intellectual movements of those years. 
One of the best of these is the fourth chapter, 
devoted to ^'Religion and Philosophy in England, 
1805-1832." In this, the poets are shown to have 
played a prominent part, — Wordsworth, who *'led 
the way in the revolt against the mechanical inter- 
protation of the world"; Shelley, who '< prophesied the 
regeneration to be wrought out only by faithfulness 
and love"; Byron, in ** Cain," "with sterner defiance 
hurling his protest against the prevailing theology." 
With the year 1832, another new era was at hand, 
with Carlyle, Tennyson, Browning, and John Henry 
Newman as its prophets. " Through the medley of 
conflicting cries in science, philosophy, and Biblical 
criticism, James Martineau slowly realized the task 
to which he 'was called : — to vindicate the great 
conception which he defined as <the peronnial In- 
dwelling of God in Man in the Universe.' " How 
he wrought on this great life-work ; how, gradually 
abandoning the language of the older generation, he 
denounced the me^od of interpretation in which 
he had been brought up ; how he was rebuked for 
destroying all external authority, and how he replied 
by pointing to an authority from within, resting on 
the nature, scope, powers, and source of reason, — 
these are the great events in the life-history of this 
great and original thinker. Closing the volume, we 
agree with the biographer, that '< among the English 
theologians of the nineteenth century none had cot* 
ered so wide a range ; none possessed so varied a 
knowledge ; none had more completely blended the 
highest efforts of speculation with graces of char- 
acter and the trusts of a lowly heart" 




Professor Edward Diddnson, of 
ii!SX^t^ OberlinCoUege, has written a work 
called '<The Stady of the History of 
Music" (Scribner) which we take pleasure in com- 
mending. It offers a straightforward and scholarly 
treatment of the subje^st, and is based upon the 
author's practice as a lectarer in the institution with 
which he is connected. There are forty-three chap- 
ters and a bibliography of works accessible in En- 
glish. Besides tibis general list of authorities, each 
chapter has valuable bibliographical notes upon its 
special subject-matter. We quote the following pas- 
sage from the introduction : 

^ Hie basis of the trae study of the history and meaning 
of any art is not the readiog of books about works of art, but 
tiie direet first-hand exanunation of the works themselTes. 
Hiis dogma needs to be ineeasantly hammered into the heads 
of amateur students of music. If this book encouraged any- 
one to substitute critics and historians for the actual compo- 
sitions of the masters, then the author's intention would be 
grossly perverted and his hopes disappointed. The first aim 
of the music loTer should be to make himself acquainted with 
the laigest possible number of the best musical oompontaons.*' 

Concerning this saying we would say that it is true, 
every word of it, but that such a warning is perhaps 
less needed in the case of music than in the case of 
any other art Our observation has been that most 
young students of music neglect the history of the 
art altogether, and merely learn to *^play pieces." 
Of the place of those compositions in Uie history of 
music, of their aesthetic and ethical content, and of 
the significance of their composers, few amateur 
musicians have any notion whatever. A book that 
aims to remedy this defect deserves a warm wel- 
come, and need hardly fear that it will incline the 
balance of the student's attention in the wrong di- 
rection. We have often urged that music should be 
studied in the way in which poetry is studied, which 
of course does not mean that poetiy should be neg- 
lected for the sake of books about poetry, but that 
acquaintance with no poem is adequate that does not 
indude acquaintance with its place and function in 

literary history. 

Some ethical "^ those who know the active part 
gaina through taken by Mrs. Florence Kelley in 
legisiatum, ^^ crusade against child labor, over^ 

work, and unsanitary conditions, will appreciate the 
value of a book from her pen which attempts to 
estimate the present value of *' Ethical Gains through 
L^lislation *' (Macmillan), and which endeavors 
to suggest some of the many ways in which these 
already acquired gains may be increased many fold. 
The chief feature in the desired increase is the edu- 
cation of the employing, employed, and purchasing 
public in the rules which govern wholesome and 
honest labor, which tend to increase the public 
wealth, to strengthen the public health, and to 
strengthen the weaker members of the body politic. 
A discussion of these rules is the chief feature of 
Mrs. Kelley's book, which is divided into seven sig- 
nificant parts: *'The Right to Childhood," *'The 
Child, the State, and the Nation," <'The Right to 
Leisure," "Judicial Interpretations of the Right to 

Leisure," '<The Right of Women to the Ballot," 
<<The Rights of Purchasers," <<The Rights of Pur- 
chasers and the Courts." To these the author has 
added five appendices, containing decisions of various 
courts in cases having an important bearing on the 
subject, or some part of it Most of the material in 
the book, on the subjects of child-labor, compulsory 
education, and the dangerous trades, has been pub- 
lished before in one form or another, and ia known 
in detail, or at least in part, to all who are interested 
in social reform. It is well, however, to have the 
matter formulated and united into one common prob- 
lem of the right to labor and to leisure, as it is in 
nature. Mrs. Eelley's book is, by the conditions of 
its subject, tentative. Its chief value, lies in its sug- 
gestions for future improvement. 

Pleasant paper, ^ ▼ol'™® ^y^^ « Greatness in Litp 
on lUerary erature and Other Papers " ( Crowell) 

tfiemes. consists of eight literary addresses 

prepared for various academic occasions by Professor 
William P. Trent, and now collected for permanent 
preservation. The writer tells us that he does not 
call these papers << essays," because that term *< con- 
notes to my mind a discursive charm which, per- 
haps, I could not impart to any composition." This 
statement is too modest by exactly hidf, for, although 
the papers are discursive, they are imdeniably 
charming, and none the less so because each one of 
them pursues a definite line of thought. Some of 
the subjects with which they deal are the question 
of literary greatness, the teaching and study of Uter^ 
ture, the relation of criticism to faith and of literature 
to science, and the love of poetry. Upon all these 
subjects the author has excellent things to say, and 
the manner of his discourse is both persuasive and 
engaging. His remarks upon the study of literature, 
in particular, should be taken to heart by the too 
large class of our teachers who still make literature 
a iMng of terror to their students ; or, if not of 
terror, of desiccated substance and unattractive ex- 
position. We hope that his example will induce 
others " to doubt the value of strenuous examinations 
and to appreciate more and more the necessity of 
trying to inculcate in students some of the high 
moral and spiritual truths taught by great writers, 
and to impart to them a taste for reading, a love of 
the best literature." 

We do not know how many of the 
The J^omanv readers of ** Lavengro " at the present 

Word-Book. , - • i. x • xi. 

day have an mterest m the gypsy 
cult in which George Borrow was an adept For 
ourselves, the very sound of Romany has a sort of 
fascination which we readily pronounce in normal 
moments to be without much g^round. There will 
Probably be others who will be glad to see this re- 
print of the "Romano Lavo-Lil, or Word-Book of 
the English Gypsy's Language" (Putnam). The 
original, although not a rarity, is not easily found ; 
and the present issue is an excellent substitute. 
When we consider the testimony of Borrow and 



[Jan. 1, 

Leland to the appreciation on the part of the gypsy 
of a knowledge of the Romany tongue, we can 
easily see the value of such an introduction as this 
hook affords to the gypsy world. It is not^ however^ 
merely or chiefly a word-hook. It contains songs 
and stories in Romany and English, an account of 
various gypsy places of resort, and much other such 
material. Altogether it is an entertaining hook, full 
of the spirit that makes << Lavengro '' so attractive, 
and with a hit more of a serioils definite character. 


The John Lane Co. puhlish a two-volume edition of 
" The Poems of William Watson," with an introduc- 
tion hy Mr. J. A. Spender. The collection omits some 
of the poems included in previous volumes, makes fre- 
quent sdterations in the others, and includes a consider- 
ahle numher of new pieces. It constitutes, for the 
present at least, a definitive edition of Mr. Watson's 

A new edition of Mr. Andrew Lang's impressions of 
Oxford, with fifty illustrations hy various hands, is im- 
ported hy the J. B. Lippincott Company. Mr. Lang 
is such a loving interpreter of Oxford, knows the city 
so well in all its moods, and invests his studies with so 
much color and so much human interest as well, that 
his papers are no douht extremely difficult to illustrate 
suitahly. The sketches in the present edition are repro- 
duced from the etchings and drawings of nearly a dozen 
different artists. Some are delightful interpretations 
of Oxford life and scenery; others hardly deserve a 
place heside Mr. Lang's text. On the whole they add 
something, though not so much as they easily might, 
to the reader's enjoyment. 

Possihly hook collectors, like poets, are horn rather 
than made, yet the innate love of hooks may he culti- 
tivated, or at least stimulated, hy a knowledge of 
the technique of hook-making. There is ample justi- 
fication, therefore, for Mr. J. Herhert Slater's «* How 
to Collect Books" (Macmillan), which contains most 
informing chapters on manuscripts, paper, printing and 
printers, title-pages and colophons, hook-hinding and 
the famous hinders, collectors and their famous collec- 
tions, hook auctions, sales, and catalogues; with admir- 
ahle illustrations, and a cover design copied from the 
hindings in the famous Demetrio Canevari lihrary of 
Genoa. This volume will he found to contain a feast 
of good things for every hook collector. 

With the puhlication of Dr. Samuel Bannister 
Harding's " Essentials in Mediseval and Modem His- 
tory," the American Book Co. complete their series of 
''Essentials in History," the four volumes providing 
the full course of four years' work now given in all high 
schools of the hetter sort. The entire series is admir^ 
ahly planned and executed, and may he adopted in full 
confidence that no better set of books for the purpose is 
now available. We note also in this connection the 
publication, by Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co., of 
« A History of Mediseval and Modem Europe," by Pro- 
fessor Henry E. Bourne, which is also a work em- 
bodying the best scholarship and the most progressive 
pedagogical ideals. Between the two books here men- 
tioned there is little to choose, and either is an immense 
improvement over anything to be had ten years ago. 


Mr. Winston Spencer Churchill's biography of his 
father, the late Lord Randolph Churchill, will be pub- 
lished by the Macmillan Co. early in the present month. 

A new book from the pen of Mr. Henry Wallace 
Phillips, author of «« Red Saunders," will be published 
this month by the Grafton Press. The new story is 
entitled " Mr. Scraggs," and is the personal account of 
incidents in the strenuous life of one of Red Saunders's 

« Incidents Attending the Capture, Detention, and 
Ransom of Charles Johnston of Virginia," reprinted 
from the original edition of 1827, with editorial matter 
by Professor Edwin Erie Sparks, is published by the 
Burrows Brothers Co. in their series of "Narratives 
of Indian Captivities." 

Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. publish a revised edi- 
tion of « A Handbook of Modem Japan," by Mr. Ernest 
W. Clement. In its present form, this valuable work is 
brought thoroughly down to date by the addition of a 
chapter on the recently-ended war with Russia. There 
are two maps and many pictures. 

Messrs. E. P. Button & Co. publish a new edition 
of "The Purple Land," by Mr. W. H. Hudson. This 
charming narrative of life in South America is now 
twenty years old, but it has never had one-tenth of the 
readers it deserves, a defect which the present edition 
may help to remedy. 

"The English Dialect Grammar," by Dr. Joseph 
Wright, is published by Mr. Henry Frowde at the 
Oxford University Press. The work is half Phonology 
and Accidence, and half Index. It includes all the 
dialects of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, the 
Shetlands, and the Orkneys. 

The recent death of John Bartlett, the former Bos- 
ton publisher, but better known as the compiler of 
Bartlett's " Familiar Quotations," has brought out the 
statement from his publishers that nearly a quarter of 
a million copies of this work have been sold since the 
first edition was published in 1855. 

Two interesting numbers of the " Columbia Univer- 
sity Germanic Studies " now at hand give us " Laurence 
Steme in Germany," by Dr. Harvey Waterman Thayer, 
and « Types of Weltschmerz in Grerman Poetry," by Dr. 
Wilhelm Alfred Braun. Hdlderlin, Lenau, and Heine 
are the poets selected for treatment in the last-named 

"Friedrich Schiller: A Sketeh of his Life and an 
Appreciation of his Poetry," by Dr. Paul Carus, is an 
illustrated volume partly reprinted from " The Open 
Court," and now published from the office of that 
periodical. It is a book of popular character, and very 
interesting in its presentation of the subject, to say 
nothing of the many illustrationB. 

Mr. Ernest W. Clement, well known for his books 
on Japan, and especially his « Handbook of Modem 
Japan," has been appointed Acting Interpreter of the 
United States Legation at Toyko. Mr. Clement has 
the confidence of the Japanese government as few 
Americans have, chiefly the result of a long residence 
in Japan, and an exceptional understanding of the 
Japanese mind and habit of thought. Messrs. A. C. 
McClurg & Co. announce that they will issue next year 
a new edition of Hildreth's << Japan, Old and New," 
revised to date by Mr. Clement, with an interesting 
introduction by Dr. William Elliot Griffis. 




Topics ix LiIcabing Periodicals. 

January, 1906, 

American DiploniAcj. Francis C Lowell. Atlantic. 
BaUoois, Turkey va. Snrope in the. Review af Reviews, 
Oaddls-Wonn. The Nei-Makinff. H. C. MoOook. Harper . 
Oanadian P rog Tc a a , Tear of. J. P. Gerrie. Review of Review* 
Oaraecie International Art £zhibition, The. World Today . 
Oatalytic Chemical Prooenes. B.K. Duncan. Harper, 
Ghicaco Faces, Impressions from. L. H. B. Knox. Atlantic, 
China. Awakening of. W. A. P. Martin. WorWa Work. 
China, The New. Adachi Kinnosoke. Forum. 
Chinese Boycott, The. John W. Foster. Atlantic. 
Chinese Press of Todaj. A. B. Colqnhonn. North American. 
Otdombla, Rwwaking of. B. H. Mason. World Today, 
Cotton Growers. The. Arthur W. Page. World?* Work, 
Engineer Corps in the Navy, Plea for an. North American. 
Bnrland's Unemployed. Agnes C. Laat. Review of Reviews, 
Esperanto: the Universal Language. A.8cliinz. Atlantic. 
EoTope. Premiers of. O. D. Skelton. World Today. 
Far East, Am. Democracy in. John Foreman. No, American, 
Fanning as a Business Enterprise. Review of Review*, 
Football,— Shall It Be Ended or Mended T Review of Review*. 
Football, Taming. ShaUer Mathews. World Today. 
Franklin in France. John Hay. Century. 
Franklin's Trials as a Benefactor. Emma Bepplier. lAppineott, 
Qhoat in Fiction. The. T. B. Sullivan. Atlantic. 
Hungmrian Emigration Law. Louis deL6vay. North American. 
Indian Music of South America. C. J. Post. Harper. 
Indian's Yoke, The. Frances C Sparhawk. North American. 
Vnmarmnert Millions, Irresponsible. World?* Work, 
Insaraaoe, State, New Zeahmd. W. P. Beeves. No. American. 
Irvine, Henry. An Impression of. E. 8. Nsdal. Scribner, 
Japan. Financial, after the War. Baron Shibusawa. Forum. 
Japan, Leaders of. Mary C. Fraeer. WorUV* Work. 
Labor Union, Beforming a. V. E. Scares. World Today, 
Legislation. Special. Samuel P. Orth. Atltmtie. 
liberals. Victory of the. W.T. Stead. Review of Review*. 
Locin CatOff . The. Oscar K. Davis. Century. 
Mexioo^ City of. Legends of the. T. A. Janvier. Harper. 
Mezioo^s Great Finance Minister. BafaelBeyes. No.Amer. 
Mormli^, Our Anxious. Maurice Maeterlinck. Atlantic. 
Northwest, The Great. Cyrus Northrop. World Today. 
Paris, Aiwericanlitatlon of. A. H. Ford. World Today. 
Politics, Honest. Great Victory for. W. MacVeagh. No. Amer. 
Porto Bico Industrial P r o gr e s s . Beekman Wlnthrop. No. Amer. 
Porto Bloo, Our Experience in. World** Work. 
Powers, The, and the Settlement. T. F. Millard. Scribner. 
PniacB, The, Edward K. Broadus. Atlantic, • 
Qnay. Fall of. I. M. Maroosson. World** Work. 
Bailwar Bates and Industrial Progreas. S. Spencer. Century. 
Bate-Making by Congressional Committee. North American. 

Bussia's Economic Future. Wolf von Schierbrand. Forum. 

Scientific Besearch Organization. Simon Newcomb. No, Amer. 

8ca Voyagers of the North. A. C. Laut. Harper, 

Senate, The— of Special Interests. World** Work. 

South America, What People Bead in. Review of Review*, 

Southwestward March, The. French Strother. World** Work. 

State, Bedeveloping an Old. Review of Review*. 

Strikes and Lockouts of 190S. V. S. Yarros. Review of Review*. 

Sondns. a —Is it a Menace or Security T Lippincott. 

Taft Commission, Outcome of the. J. A. LeBoy. World Today, 

Telephone, The Far-Flung. Balph Bergengren. World Today, 

Territories. Last of the. M. O. Cunnilf. World** Work. 

Tmsta, Plan for Begnlatlng. J. F. Cronan. North American. 

Tsar, The Beal. W. T. Stead. World Today. 

University Presidency, The. Andrew S. Diaper. Atlantic. 

Wapita. The, and his Antlers. E. Thompson Seton. Scribner. 

Winter Bouquet, A. Frank French. Century. 

liiST OF "Surw Books. 

[Tke foUawing list, containing 67 title* , includes books 
received hg Tbm Diai, sines its last issue.] 


BoooUactioiUi. By William O'Brien, M.P. With photo- 
gravore portraits, large 8vo. gilt top. pp. 61S. Macmillan 
Co. 18.50 net. 

Portraits of the Sighteenth Oentnry, Historic and Lit- 
erary. By C. A. Sainte-Benve: trans, by Katharine P. 
Wormeley : with critical introduction by Sdmond Scherer. 
In 2 vols., illus.. large 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. Per vol., |2.fi0 net. 

Jnliaoi the Apo rt a t a. By Gaetano Negri; trans, from the 
second Italian edition by the Duchess LittapVisoontl.Arese: 
with introduction by Professor Pasquale Villari. In 2 vols., 
illus. in photogravure, etc., large 8vo. gilt tops, uncut. 
Charles Bcribner's Sons, IS. net. 

The Ufb of 8ir Hanry Vaaa, the Tomiffer; with a History 
of the Events of his Time. By William W. Ireland. Blus., 
8vo, uncut, pp. 618. Edinburgh : Oliver ft Boyd. 

Vildnga of the Padflo: The Adventures of the Explorers 
Who Csme from the West, Eastward. By A. C. Laut. Illus., 
12mo, gilt top, pp. 840. Macmillan<k>. 12. net 

John Fletoher Hnxst. By Albert Osbora. nius., 8vo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 600. Eaton A Mains. 12. net 

Aagnatna: The Life and Times of the FMmder of the Boman 
Empire (B.a 88— A.D. 14). By E. S. Shnckbnigh, Litt D. 
nius.. ISmo, pp. 818. A.WesselsCo. tl.60net 

The Xemoriea of Boae Bytlnee: Being Becollections and 
Observations of Men, Women, and Events during Half a 
Century. Dlus., 12mo, pp. 811. Frederick A. Stokes Co. 
$L30 net 

Bnoaall H. Oonwell, Founder of the Institutional Churdi in 
America: The Work and the Man. By Agnes Bush Burr; 
with introduction by Floyd W. Tomkins, D.D. Blus., 12mo. 
pp. 866. John C. Winston Co. $L. 


Salve Venetia: Gleanings from Venetian History. By Francis 

Marion Crawford : illus. by Joseph PennelL In 8 vols., 8vo, 

gilt tops. Macmillan Co. 
8al]0ra' NaxxatiTea of Voyages along the New England Coast 

1694-1624. With notes by Goorge Parker Winship. lAige 

8vo, uncut pp. 282. Houghton, Bilfllln A Co. IB. net 
A History of XodemBngrlaad. By Herbert Paul. VoLIV., 

large 8vo, gilt top, uncut PP. 400. Mafanillan Co. IBJSO net 
The AboUtioniata. Together with Personal Memories of the 

Struggle for Human Bights, 1880-64. By John F. Hume. 

12mo,pp.224. G. P. Putnam's Sons. tl.26net 


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THE DIAL, rtne ArU Buildino, Chieaoo, 


iTo. m. 

JANUARY 16, 1906. 

VU. XL. 




. 31 



Mp. Swinbnnie'g Poetry. Henry S. Faneoatt. 


Percy F. Bicknett 37 

ATURE. Jotiah Reniek Smith 39 


Cutting 41 


Hdoiee Abel 45 


Thomat H. Macbride 47 


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It is hardly in accord with the national tem- 
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the cultural atmosphere. Few are weatherwise 
in such matters; and the influences that are 
precipitated upon the street from these tenuous 
realms make little impression in contrast with 
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their management, reflect the national optimism 
that does not deal kindly with Cassandras of 
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momentarily hushed, our choice goes out to the 
presumably cheerful if deluded ostrich rather 
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American discovery. 

One need not incur the odium of suggesting 
that the brains of the nation are segregated in 
the institutions of learning by recognizing that 
our Colleges and Universities represent the best 
organized provisions for keeping aglow the torch 
of culture and handing it on with undiminished 
brilliance to those that come after. In the 
aggregate, the effect produced upon the intel- 
lectual ideals and activities of the race by the 
influences that find origin and support in Uni- 
versity centres is sufiBcient to impart a national 



[Jan. 16, 

significance to any conditions that seriously 
affect the academic welfare. The gathering 
clouds betoken that the storm is likely to break 
most centrally over the discussion of the rela- 
tions of furtherance or hindrance that have come 
to exist between the administrative provisions 
for maintaining the life of Universities and the 
underlying purposes for which Universities ex- 
ist. On so broad a question it doubtless behooves 
one to be content with moderate sympathy of 
aim and to be reconciled to some differences in 
measures. The response of mingled approval 
and dissent that woidd go out to any worthy 
pronoimcement anent this issue, would probably 
not have been sufficiently disturbing to ex- 
change silence for speech ; but when a singularly 
specious and unwholesome utterance upon the 
subject of the University Presidency finds place 
in a company where all places are honorable, 
we confess to a reaction of protest that will out. 
The catchword under which "The Atlantic 
Monthly " — usually a reliable fount of good 
sense, graceful statement, and enlightening 
ideals — heralds this untimely message, is itself 
irritating. " Why professors shoidd teach and 
not administrate " has a suspicious soimd ; and 
it is not unexpected to find that the real issue 
thus evasively presented is whether the Uni- 
versity Professor is to be a helpless hireling 
who cannot call his soid his own, or whether he 
is to be an independent scholar whose needs are 
properly met and whose services are fitly 
esteemed ; whether he is to find at hand, or 
himself aid to develop, an environment in which 
the academic spirit can live and have a being, 
or whether he must be sadly content to expend 
his life-efforts under conditions needlessly un- 
favorable to the fruitage of what it lies in him 
to bear. It is the ever-vital question of what 
shall be first and what last, or even second. 
Compromise cannot always be in one direction 
without the complete surrender of one interest ; 
and fairy godmothers cannot be counted upon to 
intervene to restore Cinderellas to their proper 
station. The practical man of affairs has a 
peculiar prejudice in favor of holding a con- 
trolling interest ; and the real question at issue 
is how far those who best appreciate the needs 
of academic welfare shall be entrusted with the 
means of converting their knowledge into power. 
The view set forth with Philistine unconcern 
for its justice or its significance is that profes- 
sors are rather an unruly lot, troubled with ill- 
assorted notions of their own, that make them 
perversely insensitive to the categorical imperar 
tive of ijispired legislation, or the divine vica- 

rage of favored millionaires. In some cases they 
have been known to refuse pottage even when 
offered upon a silver platter. Such blindness 
to the real interests of the University argues 
congenital defect in the clan as a whole. And 
when it comes to such a pass that Faculties 
protest against what they choose to call the de- 
moralizing influences of gate-receipts and grand- 
stands, wUf ully negligent of the fact that this 
is the readiest way in which the University can 
get its name in Uie papers, it is certainly high 
time that the professor shall be kept busy teach- 
ing, while some wiser man, who can properly 
understand what the people want, shall direct 
the affairs of state. 

The academic " boss " is frankly advocated 
as the proper head for a University in a demo- 
cratic land. Foreign exemplars in which Facul- 
ties so largely control their own affairs, are all 
misleading, because in the first place in their 
ignorance these benighted institutions have not 
discovered the simple efficacy of the " win-at-any- 
cost " one-man power, and because in this country 
the man who buys a ticket has the right to dictate 
how his Shakespeare shall be performed. Might 
is not only right ; but the highest truth lies in 
the recognition of the special providence that 
reigns over our brave and free domain by which 
the mere gift of power always brings with it 
the highest measure of wisdom. If a Univer- 
sity cannot be conducted upon business prin- 
ciples by business men, it defies the national 
gods and must await its doom. Yet it seems at 
least a plausible position that the concerns of a 
University are a^ individual as any other enter- 
prise, and that some sympathetic insight into 
the purposes and aims of such an institution is 
a prerequisite for participating in its adminis- 
tration. This central moment of the situation, 
this supreme directive principle, the autocratic 
policy does not wholly ignore ; but it regards it as 
a secondary requirement, an easily-gained accom- 
plishment, that may be learned when occasion 
offers, or better, may be determined by a popular 
referendum. The annual Freshman crop will 
tell you whether flie University is filling its 
mission. All that ia needed to send the busy 
hum of culture abroad in the land is the " push" 
of some clever manager of the University de- 
partment store, sharp enough to observe which 
counters are crowded, and where the popular 
salesmen are to be found, and to secure their 
services for the least pay and the maximum sub- 
servience. Great is the reward of results ! and 
to him to whom students are not given, let his 
professorship be taken away ! Let us raise the 




salaiy of the professor of seientific horseshoeing, 
and tske away from the professor of Greek what 
little he hath ! 

But in all seriousness, there is really some- 
thing to be said for the autocratic President ; 
but it can be acceptably said only by one who 
has an underlying sympathetic insight into the 
real needs of the academic life and who is pro- 
foundly regretful, if he chance to be a Univer- 
sity President, that he cannot more abundantly 
supply the conditions that he knows should ex- 
ist, and to the realization of which his efforts are 
consistently directed. So long as he advocates 
the gagging of the professor and then jeers at 
him for his helplessness, the insult that he adds to 
injury but emphasizes his unfitness for academic 
administration. The traits of the individual 
that in this view are set forth as desirable for 
academic leadership are radically incompatible 
with the kinds of results that are held out as the 
desirable ends of his administration. With these 
ideals we have but modest disagreement. They 
are worthy ideals in part, but are expressed wilji 
that vagueness of form and fervor of utterance 
that is deemed the proper tone to assume when 
the gallery is in attendance. It is that per- 
fectly conventional and custom-sanctioned lofti- 
ness of sentiment that the man of the street in 
the language of the street describes as finding 
expression through the unusual channel of his 
headgear. The effect of the whole is at once 
nullified when the insensibility to the real con- 
cerns of academic life appears so conspicuously 
between the lines. 

Likewise is there much to be said in defense 
of the present caste of the University Presi- 
dency. The powers which that official has come 
to exercise are in part the issue of circumstafices 
that are r^rettable but inevitable in so new a 
eulture as ours. There is much to commend, 
and more freely to excuse in the manner in 
which the office has been filled, and in the dic- 
tatorial aspect that it has assumed in our 
educational development. But to glorify these 
shortcomings of our immaturity, and to derive 
a model for the future from the misfortunes of 
the past, is wholly to misread the evolutionary 
lesson. Those who have both an interest in and 
a knowledge of academic concerns will be the 
first to acknowledge the honor that is due to 
the President and to express appreciation of his 
actual services. But this tribute is brought to 
the man who makes the best of his opportun- 
ities, who does not confuse might with right, or 
the feasible with the desirable. Worthy and 
practical compromise soils no man's hands ; but 

when the birthright is bartered for servility, 
and the sacrifice of ideals is the price of material 
advance, the spirit of corruption is astir and is 
none the less vicious for being cleverly or loftily 
disguised. As a matter of fact, it is simply im- 
possible that the interests of the cultural life 
should be safeguarded by any others than those 
whose lives are devoted to such pursuit. This 
does not mean that leadership and organization 
and practical measures shall not find due place; 
but it does mean that Boards of Trustees can- 
not decide what ends Universities are to accom- 
plish, and then engage expert agents to carry 
out their decisions. 

The proper relation of Trustees, Facidty, 
and President is too large and too technical a 
question to be here discussed. Our concern is 
with the dignity of the academic life and the 
furtherance of academic welfare. Administra- 
tive measures can do much to make or mar the 
conditions under which the academic life is to 
be lived. At present there is grave danger that 
what little honor and reward is left to this 
career will be lost to the next generation through 
the spectacle of the harsh adversities that beset 
the undaimted or misguided enthusiasts that 
still gather in the quadrangle. The most seri- 
ous menace lies in that spirit of dependent ac- 
countability that dominates the professorial 
career in an American institution, and to which 
Mr. Pritchett has called timely attention. The 
academic peace came as a heritage to the past 
but not to the present generation ; the academic 
freedom, not mainly of professional speech, but 
the pursuit of life with reasonable fre^om from 
harrassing restraint, is rapidly declining. No 
single influence is more intimately responsible 
for the decline than the unsuitable nature of 
University administration, that appears con- 
spicuously in the inconsiderate autocracy in 
which the President may legally indulge. The 
benevolent despot may justify means by ends ; 
but the more likely issue that has actually oc- 
curred is the sacrifice of the professor to the 
demands for material advance under presidential 
ambition for results that shall dazzle the crowd. 
It must likewise be admitted that the entire 
range of influences that shape educational opin- 
ion has cooperated to bring to the Presidency 
the type of individual that mildly or aggressively 
assumes the role that it is his due and duty to 
assume, if the text of the " Atiantic " article is 
to prevail. In this very circumstance lies the 
weakness and misfortune of the usual provisions 
for academic administration. That these issues 
have naturally resulted from the hurried devel 



[Jan. 16, 

opment of our cultural progress, we entirely 
agree. But the further conclusion that the 
writer draws, that these things are right because 
they are so, is an open bid for a fool's paradise. 
The equipment of knowledge, sensibilities, and 
interest that makes a man an educator is not 
that displayed in a business meeting of the 
Trustees, or in the pompous appearance before 
intimidated teachers ; it is so unrelated to these 
that it must be the rarest chance to find a man 
of ripe educational endowment both able and 
willing to give so much of his energies to matters 
only incidentally belonging to his true mitier. 
And the hopeful solution for present difficulties 
lies in the very spirit in which the really worthy 
University President takes up his work, and as 
well in the further fact that more and more 
generally is fitness for such high office appraised 
with reference to such intrinsically academic 
qualities. Just how significant tins brighter 
light along the horizon may be, and how cer- 
tainly it heralds the dispersal of the clouds, 
those given to meteorological prophecy may 

Doubtless all this seems a needlessly severe 
arraignment of what is obviously a well-inten- 
tioned effort. As a sporadic indication of one 
man's view of which way the wind is blowing 
and of how we should trim our sails to take 
advantage thereof, it deserves no more consid- 
eration than attaches to the opinion thus ex- 
pressed. But reputations are not such simple 
affairs ; and the sponsorship of the " Atlantic" 
places these pages in the public eye with the 
prestige of representing a commendable aspect 
of intellectual ideals. It is this phase of the 
situation that has dispelled a very natural im- 
pulse to hold our peace, and without seizing 
the controversial pen to await a fitting oppor- 
tunity to replace what is regarded as a false 
ideal by a worthier one. If this seems unfair 
to the editorial liability of the " Atlantic," let 
it be recalled that it has ever been the lot of 
Atlas to bear the burden of the world upon his 
shoulders, and that the editorial, like the pro- 
fessorial, responsibility is great. 

A BUNDLE of « Simples from Sir Thomas Browne's 
Garden," gathered by Mr. Harry Christopher Minchin, 
is an appropriate publication of the tercentenary year 
of Browne's birth. All of the author's books are rep- 
resented in the selections, and the volume can hardly 
fail to accomplish its compiler's purpose of suggesting 
" to even a few readers some conception of the spiritual 
depth, mental luminosity, and moral sweetness which 
were united in the personality of Sir Thomajs Browne." 
Mr. B. H. Blackwell, of Oxford, publishes the book. 


The annual reports upon Continental literature, 
hithei-to collected in a single issue of ^'Tbe Ath&- 
n»um," are now presented upon a new plan, being 
published one at a time in separate numbers of that 
periodical. Reports from Germany, Russia, and 
Spain have thus far appeared in the current series, 
and these we now summarize for the benefit of 
American readers. 

Dr. Ernst Heilborn, who writes of Grerman liter- 
ature, confines his attention to criticism, poetry, the 
drama, and the novel. He puts criticism first be- 
cause he thinks that it *^ stands at the present mo- 
ment on a higher level than purely creative work. 
Its authors display a more vigorous and pronounced 
personality, it is more individual in expression, and 
its style has more colour." The works of three 
Berlin critics are chosen for discussion, Herr Paul 
Croldmann's ^'Aus dem Dramatischen Lrgarten," 
Herr Alfred Kerr's " Das Neu^ Drama," and Herr 
Felix Poppenberg's « Bibelots." *< From the obscure 
and eddying dance of shadows these three literary 
personalities step forth and stand before us clear 
and firm in outline." Herr Goldmann stands for 
specifically French ideals, and urges '< the necessity 
of returning to a definite and approved stage- 
technique." He is also ^' the sworn foe of naturalism 
in its German development, and is possessed by an 
ardent desire for grandeur, passionate action, colour, 
and form." Herr Kerr is also ^^ rooted in roman- 
ticism," and his influence has been <' largely instru- 
mental in dethroning naturalism." Herr Poppen- 
berg also '^ consciously set his affections on roman- 
ticism from the very first, and has always been the 
opponent of realism with its lack of colour." This 
similarity of attitude on the part of all three toward 
the chief literary controversy of the day is certainly 
remarkable, and shows us that the romantic cause is 
by no means in so desperate a case as some of its 
foes would have us believe. In verse, nothing very 
important is chronicled. There are the collected 
poems of Otto Erich Hardeben, who has just died, 
the '< Reigen Sch5ner Frauen " of Herr Otto Hauser, 
<< Die Yier Jahreszeiten " of Herr Frank Wedekind, 
and the "Galgenlieder" of Herr Christian Morgen- 
stern. The two books last named belong to the 
category of fantastic or grotesque art The litera- 
ture of the drama is notable for its reshaping of 
borrowed material. Herr Beer-Hofmann's tragedy, 
^' Der Graf von Charolais," is a free adaptation of 
Massinger's "The Fatal Dowry"; Herr von Hof- 
mannsthal's "Das Gerettete Venedig" is likewise 
founded on Otway's "Venice Preserved," while 
even Herr Hauptmann's new dream-play, "EUga," 
takes its subject from one of Grillparzer's tales. 

"This is the story of a Polish ooantew who plays her 
husband false with die oomrade of her youth. We see the 
count tormented by doubts and f eais ; his suspicion beoomea 
a certainty, and he confronts his wife with her paramoiur in 
the very spot where they have sinned. The latter eonfo— oa 
their guilt, while she denies it. There is but one way, declares 




her liuibaBd peremptorily, by whieh ahe can aaye her life : 
file miut kill with her own hand the ohUd that has been be- 
gotten in adultery. At the moment^ howerer, when ahe is 
actually preparing for this inhuman deed, her hnsband strikes 
her down. For thia anVjeot, f nU of horrors as it is, Hanpt- 
mann has choeen the form of a ** dream-play **; it is presented 
inasnies of risions seen by a German knight who has taken 
refuge in die Polish cloister." 

Other plays are ^'Die Bauerin," by Frau Clara 
Viebig; ''Die MorgenrOte" (the story of Lola 
Montez in Munich), by Herr Josef Ruederer; 
'"Biederleute," by Herr Robert Misch; "Die Sieb- 
lehnjahrigen," by Herr Max Dreyer; ''Nebenein- 
ander," by Herr Georg Hirschfeld; ''Maskerade," 
by Herr Lndwig Fulda"; and ''Im Grttnen Baum 
m Naehtigall," the last work of Hardeben. A 
corioos trick of this writer and some others, show- 
ing to what straits a straining for novelty may carry 
writers, is thus described : 

^ llieir method is to employ a strictly realistic teeatment 
la the eariier acts of a drama, and so obtain a comic effect in 
the portrayal of laughable characters and sorronndings, and 
then, when the original comedy begins to drag, to transform 
it on a sodden into tragedy. Anything more inartistic than 
tiiis it woold be hard to oonceive, for every tragic effect 
thould be led op to by causes inherent in the theme proposed.** 

Taming to fiction^ we find interesting notes upon a 
number of books, but no description of anything 
highly important Herr Hans Mttller's " Buch der 
Abenteuer" ''makes an attempt to reviye the old 
Italian tale in the manner of Boccaccio." Frau 
Biccarda Huch's " Seif enblasen " again shows that 
talented writer to be "a genuine and original roman- 
ticist." Herr Otto Hauser's " Lucidor der Unglttck- 
liche" embodies Groethe's ideal that "we should 
fashion life itself into a work of art" Herr Lud- 
wig Thoma's " Andreas Yost " describes a little Bar 
Tarian community with notable vigor and descrip- 
tiTe talent Herr Jakob Wassermann's "Alexander 
in Babylon " is a brilliant piece of historical romance 
which does not, however, realize the full significance 
of its theme. Dr. Heilbom's general comment on 
the year's output is put in a sentence of admirable 
troth that might, indeed, be applied to many other 
countries besides Grermany. 

**If I had to characterize the literatore of the past year in 
a few words, I should say that far too many literary fashions, 
wUeh lead only to confosion, are followed, and there is a 
enwimneiit lack of that natveti which by the simplest means 
esn Aape an imwr, personal experience into a work of art" 

Mr. Valerii Briusov, who writes from Russia, 
begins his report as follows : 

" It is impoanble to say that titersry life in Rnaria has 
been developed in orthodox fashion during the last twelve 
months, llie attention of all society has been so much 
occupied by the war with Japan and the rerolntionary move- 
ment in the country, that readers were not likely to be in- 
financed by purely literary developments. On the other 
hand, ennent events have had their influence on literature, 
if we take that expression in its widest sense." 

Among the effects of this influence may be noted 
many translations of works upon political subjects, 
and the greater freedom of discussion resulting from 
a relaxed censorship of the press. Russian publicists 
eaU this new breadi of freedom the " Spring," and 
it has brought into free circulation such formerly 

contraband books as the works of Herzen, Tscher- 
nishevski, and the poet Ogariev. The most impor- 
tant event in contemporary literature has been the 
completion of Mr. Merezhkovski's "Peter and 
Alexis," the concluding section of the great " Christ 
and Antichrist " trilogy. 

"In the whole work the author exhibits a vast labour, 
which shows his great erudition. In his talent he is rather 
an essayist than a poet The chapters devoted to the ohar- 
aoteri2ation of the great Russian emperor are magnificent — 
a wonderful, and at the same time portentous, portraiture of 
the g^iant Tsar. The remaining oluipters furnish living pic- 
tures of various sides of Russian life at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. The language of the novel is condensed, 
carefully elaborated, and shows a good style. But Merezh* 
kovski has not produced an artistic whole. He has not 
brought into comjilete form the material which he has col- 
lected; he has been prevented by his desire to show that 
Peter destroyed the Russian Church. The novel is not a 
shapely, well-proportioned statue, oonoeived by one artistic 
survey, but a museum of curiosities and mosaics.** 

Mr. AndreVs "The Red Laughter" is a tale deal- 
ing with "the terrors of war and the madness of 
the masses." It is a psychological study rather than 
an epic picture. Mr. Sologub has surpassed him- 
self in a book of " dainty little parables, recalling the 
fables of the East or the tales of Andersen." In 
"The Return," by Mr. A. Bieli, 
*' The strict continuity of our life is mingled with the illogi- 
cality of dreams, and is turned into a disconnected and mon- 
strous chaos ; the conditions of time and space are, as it were, 
obliterated, and dizziness seizes the reader, as at the hegtmaag 
of an earthquake." 

"The Duel," a novel by Mr. I. Euprin, is "a tale of 
military life, representing the emptiness and petti- 
ness of the lives of Russian officers." A few short 
stories and a play by " Maxim Gorky " have not 
been particularly successful, and the influence of this 
writer seems to be declining. An extraordinary 
example of the closet drama is " Tantalus," by Mr. 
Ivanov, which, in the opinion of our critic, the an- 
cients would certainly have crowned. Lyrical verse 
is exemplified by the new volumes of Mr. Balmont, 
Mr. Block, and Mr. Dobruliobov. 

Don Rafael Altamira, writing of Spanish lit- 
erature, gives a lengthy list, as usual, of works in 
the fields of serious scholarship. Among these we 
note the varied literature of the Don Quixote ter- 
centenary, including an important address by Sefior 
Menendez y Pelayo, and a posthumous essay by 
Juan Yalera, and many other books of Cervantes 
criticism, biography, philology, and bibliography. 
So much space is taken up by this enumeration that 
litde is left for the miscellaneous output of the year. 
In fiction, there is " La Quimera," by Sefiora Bazdn ; 
" La Bodega," by Sefior Ibifiez ; " Aurora Roja," by 
Sefior Baroja ; and three new volumes of " £pisodios 
Nacionales," by Sefior Galdds. In the drama, there 
are new plays by Sefior Eehegaray and Sefior 
Galdds, but " the leading names among the drama- 
tists are those of the brothers Quintero and of the 
Catalan Iglesias." Castilian poetry has recently un- 
dergone a grave loss in the death of Gabriel y GaUn, 
a " young poet whose verses express the very essence 
of the Castilian country-side." 



[Jan. 16, 


(To the Editor of Thb Dl4i^) 

The editorial article in your last number, entitled 
"A Poet for Poets," suggests several interesting 
questions. As I have no especial knowledge of Mr. 
Swinburne's work, I shall not attempt to answer these 
questions, but I should be glad of an opportunity to 
submit some of them to you and to your readers. 

You assert in effect that Mr. Swinburne's poetry is 
still grotesquely misunderstood by a « large section of 
the public," and you imply that this mismiderstanding 
is due "to ignorance and prejudice." You complain 
that he is misjudged because " sound and fury, debased 
sensualism, and vacuity of thought are honestly sup- 
posed by many well-meaning people to be essential 
attributes of his work." You seek to refute such a view 
by referring these "well-meaning people" to certain 
poems, which in your opinion show severity of style, or 
idealism, or depth of Uiought; and you conclude that 
those who disagree with you have either never read 
Swinburne's significant work, or that, having read it, 
they are impervious to the appeal of pure poetry. 

Now I may not entirely agree with Uiese "well- 
meaning people," but I confess that my sympathies go 
out towards them. Let us state their case a Httle more 
moderately, and I believe a little more correctly, and 
then ask ourselves if it has not at least an element of 

Take their contention that Mr. Swinburne's poetry 
as a whole is lacking in depth, power, and originality of 
thought. It is not a convincing answer to this charge 
to be referred to two poems, which occupy possibly 
eighteen pages out of the eighteen hundred or two 
thousand printed pages of the complete edition of Mr. 
Swinburne's poems. Whether these particular poems 
exhibit depth of thought or not, is beside the mark. In 
actual fact it happens that one of the two examples is 
a poor one, — for Uiere is nothing either new or profoimd 
in the chief thought of " Hertha." The leading idea 
in this poem had been already used by Emerson in his 
" Brahma," and in places Swinburne follows Emerson 
'v^th surprising closeness. If you contend that " Her- 
tha " is a fine poem, we agree with you most fully; but 
if you point to it as a contribution to thought, we reply 
that it is no more a contribution to thought than Her- 
rick's injmiction « Grather ye rosebuds while ye may " 
. is an original contribution to philosophy. Again, if 
" well-meaning people " complain of an unwholesome, 
feverish, and morbid atmosphere in Mr. Swinburne's 
so-ealled love poems, it does not satisfy them to be told 
that in one short poem of a different class, " The Pil- 
grims," there is "austere idealism." The opposition 
may, I think, properly ask, in what poem or poems has 
Mr. Swinburne written of love not as a delirious pagan 
but as a high-minded gentleman, as Dante wrote of it 
in the " Vita Nuova," or Shakespeare in Sonnet CXVI., 
as W^ordsworth wrote of it at rare moments, or Brown- 
ing, or Tennyson, or Bums ? 

Permit me to make one suggestion in conclusion. 
There is a very simple way of meeting the charge that 
Mr. Swinburne's poetry is greater in manner than in 
matter, in melody and in verbal cunning than in any 
solid substratum of thought. I have seen in more than 
one recent criticism the unsupported assertion that Mr. 

Swinburne was a profound thinker; what I should like 
to see would be some specific statement of the exact na^ 
ture of his contribution to thought. What answer does he 
give to the eternal riddles of tiie World-Sphinx ? Is it 
a thoughtful, a cheering, or a wholesome answer ? What 
is the nature of the " ethical inspiration " we are said to 
receive from his poetry ? He is known as the poet of 
Liberty, — what has he contributed to the world's thought 
on the complex question of human freedom ? Has he 
added one jot of sober thought to the lyric rhapsodies of 
Shelley, or to the blind revolt of Byron ? Has he ever 
approached the wisdom of Coleridge's treatment of this 
subject in the latter's ode on " France "? Has he, in 
brief, shown himself prof ounder than the lightest-brained 
enthusiast or the traditional Irishman who is always 
" agin the government " ? 

I believe that an answer to these questions would be 
a real help to many. It would help them to judge of 
the justice of Mr. Coventry Patmore's declaration that 
in reading Mr. Swinburne's poetry it is " impossible not 
to feel that there has been some disproportion between 
his power of saying tlungs and the things he has to say.'* 
I should like to see these and kindred questions dis- 
cussed temperately and without recrimination; and I 
should like the discussion to be based on the quality 
and character of Mr. Swinburne's poetry us a whole; 
remembering, on the one hand, that it is easy to imder- 
value his great gifts, and that, on the other, it is easy, 
— as Mr. Saintsbury warns us, — to be betrayed into an 
" uncritical admiration " of his work. 

Henrt S. Pancoabt. 
Hartford^ Conn,, Jan. 11, 1906, 

[We print this communication, although it seems 
to do no more than repeat the shallow objections 
that have been voiced ad nauseam by many other 
unsympathetic critics. The points it makes are so 
worn that they have become blunt. To say with 
Professor Woodberry that Mr. Swinburne is "a 
very thoughtful poet " is the exact truth, but it does 
not mean that he is a poet who has made serious 
original contributions to thought What poet may 
be named who has done such a thing? It is not the 
poet's business to frame formal philosophies. But 
we believe that Mr. Swinburne's work as a whole is 
as weighty, from the intellectual point of view, as 
that of any of his contemporaries. That is, it shows 
him to have thought clearly and steadily upon quite 
as many subjects, and to have as definite a body of 
opinions, as ike best of them. Whether his answer 
to the "eternal riddles" is a "cheering" one or not 
is beside the mark. It is also beside the mark to 
censure him for not having approached a given sub- 
ject in exactly the temper of some other poet with 
whom the critic is more in sympathy. It would be 
easy enough to give the lists of poems and passages 
which our correspondent calls for, if our present 
space permitted. In naming one or two poems as 
typical, we by no means implied that there were not 
others of equal significance. And we regret to notice 
the evidences of unconscious prejudice ("delirious 
pagan," "lightest-brained enthusiast," "traditional 
Irishman") that bear out the writer's admission 
that he has " no especial knowledge of Mr. Swin- 
burne's work." — Edr.] 




t '^tio §00b. 

Autobiography of an Irish Patriot.* 

Quickness of wit, readiness of resource, 
buoyancy of disposition, love of fun, warmth 
of heart, courage in the face of really appalling 
danger, fortitude in the most trying adversity, 
loyalty to friends, generosity to enemies, and 
above all an ardent love of country, — these 
and other qualities more or less characteristic 
of the impulsive, indomitable Irishman are re- 
vealed in ibe self-portraiture, or " Recollections," 
of Mr. William O'Brien, M.P. With a Celtic 
unwillingness to take over-much thought for the 
morrow, he spends his money as fast as he earns 
it, as he frankly tells us, but scrupulously avoids 
debt, and keeps no bank aecoimt because there 
is nothing to account for. In the words of 
Horace, with whose verses he shows himself 
not unfamiliar, he would doubtless say : 

" Pradens fatari temporis exitmn 
Caligmosa nocte premit dens, 
Ridetque si mortalis ultra 
Fas trepidat'* 

And, in agreement with the same poet, he would 
consistently add the wholesome caution, ^^ Quod 
adest memento componere aequus." 

Although these interesting memoirs were 
completed but six months ago, they bring the 
writer's record down only to 1883, thus leav- 
ing for future publication — or at least such 
a consummation is to be hoped for — all the 
stirring events of a fierce political and parlia- 
mentary struggle since that date, including the 
imprisonment of 1890, during which was writ- 
ten the popular story " When We were Boys." 
Leaving out of account the vexed question of 
Home Rule for Ireland, the rights or wrongs 
of Irish tenants and landlords, and all such 
matters of politics as are likely to excite in the 
reader more or less warmth of opposition or 
agreement, one cannot but pronounce the book 
a human document of unusual interest. Many 
of its details, to be sure, are such as a reader of 
no deep sympathies on either side of the great 
Irish question will omit ; and many others are 
of a nature that makes a personal acquaintance 
with the Emerald Isle necessary to iheir vivid 
realization and keen enjoyment. But enough 
remains of lively adventure, of hardship bravely 
borne, and of danger cheerfully faced, to make 
liie record stimulating and thoroughly entertain- 
ing. Perhaps a brief outline of Mr. O'Brien's 

*Rboollbctxoh8. By WUliam O'Brien, M.P. 
New York: The Macmfllsn Oo. 


eventful life will help to the better appreciation 
of his book. 

He is still what many, in defiance of Dr. 
Osier, will call comparatively young, having 
been bom in 1852. Mallow, Ck>rk County, is 
his birthplace; there and in its vicinity his 
youth was passed ; and it was this town that 
first sent him to Parliament, in 1883. Both 
father and mother, as well as two brothers and 
a sister, died in his early manhood, and the 
young man was left dependent on such mental 
equipment as a rather brief attendance at 
Qoyne Diocesan College and Queen's College, 
Cork, toge&eT with much miscellaneous read- 
ing, had enabled him to secure. The account 
he gives of his earliest schoolmaster, whom he 
calls " Attila," and of this tyrant's " heavy box 
bludgeon delicately called 'the slapper,'" re- 
minds one of Oeorge MacDonald's vivid picture 
of Murdoch Malison, known to his trembling 
subjects as '^ Murder " Mahson, and his dreaded 
taws. The literary impulse had early asserted 
itself in our author, and he took to journalism 
as a duck to water. Reporter on tibe '^ Cork 
Daily Herald," contributor to the " Freeman's 
Journal," editor of " United Ireland " and of 
*'The Irish People," he brought an untiring 
pen to the service of his country, and paid 
for his patriotism by more than two years of 
imprisonment, first and last. Indeed, he was 
prosecuted no fewer than nine times for politi- 
cal offenses. In 1898 he started a new agra- 
rian movement and founded the " United Irish 
League." Of his books, besides the one already 
named, the best-known are " Irish Ideas " and 
" A Queen of Men." He has been in Parlia- 
ment intermittently since 1883, being now, if we 
are not mistaken. Nationalist member for Cork. 

To gain an idea of the stem training to 
which the yotmg patriot-author was subjected, 
take the following picture of family disaster. 
The writer was twenty-six at the time to which 
these records of sickness and death and poverty 

« I stretched myself on the sofa in the sitting-room, 
the only room in the house where there was not some- 
body dying or dead, and tried to sleep. One familiar 
cough was now missing from the chorus. The others 
still from time to time broke through the silence of the 
house of death, but not in any especially alarming way, 
and my mother had mercifully fallen into a deep sleep 
after her long watchings. About two hours afterwards I 
was awakened from a half-sleep by a particularly violent 
explosion of coughing from the room where my younger 
brother was lying. The coughing culminated in an awful 
hollow sigh, which sounds as distinctly in my memory 
now, more than a quarter of a century after, as it did on 
that dreadful night. Then there came a silence, m6re 
terrifying a thousand times than the coughing. I would 



[Jan. 16, 

luive given anything to hear the well-known cough again. 
... It was too late to give my mother any consolation 
by awakening her, and there was always the fear of the 
effect on my poor sister, whose cough alone now broke 
the stillness, save for an occasional attack of my own. I 
sat on the bed in the dark, with the dead, until the day- 
light, which it seemed never would come, and then, as 
I heard my mother move, went in to warn her not to 
frighten my sister. From that hour the overwhelming 
sadness of human life has never quitted me. If my hair 
had not grown white, \rhen I looked in the glass, it was 
certainly another man, and a sad one, I saw there." 

As was to be expected, frequent glimpses of 
Pamell axe given in Mr. O'Brien's pages, in 
addition to t^e frontispiece portrait of the man 
with which the book is provided. A bon mot of 
Pamell's is quoted as characteristic of his hiunor. 
^^ Ireland," he declared, ^^ is too small a country 
for a rebellion. There is not enough room to 
run away." He added that " Washington saved 
America by running away. If he had been 
fighting in Ireland, he would have been brought 
to surrender in six weeks. Nowadays, with the 
railways, England could sweep the country from 
Cork to Donegal in six days." Here are a few 
passages from Mr. O'Brien's note-book : 

**Nov, 15th [1878]. Routed out at seven this morn- 
ing to g^ to "Anlee with Pamell and his fleiy cross. 
Joined him in the same carriage from Mallow, and had 
three hours' astonishingly confidential chat. Coldish 
reception in Tralee, but no colder than public feeling 
everywhere about everything just now. . . . 

** Nov, 16M. Pamell addressed a rough-and-tumble 
meeting, half farmers, half Fenians, with several tipsy 
interrupters and a preliminary alarm that the floor was 
giving way. He spoke under cruel difficulties, but flred 
them all before he sat down. . . . 

** Nov. nth. Returned by night-mail, and had end- 
less delightful glimpses of P. and of the real man. . . . 
He has captured me, heart and soul, and is bound to go 
on capturing. A sweet seriousness aufond, any amount 
of nervous courage, a delicate reserve, without the 
smallest suspicion of hauteur; strangest of all, humour; 
above everything else, simplicity; as quietly at home 
with the girls in Mallow as with his turbulent audience 
in Tralee. We exchanged no end of confidences. As 
romantic as Lord Edward, but not to be shaken from 
prosier methods. In any case a man one could suffer 
with proudly." 

Mr. O'Brien's early investigation of the Irish 
lajidlord system made him painfully familiar 
with the sufferings of the peasantry. 

« What, perhaps, was the most hateful discovery of 
all was that the poorer the land and the meeker the 
tenant, the more merciless was his rent, and the more 
diabolical the oppression practised upon him. In the 
richer parts of tiie country, the system, bred special 
evils of its own; but the Tipperary peasant living on a 
generous soil often paid little more than half the sum 
per acre that was extorted from the small holder of 
Mayo for the acre or two of similar quality which might 
be found, like an oasis, amidst the rooks and swamps 
which made up the rest of his holding. ... A more 
cruel circumstance still, the poor western, evicted from 

the fertile lands which abound in Connaught, was more 
heavily rented per acre for the miserable mountain 
patch to which he was banished than the big grazier or 
gombeen-man, in whose interest he was driven from 
his own fields, was asked to pay for them. The poorer 
landlords held the poorest parts of the country, and the 
rents were fixed not according to the poverty of the 
land or of the tenants who reclaimed it, but aooording 
to the necessities of the landlord, who did nothing for 
the land except to rack-rent and mortage it." 

Amid such descriptions of hardship, in which 
the book almost of necessity abounds, it is a 
welcome relief to meet with the following refer- 
ence to present better conditions, even though 
the paragraph is relegated to the subordinate 
position of a footnote : 

« Life has given me few happier reflections than that 
Clare Island, which I thus saw for the first time under 
all the terrors of hunger and squalid landlord oppres- 
sion, is now, owing to a train of circumstances of pecu- 
liar satisfaction to the writer, a happy community of 
peasant proprietors, free forever from the shadow of 
famine, landlordism, g^unboat, or sheriff. I had the 
happiness of seeing the steamer, in which the agent and 
sheriff used to invade the island for rent, rotting to 
pieces on the beach near Mallow Cottage [the author's 
home] , its occupation and that of the sheriff-agent be- 
ing gone." 

In a chapter entitled " A Newspaper's Fight 
for Life," the author tells of his editing " United 
Ireland " from his cell in Kilmainham Jail. An 
extract will give a hint of the peculiar situation. 

" It seems never once to have occurred to the Chief 
Secretary that the enemy against whom he waa wildly 
flinging about his warrants was all the time doing his 
work from his own jail. My brother-prisoners included 
representatives from every county in the south, east, 
and west of Ireland. They were all allowed to receive 
their local newspapers. . . . My plan was to collect 
from each of the suspects his own local paper, together 
with their private letters, received by subterranean 
agencies, giving particulars not otherwise attainable. 
In this way my cell was converted into an information 
bureau, from which I was able weekly to dispatch many 
columns of exciting details, and many columns more of 
pungent comments, so that the paper, amidst all the 
crash and chaos in its editorial rooms, its printing staff, 
and its machinery room, became a more formidable foe, 
and the object of a stronger public interest than ever. 
. . . The Ladies' Land League gave Forster an addi- 
tional grudge against their body, by drafting a body of 
sweet girl graduates into United Ireland office to take 
the plfuse of the outhiwed men; and most unselfishly 
and valiantly, for several months, they kept its accounts, 
and supplied some of its most piquant writings, and 
foiled the police raiders by a thousand ingenious fem- 
inine devices for circulating the paper." 
Then follows the story of the newspaper's wan- 
dering existence, under government interdict, 
appearing now from a London press, a little 
later from one in Liverpool, then emerging 
serenely in Glasgow, next in Manchester, and 
even for a while being printed in Paris — all 
much to the bewilderment of the British police. 




Tbe dofihig chapter brings Mr. O'Brien's his- 
tory down to his election as member for Mallow. 
'' The figures," he writes, '' weie : O'Brien 161, 
Naish 89 ; which was for Mallow a majority 
more stupefying than one of thousands would be 
in a modem London constituency." Of course 
the scene in Mallow, on the announcement of 
Uus glorious issue, was pandemonium let loose ; 
and it was late at night before the '^ chairing " 
of the successful candidate through the town 
was over. 

Mr. O'Brien's book takes rank with Mr. 
Justin McCarthy's politico-autobiographic re- 
miniscences. While its scope is narrower, its 
rividness is more intense. The author at times 
vritea, as it were, with his very heart's blood ; 
sod thus writing he cannot fail to command a 

'«*^™g- Percy F. Bicknell. 

Provence: Its History, Art, and 


The UTifailTTig charm which exhales from the 
Midi of France has never appealed in vain to sen- 
ritive imaginations. The Province of Bome is but 
dimly apprehended of the schoolboy mind, reluc- 
tantly following the campaigns of CaBsar ; to it, 
Massilia is little more than a feminine noun, and 
Shodanus a rapid river that had to be crossed 
by boat or bridge. But should the boy, in 
maturer years, be so fortunate as to visit Pro- 
vence, he sees it steeped in the light of history 
which is half romance, of mediaeval song which 
lias found its re-incarnation in the niueteenth 
eentuiy, of architectural monuments conserving 
the best traditions of Greece and Rome, and of 
a popular pride and hospitality which makes the 
traveller welcome and leaves him well-informed. 

Aside from the guide-books and other specific 
works of reference, the accounts in English of 
Proven^ history, literature, and art have been 
neither very numerous nor comprehensive. Pro- 
fessor Justin H. Smith's ^^ The Troubadours at 
Home," a scholarly work, was more nearly eon- 
oemed with the literary annab of Provence than 
with its architecture or its political history ; and 
Mr. Thomas A. Janvier's delightful papers 
stnick too personal and intimate a note to be 
wide-ranging. These two volumes of Mr. Cook's 
" Old Provence," however, attempt to acquaint 
us with the main events of about fifteen hun- 
dred years of history in a territory stretching 

*Old Pbovbncb. By TJieodore Andrea Cook,' M.A., F.8.A. 
la two Yolames. lUnstntod. New York : Charlee Scribner't 

from Carcassonne to the Kiviera. The author's 
admirable handling of the life and history of the 
ch&teaux of the Loire in his former book *^ Old 
Touraine " was a sufficient guaranty that Pro- 
vencal themes would be treated with scholarship 
and sympathy. As he reminds us in the pref- 
ace, the history of Old Provence has necessitated 
a somewhat different treatment, — 
** Only because I have had towns to deal with instead of 
castles, and because I have had far more space to cover, 
both in territory and in time, than was involved in 
describing the chfiteaux in the districts of Tours and of 
Blois. The Seine seems full of commerce and of gov- 
ernment; the Loire stiU mirrors the pleasure-palaoes of 
the VaLois court upon its golden stream; but the valley 
of the Rhone has been the highway of the nations, the 
path of conquerors, the battle-field of the invader, and 
its boatmen stiU call one bank < Empire ' and the other 
* Kingdom ' ; though the names have long ago lost all 
significance in relation either to the east or to the west- 
em shore." 

The whole of the first volume is devoted to 
the period covering the ancient history of 
Provence, and including the occupancy of the 
Phoenicians, Greeks, and Bomans, who have 
left traces on the soil of Southeastern France 
that are as remarkable, if not so numerous, as 
those to be found in Southern Italy. Readers 
who open the book unprepared by special study 
will be surprised, as they turn the pages and 
look at the many illustrations, by the abundant 
proofs of the consideration which this fair prov- 
ince enjoyed in the days of imperial Bome. We 
follow Mr. Cook with deepening interest from 
town to town, studying the stately monum^its 
which mark the victories of Marius and Caesar 
and the more peaceful glories of Augustus and 
his successors. Among these, especial attention 
is given to the beautiful ^^ pyramidal " memorial 
and arch at St. Bemy, and the more imposing 
but less pleasing arch at Orange. The theatres 
of Orange and Aries, built by Greek architects 
or imder Greek influence, are finely contrasted 
with the great amphitheatres at Nimes and 
Aries, which, only less capacious than the Colos- 
seiun at Bome, were devoted to the same bloody 
purposes. Of the few remains of Greek sculp- 
ture in Provence, Mr. Cook discusses with most 
detail the two statues of Aphrodite known as 
the Venus of Aries and the Venus of Nimes. 
To the former he gives ardent adhesion, and 
even makes her the subject of a poem in the 
Sapphic manner, prefixed to his first chapter. 

The last material trace of Greek life in Pro- 
vence is the beautiful temple at Nimes, absurdly 
called the ^^Maison Carr^." As an architect 
(Mr. Cook is an F.S. A.), the author dwells with 
loving minuteness on the chaste proportions of 



[Jan. 16, 

this little structure, ^^the greatest treasure of 
classic architecture north of the Alps "; and 
carefully explains for lay readers those yarious 
refinements and subtle irregularities which gave 
vitality to the best Greek architecture, and the 
absence of which leaves its modem imitations 
dead. He is probably right, therefore, in his con- 
clusion that ^^ this temple at Nimes was ordered 
by Bomans who had definite ideas about the 
plan they considered appropriate, but it was set 
up by an architect of the Augustan age who 
knew how to give the best efiPect to his work." 
Of strictly Roman works, we are called upon 
to admire, above arches and amphitheatres, the 
superb aqueduct near Nimes known as the Pont 
du Grard, which Mr. Cook calls the finest Roman 
aqueduct, not only of Provence, but of the 
world. He adds : 

" The three tiers of arches, as Fergusson points out, 
produce the same effect as an entablature and cornice 
upon a long range of columns, with the additional and 
stupendous feature that the whole structure spreads out 
wider and wider as it rises in height from its founda- 
tion. The full beauty of the work is therefore only 
appreciable from a little distance down the valley, 
where the sloping hills above the stream add their sup- 
porting lines to a picture which combines the majesty 
of nature with the daring skill of man. From here you 
realize how the Romans converted a merely utilitarian 
structure into an architectural screen of unrivalled 
beauty without the introduction of a single ornament 
or a single useless feature. ... By such buildings as 
this did the Romans acquire the constructive skill and 
magnificence of proportion which enabled them fear- 
lessly to plan buildingfs so vast in size, and to vault 
spaces so huge, that the impress of their maker's power 
has lasted while the rock on which they built them has 

If we have lingered on the architectural por- 
tions of the first volume, it is because they are 
distinctly the most attractive. Mr. Cook has 
felt it h^ duty to give much historical matter, 
from Hannibal to Augustus, that can be found 
in the books, and might have been condensed 
with no loss of interest and some gain in clear- 
ness. Taken as a whole, however, the volume is 
a valuable contribution to the literature of the 
subject; and being separately indexed, it may 
profitably be used by itself, without reference 
to the second volume; to which we must now 
devote a few words. 

It treats of mediaeval Provence down to its 
absorption into France in the year 1481 ; and 
contains an interesting chapter on the three 
great fortresses of the South, — Les Baux, Car- 
cassonne, and Aigues Mortes. The reason for 
including Carcassonne, which is not strictly 
within the geographical limits of Provence, is 
that "its most heroic history is inextricably 

associated with the horrors of the Albigensian 
crusade " (of which Mr. Cook proceeds to give 
us a lengthy accoimt) ; and also, that "no ex- 
cuse is needed for reminding the traveller in 
Provence that he is within reach of the most 
magnificent fortress in Europe, which has been 
held in turn by Visigoth, Frank, and French- 
man, and is now restored, by a very miracle of 
tasteful knowledge, to all the primitive splendor 
of its rugged b^uty, its isolated strength, its 
marvellou^y complex architecture." 

Avignon and its Popes, who divided with 
Rome the homage of Christendom during the 
fourteenth centi^, are given a full and com- 
prehensive chapter ; and it is only a pity that 
Mr. Cook found himself compelled, for lack of 
space as he says, to cut short his description of 
beautiful ViUeneuve. We could have better 
spared a Pope or two in order to have justice 
done to this fascinating old town, separated 
from Avignon only by " the blue rushing of the 
arrowy Rhone." 

Mr. Cook does fuU justice to Proven9al lit- 
erature and to its modem revival in the Ffli- 
bres; and quotes plentifully from Mistral, 
Aubanel, Roumanille, and the rest, generally 
with subjoined translations. From the "gay 
science " he selects and teUs the stories of C16ni- 
ence and of Aucassin and Nicollete. Good King 
Ren^ and his court dose the picture ; " as an 
honest politician, his material successes were 
not so great as those obtained by more unscru- 
pulous players in the game of kmgs. His claim 
upon posterity lies rather upon artistic and intel- 
lectual grounds ; upon the serenity he showed 
in evil fortune ; the dignity with which he faced 
defeat ; the constancy with which he died, at 
Aix, July 10, 1480, still in possession of his 
tides of inheritance and knowing that he pos- 
sessed them for the good of France." 

We gladly go with Mr. Cook on a little jour- 
ney to the beautiful valley of Vaucluse, immor- 
talized by its memories of 

'* Lovely Laura in her light green diesB, 
And faithful Petrarch glorioiuly crowned/* 

He contends, against received accounts, that 
Laura did not meet Petrarch first in a church 
at Avignon, that she never married, and that 
she died of a chill instead of the plague. 

The book is well printed ; though an obvious 
slip on page 17 of volume II. makes " favoured'* 
out of " fevered." More than a guide-book, and 
less, it is one of those aids to travel which, like 
Mr. Crawford's " Rulers of the South," should 
lie by the side of Baedeker in even the smallest 
steamer trunk. Josiah Renick Smith. 





During the year just closed, the hundredth 
anniversary of the death of Friedrieh Schiller 
brought an ahnost embarrassing wealth of 
portraits, biographies, estimates, and apprecia- 
tions of the great German dramatist, forming 
an eloquent international expression of his f ar- 
leacliing influence as man and poet. While 
Ae majority of these publications are mainly 
le-statements, in varying form, of a sort of 
standard judgment as to the poet's position in 
literature. Professor Kiihnemann's book merits 
attention as a genuine attempt to contribute to 
a re-valuation of Schiller for our own time. He 
sets himself a definite task of interpretation, 
unmixed with attempts to solve any questions 
of chronological detail, derivation, or literary 
relationship. Not that he ignores such matters, 
as miworthy of consideration ; but he assumes 
that all such questions, having any vital signifi- 
cance for his work, have already been satis- 
factorily answered. This elimination of much 
irrelevant discussion greatly simplifies and in- 
tensifies the total impression of the book. 

The central feature that unifies the author's 
discussion is the prevailing attention focused 
from first to last upon Schiller the dramatist. 
Professor Kiihneman recognizes, more clearly 
than do most critics, the essential pectdiarity of 
the poet's genius. Even in the lyrics of the 
Anthology of 1782, the occasional use of dia- 
logue, as in Hehtors Abschied^ reveals the 
antithetical and dramatic trend of Schiller's 
mind. The same capacity for perceiving ideas 
and relations spatiaQy, and in conflict with 
each other, made for Schiller the ballad-year, 
1798, so signally successful. For the ballad is 
at its best when saturated with the spirit of the 
drama. Schiller's studies in the fields of history 
and philosophy were consciously undertaken as 
a means to supply the dramatist with a solid 
sabstratum of definite knowledge. He saw in 
his own ignorance of life, present and past, the 
cause of a radical weakness of all lus early 
dramas. These were almost exclusively the 
product of an exceptionally vivid imagination 
nourished by its own fancies. Instead of taking 
Ms cue longer from the spider, which spins her 
web out of her own body, Schiller began to 
imitate the bee, which makes honey out of the 
raw material furnished by the most widely 
divergent flowers imaginable. The History 
of the Thirty Years' War, the History of the 

*8caaiusB. Von Engen Knbneiiianii. 
BeckKhe Verlags-Bnchhandlmiflr. 

Munchen: C. H. 

Revolt of the Netherlands, and other minor 
historical works, were merely the by-products 
of a mind that recognized in the drama its task 
of prime importance. The remarkable fascina- 
tion exerted upon the reader by these secondary 
works of Schiller's pen is due to his wonderful 
power of distinct visualization and to the imagi- 
nation of the bom dramatist, that transforms 
the epic past into the dramatic present. 

Professor Kiihnemann's clear perception of 
these facts leads him to a method of presentation 
that is equally just to the poet and attractive to 
the reader, llie salient features of Schiller's 
outer life-experience are given simply and ade- 
quately in a sequence dictated by the course of 
tiie poet's dramatic career. The central sub- 
ject of the first hundred pages of the book is 
Schiller's earliest drama. Die Rduher. All 
the suggestive discussion devoted to the poet's 
family, childhood, and school and academy ex- 
perience, is so shaped and timed as to stand in 
vital relation to the later consideration of the 
play. In the school compositions, philosophical 
and scientific, as also in the letters of the young 
poet, our author finds proof of an innate mental 
tendency to proceed from large generalizations 
to their concrete application. This was doubt- 
less strengthened by the whole trend of the 
KarUschule toward philosophical speculation 
and didacticism, in place of scientific experimen- 
tation and the development of individuality in 
the learner. It accepts as final truth a tradi- 
tional system of ethics, and behind this an 
equally traditional philosophy of the world. As 
a kind of reaction against tiie prevailing doc- 
trine of his teachers, we may regard Schiller's 
over-emphasis on the material and the sensual, 
as the impelling force in human life, shown in 
his medical dissertations. In this he anticipates 
the cynicism of Franz Moor in the Rduber. 

The Rduber is the most striking illustration 
conceivable of the tendency of the poet to proceed 
mentally from the abstract to the concrete. All 
efforts to portray human society and to reflect 
the world of reality are strictiy subordinated to 
the tragic conflict between human will and the 
moral law of the universe. Schiller saw this 
conflict in large outline, without confusion of 
detail ; and he succeeded, in spite of his igno- 
rance of dramatic technique and of real life, in 
giving us an impressive picture of his vision. 
Franz Moor, the blasphemous scoffer and de- 
nier, and Karl, the incensed and presumptuous 
reformer, who arrogates to himself the office 
of Providence, each meet characteristic defeat 
at the hands of the moral constitution of 



[Jan. 16, 

things. Grod is thus vindicated, and is, as Pro- 
fessor Kiihnemann says, the real hero of the 
play. The Titanic revolt and its dreadfol 
consequences are conceived by Schiller with 
such vividness and intensity as to render the 
Rauher^ in spite of a plot of inconsistencies, 
contradictions, and absurdities, the most re- 
markable first attempt of any dramatist in the 
world's history. The sins of the time, the va- 
garies in its philosophy of life, its social and 
political crimes, are, as our author points out, 
th6 objects upon which Schiller turns the 
searchl^ht of his various characters. Unlike 
Shakespeare and Hebbel, who portray the psy- 
chological steps by which an individual deviates 
from the narrow course that alone insures hap- 
piness and continued existence, Schiller sees 
men in masses and universalizes their relation to 
the fixed laws of the universe as he conceives it. 

Professor Kiihnemann presents a close and 
suggestive analysis of the play, and continues 
with adequate attention to its inner and outer 
history and to its literary congeners among the 
poet's predecessors and contemporaries. In 
approximately two hundred pages, he then fol- 
lows the development of Sichiller's art, from 
his flight from the Karhachule to his first 
residence in Weimar. Three dramas are the 
central subject of this part of the work. The 
author's sketch of the distressing and cheering 
elements of the poet's life in Stuttgart, Oggers- 
heim, Bauerbaeh, Mannheim, Leipzig, and 
Dresden, prefaces his consideration of Fiesko^ 
Kahcde und Liebe^ and Don Carlos. Due 
weight is given to the influence of persecution, 
disappointment, ill-health, friendship, love, and 
popular success, upon shaping the mind and 
work of the dramatist. 

Fiesko was conceived almost simultaneously 
with Die Rduher^ and hence is the fruit of a 
similar psychological process. Yet our critic 
calls attention to several striking difiPerences 
between these works. Die Ravher deals with 
contemporary life, and is nevertheless, in point 
of landscape, society, and individual portraits, 
almost wholly a work of the free imagination. 
Fiesko is based upon the life of the past ; and 
yet in it the poet has taken conscious pains to 
present a convincing picture of reality. The 
spirit of protest, so potent a factor in the texture 
of the Rduber, yields here to an elaborate por- 
trayal of society and the world. To match the 
gigantic protest embodied in the fantastic rob- 
bers and their symbolic day of judgment, Fiesko 
presents the idea of republican freedom. A 
coup d*Uat takes the place of the day of judg- 

ment, with a corresponding drop in pitch and 

While Karl Mocht's outraged sense of right 
and justice is the mainspring of his action, 
Fiesko^ s love of freedom is so largely mingled 
with mere passion for glory and worldly ambi- 
tion as to render him almost unworthy of tragic 
pity. The action of the Rauher is pushed to 
a point where the moral order of the universe 
stands revealed triumphant in the opposite poles 
of humanity, represented by the brothers Moor. 
Thus the disturbed equilibrium is restored* 
The fall of Fiesko^ and the continuance of the 
old regime under Andreas Doria, offer by com- 
parison but a feeble solution of the problem. A 
reason for this deterioration. Professor Kiihne- 
mann finds in Schiller's fatuous belief that a 
realistic picture of a conspiracy, prompted by 
love of republican freedom, must necessarily be 
quite as significant as the imaginative picture of 
tiie Rauher. 

Professor Kiihnemann emphasizes the success 
of the poet in giving to the motiey forms and 
tendencies of his picture of social life unity and 
the semblance of reality. But he also shows the 
unnaturally political bias of all these representa- 
tives of republican freedom. " They feel and 
act not as natural but as political human be- 
ings." They are too often but incantations of 
an abstract idea. Schiller does not yet succeed 
in creating convincing characters, capable of 
acting like real men and women of flesh and 
blood, and also of embodying his poetic inten- 
tion. He too frequentiy permits them to sub- 
stitute for the views and expressions natural to 
them either their author's comment upon them 
or high-keyed declamation of the abstract ideas 
of their creator. 

Schiller's next drama, Kabale und Idebe, 
illustrates his power of discerning the sources 
of his previous success and failure, and of apply- 
ing thiis knowledge to a new problem. After his 
doubtful experiment with Genoese history, he 
returned, in his third venture, to his own con- 
temporaneous country. Grerman society as then 
constituted, with its class distinctions and dass 
prejudices, and with its clash of class with dass, 
is the source of the tragedy in this work. The 
conflict between the natural right of a man to 
love according to the promptings of his own 
heart, on the one hand, and the world of social 
convention and prescription on the other, is the 
occasion of the action. So we have here, as in 
the Rduber^ a mighty spirit of protest, justified 
by notorious social abuses. As our critic says, if 
the poet's premise of the natural right to follow 




the lead of the heart in love is admitted, then 
the society he depicts stands convicted of crime. 
Professor Kiihnemann praises the choice of sub- 
ject^ the effective introduction, with its realistic 
picture of the Miller family, the compact and 
well-balanced structure of the drama, and the 
fuU-rounded and dignified characters of Luise 
and Ferdinand in the second half of the action. 
But he clearly sees the weaknesses of the play. 
Preponderance of theatrical instinct over clear 
poetic vision occasionally produces exigencies of 
the iutrigue quite incompatible with the character 
of the men and women involved. The intrigue, 
by remaining in the for^round, deploying its 
ugliness, and precijHtating the conflict during 
the first half of the action, condemns Luise and 
Ferdinand to passive roles, in which they fail to 
show any personality whatever. Moreover the 
persons of the intrigue are a pliant coxcomb and 
two unmitigated scoundrels. The running satire 
of the poet through their words makes clear that 
they are deliberately without conscience, ruth- 
less, and wicked. They might be otherwise, if 
they would. Hence they do not belong to the 
world of real men, whose virtues and vices are 
the necessary product of the natural law of their 
being. We miss, therefore, in their conflict with 
the children of light, that element of the inev- 
itable inseparable from the highest form of trag- 
edy. The whole remains rather a lyric cry of 
intense indignation against wanton oppression. 

In his interesting sketch of the position of 
Schiller's Kahale und Liebe in the history of 
occidental middle-class drama, from Bichardson 
through Bousseau, Lessing, etc., to Hebbel, 
Ibsen, and Gerhard Hauptmann, our author 
emphasizes the unique relation of Hebbel to 
Schiller. The tragic element of middle-class 
life, as conceived by Schiller, is not inherent in 
the life of the class as such, but hinges rather 
upon the accidental and temporal relation of 
class to class in the society and state of his own 
day ; whereas Hebbel shows, in his Maria Mag- 
dalena (1844), that the narrow relations of 
middle-class life produce inevitably a narrow- 
horizoned and strait-laced ethical consciousness 
and sense of honor, which is at once the highest 
spiritual manifestation of this range of human 
life, and, by its stem severity of judgment, the 
source of intense tragic conflicts. 

What Professor Kiihnemann says of Don 
Carlos — of its genesis, its original conception 
and the completed work, the three dramas 
within the drama, the Eboli scenes, and the 
catastrophe — is all well worth while. We can 
mention here but two points of his discussion. 

In Don CarloSj Schiller succeeds for the first 
time in dramatizing history. He sees the con- 
flict between the cause of humanity and the 
Spanish Inquisition in the serene confidence of 
his new belief in the invincible power of good 
over evil. He no longer protests as a social 
pessimist. He acknowledges the necessA«>y of 
reckoning with historical conditions and their 
upholders, as inevitable facts of life. They 
may be bad; in that case they can and must 
eventually be changed. They may not yield 
without many a tragic sacrifice of the hopes, 
aspirations, and lives of good men. And this 
fills the beholder not witih the spirit of revolt, 
but with compassion and tragic pity. Save for 
a few lapses into his old manner, Schiller draws 
the representatives of the Inquisition with as 
impartial a distribution of light and shadow as 
he does the Prince and Posa. They are all live 
men — some of them even great men. This is 
striking proof of the increasing ripeness of the 
poet's views of life and art. 

Our author takes exception to a widespread 
current view that does Schiller a double injus- 
tice. This ia the identification of Don Carlos 
with the high-water mark of the poet's dramatic 
art, and a misconception of that humanity which 
is here the object of his enthusiasm and his 
pathos. For, great as is the superiority of this 
drama over the earlier group of his tragedies, 
the gulf that separates Don Carlos from the 
creations of his full maturity is still greater. 
And the humanity which is the especial care 
and inspiration of the Prince and his friend is 
no mere abstraction, as is commonly supposed. 
It means the power and originality of the per- 
sonal life, that maintains itself and is operative 
against all benumbing and deadening forms and 
traditions. It means the right to one's self, the 
freedom of the children of God in their creative 
enjoyment of the fulness of existence. 

P^fessor Kiihnemann devotes about two 
hundred pages to the period between Schiller's 
first residence in Weimar and the completion 
of Wallenstein^ and the remainder of the book 
(something over a hundred pages) to the closing 
years of the poet's life. The well-known outer 
facts of his experience in Weimar and Jena, his 
love, friendships, and domestic life, his studies in 
history, philosophy, and the Greek drama, his 
professorship, his journalistic activity, his his- 
torical essays and philosophical poems, and his 
ballads, receive adequate attention in a natural 
sequence that is chiefly chronological. In an 
important sense, all these elements stand in a 
causal relation with that degree of maturity 



[Jan. 16, 

reflected in his later dramas. Througli the 
study of history, philosophy, and the Grreek 
stage, he came into touch with the master-mind 
of Groethe and made possible that give-and-take 
friendship which proved so stimulating and help- 
ful to both men. The earnest effort of Schiller 
to define to himself the difference between the 
natural working of his own mind and that of 
Gh)ethe proved the occasion not only of the first 
real introduction of the friends to each other, 
but also of suggestive critical studies, em- 
bodied in the essay of 1795, upon Ncdve find 
Sentitnentalische Diehtung. Schiller's obli- 
gation to Goethe is generally emphasized by the 
critics ; they sometimes overlook, or at any rate 
fail to mention, the great obligation of Goethe 
to Schiller during the eleven years of their joint 
activity. Prof essor Kiihnemann is explicit upon 
both points. He says that Schiller was brought 
by Goethe into a new relation to things, — a 
new relation to reality, — and that Goedie was 
enlightened by Schiller as to the wealth of his 
own ideas. Goethe's service consisted simply 
in meeting Schiller familiarly and giving him a 
chance to comprehend and appropriate his habit 
of looking at things objectively and securing 
concrete mental pictures of the world and of 
human life. Schiller stimulated Goethe to re- 
newed poetic activity, called his attention to 
omissions of argument or to theses that needed 
more careful elucidation, and made him aware 
of the unnoticed bearing of some earlier thought. 
And to the spur of Schiller's encouragement and 
constructive criticism we owe the completion of 
the First Part of Faust. 

Wallenstein marks the beginning of a new 
period of dramatic activity in Schiller. It is 
essentially different from aU of the poet's earlier 
tragedies and from all previous productions 
of German literature. Professor Kiihnemann 
speaks at length of the wealth of intellectual and 
emotional experience that immediately preceded 
and accompanied the genesis of this work. He 
mentions the various interruptions and changes 
of plan, many of which are reflected in the 
drama itself, and in Schiller's correspondence 
from January 12, 1791, to March 17, 1799. 
He emphasizes the fundamental difiiculties in- 
herent in the material — ^the embarrassing wealth 
of facts to be communicated ; the various inde- 
pendent political plans of HIo, Questenberg, 
Oktavio, Buttler, and many others, to be coordi- 
nated ; a morally reprehensible undertaking of 
political ambition to be rendered imposing and 
attractive, in spite of its physical failure through 
Wallenstein's own clumsiness. And, most for- 

midable of all, perhaps, for Schiller's art was 
the cold intellectuality, the hard-lined calcula- 
ting nature, of Wallenstein himself. All the 
heroes of Schiller's previous dramas are idealists 
of one sort and another. In Wallenstein he 
recognizes the realist, a representative of a class 
to which the world belongs. This man must 
never appear really noble, and in no act of the 
play really great or full of dignity. Under the 
stress of necessity, he must try with shrewdness 
to hold his ground, but always without sacri- 
ficing himself for the sake of lofty ideas. To 
effect the tragic shock, and awaken tragic pity 
through such a character, was the new task for 
Schiller's art. His complaint to Goethe, in the 
letter of November 28, 1796, that destiny, in 
the proper sense of the word, still had too Uttle, 
and Wallenstein's own error too much, to do 
with his misfortune, has often been misimder- 
stood. Critics have quoted it to support weird 
theories as to Schiller's idea of destiny. What 
he evidently meant, as Professor Kiihnemann 
shows; was the need of substituting for the 
accidental clumsiness of the individual man 
the lofty, inner, unavoidable necessity of a life 
governed by fixed laws. Schiller's aim in this 
drama is to present, in place of the splendor of 
eloquent details, a convincing picture of human 
life ; and in place of self -intoxication in soaring 
rhetoric, the tonic of simple concrete truth. His 
method is based consciously upon observation of 
Sophocles's King (Edipus. He himself calls it 
the method of tragic analysis. It consists in 
confining the visible action of the tragedy to an 
unfolding of the consequences of previous acts 
and occurrences. 

In Wallenstein^s Lager we have sharply 
individualized groups of characteristic soldiery, 
suggesting, in all its fulness of life, color, and 
movement, the army. These jolly or quarrel- 
some, gambling, dancing, flirting, and carousing 
soldiers and hangers-on all appear in the per- 
spective of the mass to which they belong. 
The order of their appearance is chosen with 
consummate skill, so as to give the semblance 
of reality. For the whole motley army of poly- 
glot troops, the as yet invisible commander-in- 
chief is the vicegerent of God on earth. Against 
their enthusiasm for him not even the fanatical 
preaching of the dull servants of the church is 
of any avail. It is a vivid genre picture, rival- 
ing the best work of the old Dutch masters, 
and furnishing striking proof of the poet's new 
skill in objective delineation and in the dramatic 
use of masses of men. His success in this latter 
point is the fruit of an inborn tendency, shown 




in all his earlier plays, under the discipline of in- 
tensive study of the Grreeks and of Shakespeare. 
Schiller lays especial stress, in his study of 
Wallenstein, upon the elements of history that 
moulded the man. In this, as Professor Kiihne- 
mann urges, he differs radically from Shake- 
speare. The British poet would have focused 
attention throughout upon the demoniac nature 
of Wallenstein's mind, — upon the tragedy of 
imbridled, self-destructive ambition to rule. The 
surroundings of the man would have remained 
the unaccented syllable. Schiller presents sym- 
bolically, through the general's associates, that 
]ustori<»d environment under the influence of 
which Wallenstein's temperament, self-confi- 
dence, ambition, and superstition succumb to 
temptation. Illo, Isolani, Buttler, and Oktavio 
Ficcolomini, each sharply individualized and 
provided with his own philosophy of life, are 
«hief among these associates. Each of them is 
in a sense a creature of the commander, em- 
bodying in characteristic &shion the demoniac 
principle of Wallenstein's mind. Hence the hero 
of the tragedy is a sort of composite total of all 
these individuals. He is an organic part of that 
body of relations and influences, dominated by 
immutable laws, that is the destiny of man. 
His belief in astrology is the symbol of his own 
implicit confidence in the absolute necessity of 
things. But it is also a defect in his own nature, 
blinding him to the appix)ach of his impending 
doom, that is plainly visible to everyone else. 
In this he resembles King CEdipus ; but while 
the Grreeks conceived Destiny as a wholly super- 
human, inscrutable necessity, before which gods 
and men must bow, Schiller regards it as the 
imchanging r^ularity of the laws of life without 
and within the individual. Max and Thekla 
are the only idealists in the drama. They are 
bound to Wallenstein by ties of blood and 
affection. They reflect his emotional life, as the 
others reflect his intellect and his ambition. In 
their innocence and disinterestedness, they sym- 
bolize the Beautiful in human life. Schiller's 
view as to the rightful place of the Beautiful 
and of Art in life, already expressed in his phil- 
osophical writings, is here dramatized. They 
are also a mirror in which the repulsive selfish- 
ness and faithlessness of the otiiers, and the 
shadow of the approaching Nemesis, are seen. 
The transformation of their idyll into an elegy 
is part of the tragic catastrophe that over- 
whelms Wallenstein. But Schiller remained an 
idealist to the end of his life, and does not here 
imply, as Professor Kiihnemann seems to think, 
Ihat Max and Thekla have no place in the 

world. What he does seem to imply is that a 
world of hard-lined realism and selfish striving, 
like that of Wallenstein and his circle, whose 
one-sidedness excludes and crushes the idealists 
and the beautiful in life, is eo ipso a world of 
tragic catastrophes. 

We must pass over a wealth of suggestive 
and helpful discussion offered by our author 
in connection with this tragedy, and with the 
dramas of Maria Stuart, Die Jungfrau von 
Orleans, Die Braut von Messina^ WUhelm 
Tell, and with the important Demetrius frag- 
ment. The main feature of it all consists in 
tracing through these diverse materials and 
forms the substance of Schiller's later concep- 
tion of human life, destiny, and dramatic style. 
From cover to cover, the book is fascinatingly 
written. The author's style is simple, flexible, 
and strong, but slightly marred by a few unne- 
cessary repetitions and infelicities of expression, 
that can easily be removed in a second edition. 
Its warm appreciation of the peculiarity of 
Schiller's genius and intelligent insight into the 
essentials of good literature, ancient and mod- 
em, render it a worthy companion-piece to the 
same author's Herder^ and one of the most illu- 
minating and suggestive books yet written upon 
the greatest German dramatist. 

Starr Willard Cutting. 

Sea Power ani> the War of 1812. 

Captain Mahan's notable series of naval his- 
tories is now complete; and if anything were 
needed to establish his position in the foremost 
rank of historical writers, his latest contribution 
to that series — ^^ Sea Power in its Selations to 
the War of 1812" — would fuUy supply the 
demand. Like the companion volumes of ^^ The 
Influence of Sea Power upon History" and 
" The Influence of Sea Power upon the French 
Revolution and Empire," this crowning labor is 
characterized by great philosophic insight and 
masterly arrangement of details, but it far sur- 
passes its predecessors in its abundant evidences 
of independent and painstaking investigation. 
Access has been had, as the preface intimates 
and the footnotes show, to the public records of 
Ghreat Britain, Canada, and the United States, to 
the published correspondence of various promi- 
nent men of the period, and to the unpublished 
private papers of Lord Castiereagh. Such a 

*Sba Power in ztb Rblations to thb Wab of 1313. By 
Captain A. T. Mahan. In two volomeB. Illiistrated. Boston: 
Little. Brown, A Oo. 



[Jan. 16, 

mustering of original and contemporary sources 
is a sufficient guarantee of inestimable worth, 
especially when an historian of our author's 
type — judicious, conscientious, and withal ac- 
curate — has had the handling of them. 

The second war with Great Britain occupied 
, less than three years; yet Captain Mahan, pos- 
sibly because he is dealing with the history of 
his own country or because he is treading upon 
very familiar ground, has given it a propor- 
tionately larger amount of space than he gave 
his earlier themes. Precisely two-thirds of the 
first Yohmie, or fourteen chapters of the entire 
work, are devoted to a discussion of the com- 
mercial complications that underlay the strug- 
gle, one chapter to a description of the theatre 
of operations and to a general criticism of the 
insufficiency of American resources, twelve 
chapters to the war itself, and a single chapter 
to a much abbreviated and rather superficial 
account of the peace n^otiations. The material, 
except in the case of minor though contributory 
details, is not new, indeed much of it was sum- 
marized by Captain Mahan himself in a series of 
articles — advance sheets, so to speak — that 
appeared two years ago in " Scribner's Maga- 
zine "; but the presentation of it is so logical, so 
fascinatingly clear and unprejudiced, that the im- 
pression conveyed is one of striking originality. 
The opening pages of the book have, in great 
degree, the nature and scope of an introduction. 
They point out pre-revolutionary experiences 
and conditions as determining causes of later 
events, and in this they are extremely interest- 
ing. British thought with respect to maritime 
development presented, from Cromwell's time 
down, a continuity that greatly impressed public 
opinion. A course of action long and successfully 
persisted in must perforce be right and just. 
Consequently the national consciousness never 
once swerved from the idea that the navy was the 
bulwark of imperial power, and that, as it was 
recruited from the mercantile marine, the growth 
of the carrying trade must be a first considerar 
tion. The thirteen colonies had already shown 
commercial aptitude ; in the northeast they had 
developed shipping industries ; and now having 
obtained political independence, they were likely 
to prove formidable competitors in .the navigar 
tion of the world. It was necessary to curtail 
their opportunities. It was also necessary to 
fill in the gap that their revolution had made in 
the empire by developing the resources of other 
transatlantic dominions, particularly of Canada 
and the West Indies, whither the Tories whom 
loyalty had made exiles and to whom the home 

government felt somewhat indebted had found a 
refuge. Naturally enough, all measures having 
these things for their object were r^arded with 
suspicion by the new republic. The provincial- 
ism that had formed a misconception of the pur- 
pose of the navigation laws was predisposed to 
designate the taUng away of privil^es enjoyed 
as colonists as a gross subversion of justice. 

Especial praise is due the author for that 
part of his book which deals with the more 
immediate causes of the War of 1812 ; for there 
he has with his accustomed impartiality placed 
the policy and conduct of Great Britain in 
proper perspective. This is a really strong point, 
a feature most distinctive. Other writers have 
usually regarded the irritating events of the 
period as instances of a lingering tyranny on 
the part of the mother country; but Captain 
Mahan has viewed them in their larger aspect, 
— namely, in their relation to the Napoleonic 
wars. H^ treatment of the subject of Lnpress- 
ment is highly conunendable, due weight being' 
given to the many extenuating circumstances* 
Great Britain, the constant force of the succes- 
sive coalitions, was engaged in a life and death 
struggle with despotism. Her navy was her 
great, and almost her only, resource ; but the 
service in it was necessarily long and arduous 
and the pay was small. Desertions were ruin- 
ously frequent ; for across the Atlantic was a 
new country with all tihe economic advantages 
of a new country. British sailors, even before 
the Revolution, had manned its ships and knew 
of its facilities. Furthermore, there an easy 
naturalization system prevailed which was con- 
trary to all recognized principles of national 
allegiance. Nowhere, except in that infant com- 
munity, eager for settiers, had it yet been 
acknowledged that the power of expatriation 
resides in the individual. Great Britain claimed 
the right to apprehend her own deserters ; but 
she never did claim the right to impress Ameri- 
can seamen. Cases of mistaken identity were^ 
however, very numerous, owing to the fact that 
the people of the two countries, one in origin^ 
were not yet distinguishable from each other by 
peculiarities of dress, speech, or manners. Brit- 
ish officers, moreover, greatiy annoyed by a dis- 
graceful traffic in fraudulent certificates of 
citizenship, were not inclined to take any great 
precautions against errors. 

In his strictures upon Jefferson's policy of 
economy, seeming partiality for the French, and 
impotent measures of retaliation for national in- 
sults, Captain Mahan has been justiy severe. 
Realizing that the United States was too much 




aigrossed in money-making, too much divided 
by conflicting sectional interests, and too much 
ocmtrdled by a peace-loving president to take 
any chances in war, Ghreat Britain adopted with 
unpunity such measures as would coimteract 
the evil effects of the Continental System, even 
though well aware that they would react dis- 
astrously upon neutrals. The only neutral of 
any consequence was the United States, and she 
was scarcely worth considering ; for Jefferson's 
gunboat system had effectually prevented the 
growth of a regular navy. She might protest, 
bat her protests were bound to be mere bluster. 
The wonder to us now is, that she could have 
80 steadily drifted towards war and have made 
absolutely no preparation for it. Her embargo 
and non-intercourse laws failed of their object 
and operated against herself. Nothing could 
have been more to the purpose of Napoleon 
than the American declaration of war in 1812. 
Ciaft and subtlety had done their work. The 
pity of it all was that the United States, griev- 
ously injured by both France and Great Britain, 
went to war with the wrong party. She, the 
exponent of liberty, had — let us hope uninten- 
tionally — played completely into the hands of 
the arch-despot. Napoleon, whose pretended 
revocation of the obnoxious decrees and con- 
temptible ante-dating to avoid a too glaring ex- 
posure of ^ud and duplicity are all graphically 
narrated by Captain Mahan. 

It has been traditional in American history 
to consider the War of 1812 as a signal success 
for the aggrieved party. Opinions to the con- 
trary, altihough held by all first-class historians 
and supported by the best of evidence, have 
never reached the masses. There was no organ- 
ized warfare on the ocean, but the brilliancy of 
that on the Grreat Lakes and of single ship 
actions at sea has almost obscured the real dis- 
asters on land. Upon the history of hostilities 
proper, Captain Mahan has prol^bly said the 
kst word. No one but a man rich in profes- 
sional experience could so ably deal with naval 
exploits. His criticisms of the army equipment 
are all well-substantiated, and his narrative 
bears close comparison with Napier's ^^ Peninsu- 
lar War." The sustained effort is, perhaps, not 
so great, but there is the same skill in dealing 
with technicalities, the same dramatic power in 
descriptian. The whole is excellent reading. 

It is unfortunate that the final chapter of this 
really scholarly work is not in itself an impor- 
tant contribution to historical knowledge. We 
had every reason to expect considerable new 
upon the n^otiations at Ghent, and are 

disappointed that neither here nor in the October 
niunber of the ^^ American Historical Seview " 
has Captain Mahan told us much more than we 
already knew about the influence upon them 
of European conditions. That it wajs great, we, 
although destitute of documentary evidence, feel 
pretty well assured. In no otl^r way can we 
adequately explain Great Britain's change of 
front. The United States had practically ac- 
complished little by the war. The one thing 
she had set out to do she had failed in ; and 
(jreat Britain, relieved from embarrassment by 
the downfall of Napoleon, was at first inclined 
to exact a himiiliating peace. To what extent 
the attitude of the other Allied Powers or the 
transactions of the Congress of Vienna com- 
pelled concessions is matter for conjecture. 

In point of literary merit, Captain Mahan's 
latest extended production needs Uttle conmient. 
An occasional awkward or incomplete sentence 
occurs, but we notice this fact only because we 
dislike to see even so slight a blemish upon a 
style so nearly perfect. The index to the two 
volumes is not so good as it might be, but the 
table of contents is remarkably full. The dia- 
grams and maps are very instructive ; the illus- 
trations, both half-tones and gravures, though 
few in number, are in keeping with the general 
high character of the work ; and the half-tone 
portraits are all copies of authentic likenesses, 
some of them from paintings by Gilbert Stuart. 
Anna Heloise Abel. 

The Greatest of Modern Gardeners.* 

In « New Creations in Plant Life" Mr. W. S* 
Harwood gives us a very complete account of the 
life and work of Mr. Luther Burbank, the famous 
gardener and experimenter of Santa Rosa. Mr. 
Burbank, like many other things in California, 
has suffered from excess of newspaper publicity 
— suffered in all ways, in person, reputation, and 
estate. The volume before us should in this 
respect bring relief : it is sufiBciently full, toler- 
ably well written, authentic, and prepared under 
the direction of the gardener himself. 

For Mr. Burbank the claim has been often 
made that he is the most remarkable gardener 
that has ever lived. A simple statement of his 
accomplishments would seem {bjtIj to justify the 
claim. He has given to the orchards of Cali- 
fornia some twenty different varieties of plums 
alone, several apples, improved blackberries, 

*Nbw Ckbations m Plaitt Lm. Bgr W. 8. Harwood. 
trmtod. New York: The MMmillMiOo. 




[Jan. 16^ 

raspberries, etc., besides several fruits which 
are to be reckoned wholly new, as the primiis- 
berry, formed by uniting the raspberry and 
the blackberry; ^e plumcot, a combination of 
apricot and pliun; and the pomato, resultant 
from the union of the potato and tomato plants. 
Mr. Harwood's praise of these things, and his 
eulogy of their creator, will strike some readers 
as excessive, and raise the suspicion that he also 
is a Califomian. It should be remembered, 
also, that Mr. Burbank's triiunphs are in kind 
hardly to be reckoned as new ; lliey are exactly 
in line with the work of all gardeners in all the 
centuries. Shakespeare teaches Perdita to 

A gentler scion to the wildest stock, 
And make conceive a bark of baser kind 
By bnd of nobler race." 

And Pliny tells us how, two thousand years 
ago, men ^^ in Grenada began to graft plums on 
apples, and these brought forth plums called 
apple-plums ; also others called almond-plums." 
Peach trees have been known on occasion to bear 
apricots, and apricot trees to bear peaches ; and 
this without anybody's suggestion. In fact, 
whence come all our cultivated grains and 
fruits ? Do these not represent the wise selec- 
tion and careful culture of scores of unknown 
gardeners all down along our ancestral way? 
Mr. Burbank's methods are not new, and to 
all the gardeners of the past is he indebted 
for the materials on which he has wrought his 
shining work. The difference lies chiefly in the 
fact that our latest artist has carried his work so 
much further, and into unexpected fields ; that he 
experiments so much more widely, and on such 
a tremendous scale. Darwin called all this sort 
of work artificial, as opposed to natural, selec- 
tion ; Mr. Burbank simply applies artificial selec- 
tion to hundreds of thousands of plants at one 
time, and then, by grafting, goes on to attain 
results much more speedily than ha^ hitherto 
been done. 

Mr. Burbank's work has been of the highest 
economic importance ; he has contributed largely 
to the wealth of hi^ adopted State. But a great 
deal of his experimentation has had no com- 
mercial end in view ; he has been, in so far, a 
true investigator, seeking a better knowledge of 
the wondrous processes of the natural world. 
Much of his work, accordingly, has scientific 
value. His successes and failures alike confirm 
or confute our accepted biologic theories. Does 
DeVries argue that species take origin in muta- 
tions, sudden departures from some supposed 
established type? — Mr. Burbank will show him a 
thousand strange variations, mutations, effected 

by cross-breeding ; do the supporters of Mendel 
affirm the law of probabilities in the outcome of 
a cross? — ^the Santa Rosa gardens seem to show 
an indiscriminate breaking up of all established 
characteristics of either species, as if in reversion 
to all the indefinite variations of the long history 
of the past. 

In die conduct of his experiments during- 
these later years, Mr^ Burbank has largely 
consumed his own resources accumtdated during- 
long service as a professional nurseryman. For- 
tunately, however, for both science and hor- 
ticulture, the Cam^e Foimdation for the 
promotion of research has lately come to hia 
assistance, and experimentation may now go 
forward unhindered by embarrassment of any 
financial sort. 

Mr. Harwood is evidently not a man of sci- 
ence, but his book, filled witli apt and beautiful 
illustrations, will present to the general reader 
a reasonably clear conception of Mr. Burbank'a 
title to fame. Here one may read of spinelesa 
cacti and pitless prunes, of never-fading flowers^ 
and trees that rise in stature like those that 
grow in dreams. The volume is handsomely 
printed, and typographical and other errata are 
unusually few. Thomas H. Macbride. 

Briefs on New Books. 

mm another R^^" of Philippine Uterature have 
volume about doubtless anticipated a piece oi au- 
the PMUppineg. thoritative work in Professor F. W. 
Atkinson's book "The Philippine Islands" (Ginn 
& Co.). Mr. Atkinson has had the best of oppor- 
ttmities for observation. He was the first General 
Superintendent of Education in the Philippines; 
and in the performance of his duties he was called 
upon to travel in almost every part of the Archipel- 
ago. In this way he was enabled to observe actual 
conditions at firstrhand, while through his official 
position he was brought into direct contact with 
many American officers and native leaders who 
knew of what they spoke. Mr. Atkinson's book, 
however, covers ground already made familiar by 
the reports of the Philippine Commission, while it 
fails to touch upon those problems which are to-day 
central in the islands. Of a total of 412 pages, the 
author devotes about 100 to ancient Philippine his- 
tory and geography. Some 22 pages are then given 
to the history of the period 1896-1905, but of these 
only about four pages (eliminating illustrations, and 
counting only actual type) describe matters relating 
to the American occupation. About 200 pages are 
occupied with climate, questions of public health, 
racial peculiarities, religion, etc., after which there 
are 35 pages of routine description of our govern- 




ment. The renudnder of the book — about 40 pages 
— deals with fidncatioii. This hitter section is by 
far the most valuable portion of the work, for here 
the writer has apparently felt at liberty to speak 
with somewhat less restraint than elsewhere, and to 
give expression to his own views. It is not an en- 
tirely hopeful outlook that he presents. He admits 
the lack of efficient native teachers, practically 
concedes that the American teachers who were 
first engaged were selected under conditions which 
made it hard to get the best results, and grants that 
industrial education has not been advanced to the 
point that insular interests require. However, he 
defends the policy of introducii^ English as a lan- 
guage of instruction, and maintains that the natives 
are anxious to learn it, although the reasons assigned 
are chiefly the desire to hold office and to acquire 
the social position resulting from its use. In addi- 
tion, he favors the introduction of the language as 
a means of terminating the intelleetual isolation of 
the Philippines. The book as a whole, especially 
in its earlier portions, gives the impression of having 
often been read before, and follows with minute 
oure the official view at almost every point £ven 
the Olustrations are the stock photographs which 
appear in all Philippine reports. Mr. Atkmson, how- 
ever, is not wholly able to maintain the optimistic 
attitude. In his conclusion, he points out that the 
dvil government is still retarded by ladronism, 
while economic conditions have been greatly im- 
paired and << unexpected weakness of character^ 
among some of the administrative officers has been 
a drawback to political confidence and advance- 
ment. In spite of all this, Mr. Atkinson maintains 
in his closing paragraph that ^^ the outlook is bright 
for the Filipinos," though on what the observation 
is based does not fully appear from the book itself. 

A famous There are few men whose life-story 

Repubiicttn presents more of striking contrasts 
itotetmofi. ^j ^^ ^Q elements that lend interest 

to the telling than does that of James 6. Blaine ; and 
it very appropriately opens the new series of "Ameri- 
can Statesmen" (Houghton, Miffin <& Co.). The au- 
thor, Mr. Edward Stanwood, who had already won 
reeognition for his editorial and historical work, does 
not approach his work as an academic task; he 
frankly states that he was an intimate personal friend 
of Mr. Blaine, and that he writes as one who believed 
in him and followed him. But he has shown so 
evident a desire to be fair in his discussion of the 
various bitter controversies that were waged around 
his chief, that we follow him with interest and in 
the main with acceptance of his positions. It may 
not be out of place to say that the writer of thiis 
notice was one of those who left his party rather 
than vote for Mr. Blaine, believing hhn to be an 
unfit man for the presidency ; but that he is now con- 
vinced that Mr. Blaine was charged with far more 
than he should have been charged with, and that 
the worst that can fairly be said of him is that his 
conduct in the financial transactions laid to him was 

indelicate rather than dishonorable, while his life as 
a whole was actuated by real public spirit. The 
author takes up Mr. Blaine's public life from his 
assumption of the editorship of the '^ Kennebec 
Journal " in 1854, at the age of twenty-four, and 
follows it through its various phases, local and 
nationaL But two other Americans have won such 
hearty personal allegiance to themselves and their 
fortunes as did Mr. Blaine, and been the objects of 
such personal devotion. The " Plumed Knight," as 
he was called by his enthusiastic followers, was for 
some fifteen years perhaps the foremost leader of the 
Republican party. He was a political leader of un- 
rivalled skill in attack and defense, a real statesman 
in some of his conceptions, a forcible speaker and a 
remarkable debater. He has in addition left behind, 
him one historical work of great value. With all his 
successes, there were failures as great ; with his re- 
markable popularity, he encountered opposition such 
as almost no other public man has met His career 
is well termed dramatic in its nature and develop^ 
ment, and the present biographer has brought out 
skilfully its dramatic elements. Perhaps Mr. Blaine's 
largest title to lasting fame lies in his work as Secre- 
tary of State. He led the way from the traditional 
policy of isolation toward a new position of the 
United States in the affairs of the world, — an im- 
perialist before the imperialism of these later days 
was even thought of. At that time his policy was* 
criticised by the average conservative citizen as 
dangerous, though we have now actually gone much 
further in the direction that Mr. Blaine merely 
dreamed of ; but he was the pioneer in the change, 
and in this and other ways he influenced the general 
tendency of the political thought of his countrymen. 

When a President of the United 
States presents for public inspection 
a book written by himself, the read-, 
ing world may be expected to open it with keen 
curiosity, whatever the subject which it treats. 
President Roosevelt's latest work, ^^Outdoor Pas- 
times of an American Hunter" (Scribner) is mainly 
a compilation of magazine articles and monographs 
which have appeared from time to time upon one 
of his favorite topics, American wild game and the. 
pursuit and study thereof. Of the eleven chapters 
that make up the book, two — '^ A Colorado Bear- 
Hunt" and " Wolf -Coursing " — relate his experi- 
ences upon his outing last Spring ; the one entitled 
''With the Cougar Hounds " details his adventures 
during his previous Colorado hunting-trip, in 1901 ; 
'' Wilderness Reserves " is devoted largely to the . 
Yellowstone outing. These four chapters are com- . 
paratively new ; the concluding chapter, *' At Home," . 
is quite so. The other chapters, aside from the one 
entitled '' Books on Big Game," have been in circu- . 
lation some time as monographs upon the deer fam- 
ily, but have been considerably revised for the> 
purposes of the present volume. Mr. Roosevelt's,* 
style is, as usual, practical and prosaic, almost un- ; 
imaginative. But the volume la well-nigh cyclo- . 

as a hunter. 



[Jan. 16, 

pedic upon the ground it covers. The author 
gathers hirge stores of information, and does not 
jump at conclusions. He is scrupulous as to the 
accuracy of the smallest details, X)aying as much at- 
tention to ascertaining the correct name of the tiniest 
hird that flits hef ore him as to following the trail of 
the hear or cougar. In giving details of the actual 
chase and killing of the mountain lion, he includes 
much interesting matter regarding the hahits of this 
aninuil and of the hob-cat, the character of the 
country hunted over, and the animal and plant life 
found there. Frequently throughout the book, and 
especially in his chapter upon the Yellowstone Park, 
Mr. Roosevelt emphasizes the need for more national 
reserves, wherein nature shall be protected and the 
extermination of animal life prevented; he urges 
forcefully that the Grand Canyon of the CSolorado 
be made a national park. The chapter upon ^' Books 
on Big Game " will be found valuable to both the 
sportsman and the bibliophile. In the final chapter, 
''At Home,'' the President gives a genial account 
of the out-door life of himself and family at Saga- 
more Hill, their excursions and their pets, and the 
wild creatures of Long Island. The volume is pro- 
fusely illustrated from photographs, and is dedicated 
to the veteran naturalist, John Burroughs. 

Pictures of There are few places of historic m- 

court life tifufor terest which demand so much of the 
itouit XIV. visitor as Versailles. Many travel- 
lers are disappointed at seeing there nothing but an 
endless succession of rooms and miles of historical 
paintings. They are unable to look at the chftteau 
and the park as the magnificent if somewhat tar- 
nished fnune of a vanished picture, the court and 
government of the old Bourbon monarchy. Bae- 
deker, in a few paragraphs, cannot set them right 
To such persons, Mr. James Eugene Farmer's 
** Versailles and the Court under Louis XTV." 
(The Century Co.) offers an opportunity of really 
understanding the place. The book will be of even 
greater interest to many who already know Ver- 
sailles, but wish to recall in detail the figures that 
once peopled these empty rooms and corridors. The 
book is arranged conveniently. The first two parts 
describe the chftteau and the park, giving the his- 
tory and the use of the principal apartments and 
promenades. The description is enlivened by anec- 
dotes of the incidents which rendered each spot 
famous. The mixture of information and of enter- 
tainii^ gossip is uniformly judicious, and as one 
passes fi^m room to room, instead of feeling an in- 
creasing sense of weariness, one's curiosity is piqued, 
and one wanders on further and further. In the 
third and fourth parts are described the king and 
the principal personages of his court Here, as in 
the earlier portions of the volume, Mr. Farmer has 
enriched hiB descriptions with long, passages from 
Saint Simon or f^m other writers of memoirs. 
The translations of Saint Simon are so well chosen 
that for the ordinary reader they will serve the 
double purpose of informing him about Louis XIV» 

and of showing this incomparable writer to the best 
advantage, — that is to say, at Versailles, among 
the persons he commented upon with such delight* 
ful thoi^h occasionally damaging frankness. Prob- 
ably the most striking part of the whole picture is 
the mechanism of court life and the wonderful etir 
quette which made it run smoothly. Altogether, 
this is an entertaining and instructive book, although 
devoid of pretension to profound interpretations of 
the Ag^ of Louis XIV. 

Ripe and mellow are the chapters 
A^^ntT ^, Mr. Joel BentoB'B «Pe«on« u>d 

Places," issued m a small illustrated 
volume by the BrcMulway Publishing Co. His 
reminiscences are chiefly of the Augustan age of 
American literature. Concord and a few of the 
Concord writers receive most prominent mention, 
and it is plain that the hermit of Walden is a prime 
favorite of his. One is much surprised to learn that, 
with all his admiration for Emerson, whom he early 
. met in person, and for other New England celebrities, 
Mr. Benton had never until two years ago set foot 
in eastern Massachusetts. Besides memories of a 
talk with Emerson, whom the author as a youth 
drove thirty miles to hear lecture, the book gives 
recollections of Horace Greeley, Matthew Arnold, 
C. N. Bovee, and P. T. Bamum, and also chapters 
on Thoreau, Bryant, and <<Some American Hu- 
morists " of half a century ago. Bostonians will be 
pleased with the compliment paid to Boston manr 
ners, on the street and in the street cars. The 
critical essay on Bryant's poetry animadverts gently 
on the predominant <' sepulchral " element therein ; 
but in calling Bryant's style << ponderous " the author 
has perhaps not chosen the best word. Serious, 
often solemn, and even mortuary, it certainly is, but 
too exquisitdy finished and musical *to be exactly 
ponderous. A couplet from Tennyson's "Vision of 
Sin " is given as " Every minute dies a man, every 
minute one is born," which the essayist incidentally 
calls "an extreme understatement of the actual fact" 
The true reading, with " moment " for " minute," is 
not open to this criticism. Writing largely of things 
a part of which he was and nearly all of which he 
saw, Mr. Benton can by no means be accused of 
producing merely the echo of an echo. 

... -^^ Among the eminent lawyers who 

Addrettet from , . ^ , , * i* /_ i_ 

a lawyer's during the past haif-century nave 

busv life. honored the bar of New York City 

by their sterling character and public spirit, few- 
have deserved greater respect than the late Frederie 
Ren^ Coudert, a volume of whose addresses hare jtust 
been offered to the public by the Messrs. Putnam's 
Sons. Mr. Coudert's way was to do the duty before 
him, and this did not bring it in his scope to lay the 
foundations for a place in literature that would last 
after his work in the flesh was done. His addresses 
were only occasional incidents in a very busy and 
very useful life, — twenty-one in number during^ a 
period of over a quarter of a century ; and five of 




these were delivered in a single year, 1873, in a 
course before the Catholic Union. We could wish, 
then, that the introductory note, signed P. F. (Paul 
Fuller, we presume) had been expanded into some- 
thing like an adequate biography. Mr. Coudert 
was a man of broad and deep cidture, thoroughly 
aequainted with the literature of France, Spain, and 
Germany, and possessing a lucid, graceful, and effeo- 
tiYe English style. It will- be remembered that he 
was employed as counsel for the United States in the 
Behring Sea Arbitration, and also in the Venezuela 
Boundary controversy. He was honored, too, with 
the offer of a position on the bench of the Supreme 
Court, but declined the honor. One finds in his 
addresses constant evidence of his charming per- 
sonality, of which we are told in the introductory 
note, ^'His was indeed a blithesome spirit, ever 
hovering a little above the dulness of our common 
traffic ; a kindly heart, ever a little aloof from the 
bitterness of daily strife, viewing the failings of his 
fellows through the softening haze of an enduring 

A ivriat of ^^ ^ Marvell, the conscientious and 

ihtEnoiuh assiduous member for Hull, rather 

cvmnumu'mZiA. ^jjy^,j ^^ p^^^ ^f ^^ CJommonwealth, 

of whom we think after reading Mr. BirreU's 
life of that worthy in the "English Men of Let- 
ters" series (Macmillan). Letters are quoted at 
length, written by this faithful representative to 
his constituents, and very little is said of the poetry 
npon which his reputation rests. It is not as if his 
literary work were the direct outcome of his politi- 
cal, for his lyrics, his best work, were written before 
he entered the Commons. It is only with reference 
to his satires that his political work is important ; 
hot in this book Marvell's politics are treated as of 
greater import than his poetry. Some rather gen- 
eral criticism is given in the opening and closing 
chapters, and the reader is then referred to the ex- 
cellent and cheap edition in <^ The Muses' Library " 
for the poems themselves ; but no serious apprecia- 
tion is attempted, either in relation to Marvell's work 
considered absolutely or with' reference to his con- 
temporaries. It would have been worth while to 
treat Marvell with one eye upon the fantastic fol- 
lowers of Donne and the other upon the pure lyr- 
ists of the period. In other words, we should have 
been very glad to have Mr. BirreU's views on the 
poetry of Marvell, even if they were merely per- 
sonal. The series to which the volume belongs is as 
mnch critical as biographical, and Marvell is known 
to ns to-day more as a lyrist than as the Member 

for HnlL 

Miss Agnes Repplier has departed 
faa aw^en/. ^^™ ^^ accustomed field of essay- 
writing long enough to produce a 
book of charming autobiographical tales, caUed '^In 
oor Convent Days" (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). It 
is needless to say that these tales, slight as they are 
in form and matter, would hardly have succeeded 
in making Miss Repplier's name mean what it does 

in American literature if they had come earlier in 
her career. But, Miss Repplier being known as she 
is, and for what she is, the stories of '^ Marriage 
Vows," "The Game of Love," "In Retreat," and 
" Reverend Mother's Feast," suggesting some of the 
early influences which have led to the creation of 
some of our best essays, are of a peculiar and per- 
sonal interest From their subject, they invite com- 
parison with Miss Elizabeth Jordan's "Tales of a 
Convent"; but Miss Jordan's stories are more gen- 
erally human, and better stories, per «e, — although 
there is no one of them superior in poetic charm to 
the account of the Archbishop's visit as described in 
"Un Cong^ sans Qoche." '* In Our Convent Days " 
gains in interest from the fact that besides the real 
Agnes the book contains the experiences of a real 
Elizabeth, now well known as Mrs. Elizabeth Robins 


An Ameri^n Among the early volumes of a new 
cuimirai of series entitled the "American Crisis 

the Civil War. Biographies " ( Philadelphia : Jacobs 
& Co.), we find a Hfe of Admiral Farragut, writ- 
ten by Mr. John R. Spears. This series of war- 
hero biographies is announced as impartial because 
Southern subjects have been assigned to Southern 
writers and Northern subjects to Northern writers. 
A life of Farragut is scarcely a fair test of this sup- 
posed preventive against sectional bias ; but it gives 
the auUior opportunity to describe the services of the 
distinguished American admiral in a fair and rar 
tional manner. Facts, well authenticated, occupy the 
space that is usually given to mere eulogy in small 
biographies. Equally praiseworthy is the avoidance 
of discussion of naval controversies. Farragut's ac- 
tion in taking possession of New Orleans by force, 
his futile expedition up the Mississippi, and the 
dramatic passing of the forts on Mobile Bay, are 
described without attempts at criticism or justifica^ 
tion. Numerous maps and plans of battles illustrate 
the text The author contributes, as he says, one 
unknown chapter to history, in that upon the war 
upon the West India pirates between 1819 and 1823. 
He finds that these pirate ships, which have been 
supposed to be French, were in reality predatory 
vessels fitted out in the United States and Ekigland 
to prey upon Spanish commerce under the flags of 
Spanish-American insurgents. In its entirety, this 
biography of four hundred pages may be classed 
among the best books of its kind. 

EfUertainina "^^^ ^^" ^* ^' ^^^^on is the author 
chapter* on of a remarkably readable and intel- 

i/reatnoveiuu, Wge^t account of "The Makers of 
English Fiction," published by the Fleming IL 
Revell Co. In a series of twenty chapters he dis» 
cusses the chief English novelists, from Defoe to 
Stevenson, adding a few remarks upon American 
novelists, a brief essay on "Religion in Fiction," 
and a concluding survey of the whole subject 
The dbcussion is trenchant, the style pithy, and 
the judgment pronounced is usuaUy temperate and 
sound. An occasional statement may strike us as 



[Jan. 16, 

a rhetorical exaggeration, but in the main the criti- 
cism is intelligent and compact. The book is quite 
as much a history of English fiction (with certain 
lacunse ) as it is a series of studies of individual writers, 
for the author is careful to indicate connecting links, 
and to follow the development of tendencies. The 
discussion does substantial justice to such authors 
as George Eliot and Mr. Thomas Hardy, which is a 
pretty fair test of the balance of a critic of Mr. 
Dawson's profession. We like particularly well the 
chapters on Kingsley, Reade, and Mr. Meredith, 
and wish that we might also have had a chapter on 
Bulwer, who is certainly deserving of one. 

iiiuttratUmB I^v©™ of the Comidie humaine will 
of the methoda find in Mr. Helm's << Aspects of Bal- 
0/ Bauoi^, jjac " (James Pott & Co.) the occasion 

for recalling pleasantly many of the figures that ani- 
mate its pages. The grouping of the familiar per- 
sons and events in new combinations cannot fail to 
suggest some interesting reflections. Mr. Helm has 
evidently had long and intinuite acquaintance with 
Balzac's people, and when general questions touch- 
ing the great novelist's work and art present them- 
selves to him, his memory provides him at once 
with a series of pertinent illustrations. Mr. Helm's 
method furnishes us with a number of unpretentious 
chats, that commend themselves by intelligence and 
discrimination, and move in the middle region of 
appreciation between fanatical zeal and grudging 


Wonderful doings with soap-bubbles, tops, and kites 
are described by Mr. Meredith Nugent in his « New 
Grames and Amusements," published by Messrs. Double- 
day, Page & Co. If a boy could really do all these 
thmgs by following the directions given, he might pose 
as a veritable wizard among his fellows. But our own 
boyish recollections prompt us to anticipate for him a 
fair proportion of failures. However, the book is dis- 
tinctly novel in the suggestions offered, and is thus a 
pleasing departure from its type, for most books of this 
sort are a rehash of their predecessors, and are filled 
with the time-worn tricks that a modern boy would 
scorn to occupy his time with. 

Mr. Francis W. Halsey has done a real service to lit- 
erature in reprinting the first American edition (1794) 
of "Charlotte Temple: A Tale of Truth," by Mrs. 
Susanna Haswell Rowson. This moving tale of senti- 
ment has probably had more readers than any other 
work of fiction ever printed in this country; it is still 
reprinted in cheap form, and the editor has collected 
over a hundred editions. This constant reprinting has 
resulted in a corruption of the text so great that Mr. 
Halsey has found, by actual count, 1265 errors in the 
best current edition. The work belongs to American 
literature, both because its scene is laid in this country, 
and because the author lived in Massachusetts for eight 
years of her early Ufe, and then, returning later, was 
an actress and a teacher for her last thirty years or 
more. Mr. Halsey has given his edition a very thorough 
equipment of historical and bibliographical matter. 


A new biography of Walt Whitman, written by an 
Englishman, Mr. Henry Bryan Binns, will be published 
shortly by Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co. 

Mr. J. Churton Collins's "Studies in Poetry and 
Criticism," one of the most important critical works of 
the season, will be published at an early date by the 
Macmillan Co. 

In a recent number of " The Sphere," Mr. Richard 
Whiteing has an interesting personal account of the 
late William Sharp, in which he sets at rest all doubts 
concerning Sharp's identity with the much-discussed 
" Fiona Macleod." 

Three notable books of biography to be published by 
Messrs. Harper & Brothers during the present year are 
the Memoirs of Sir Henry Irving, the Autobiography 
of General Lew Wallace, and a volume of Recollections 
of (reorge du Maurier. 

Henry Harland, the author of a number of popular 
novels, died last month in Italy, at the age of forty- 
four. He was bom in St. Petersburg, educated in 
America and Italy, and domiciled for the most part in 
England. Several of his earlier stories appeared under 
the pseudonym of « Sidney Luska." 

It is proposed to publish a volume containing a selec- 
tion from the letters of John Brown, author of " Rab 
and his Friends." The editor will be obliged if friends 
who have letters from Dr. Brown will give him an 
opportunity of reading them in order to judge of their 
suitability for inclusion in the proposed volume. All 
communications should be addressed to the writer's 
son, Mr. John Brown, 7 Greenhill Place, Edinburgh. 

A new novel by Henryk Sienkiewicz, his first book of 
consequence since the year 1900, will be published this 
month by Messrs. Little, Brown, & Co. " On the Field 
of Glory " is its title, and the scenes are laid in Poland 
just before the Turkish invasion of 1682-3. As usual, 
Mr. Jeremiah Curtin is the translator. Two other nov- 
els to be issued during the month by the same firm are 
Mr. E. Phillips Oppenheim's " A Maker of History ** 
and A. B. Ward's « The Sage Brush Parson." 

« Hawaiian Yesterdays " is the title of an illustrated 
volume announced for Spring publication by Messrs. 
A. C. McClurg & Co. The author is Dr. Henry M. 
Lyman, a distinguished surgeon of Chicago, whose 
father, David B. Lyman, was a well-known missionary 
in the Hawaiian Islands in the early half of the past 
century. The book is a straightforward account of 
what a boy saw of life there in those early days, and 
prominent personages he came in contact with. 

The following are the latest French and German texts 
for school use: Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. publish 
Goethe's "Iphigenie auf Tauris," edited by Dr. Max 
Winkler; Hebbel's « Herodes imd Mariamne," edited by 
Dr. Edward Stockton Meyer ; Herr Sudermann's 
"Teja," edited by Mr. Herbert C. Sanborn; and Herr 
Heyse's "Die Blinden," edited by Professors W. H. 
Carruth and E. F. Engel. Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. 
publish a volume of " Deutsche Reden," mostly political 
in theme, edited by Dr. Rudolf Tombo and his son. 
From the Messrs. Holt we have also " A French Read- 
er," edited by Dr. A. Rambeau; and "Les Oberle," 
by M. Ren^ Bazin, edited by Mr. Charles W. Cabeen. 
Mr. William R. Jenkins publishes « Choses de France," 
a book for reading and conversation, by M. C. Fontaine ; 
and « Historiettes et Poesies Choisies pour les Enf ants," 
by Mile. Marie M. Robique. 




The recent award of the Nobel prize of 940,000 to 
the Baroness Bertha von Suttner for her famous peace 
iiofel, ** Die Waffen Nieder," has so renewed popidar 
interest in the book that Messrs. McClurg & Co. will 
publish at once a new edition of their English transla- 
tion, hearing the title « Ground Arms! " The great 
lesson taught by this impressive argfument against war 
iras never more pertinent than now, and it is to be 
hoped that in its new form the book will find the widest 
American audience. 

M^srs. Morang & Co., of Toronto, send us the 
"Speeches and Addresses, Political, Literary, and Re- 
ligrons," of the Hon. John Charlton, for thirty-two 
jetfB a member of the Canadian Parliament. They 
represent the public utterances of a man whose life luis 
be«n a part of the history of Canada, and, in a lesser 
degree, of the history of the United States. Bom an 
American, Mr. Charlton crossed the boundary many 
jeais ago, and has ever since been an element for good 
in the political life of his adopted country. In Parlia- 
ment, his influence has been chiefly felt in two direc- 
tions,— the promotion of better trade relations with the 
United States, and the preservation of the sanctity of 
the Sabbath. The speeches he has preserved here suf- 
ficiently show the breadth of his interests, as well as of 
his point of view. His literary addresses are mainly 
American in theme: Abraham Lincoln, George Wash- 
mgton, David Livingstone, American Humor, and Con- 
ditions of Success in Life. 


The death of President Harper, of the University of 
Chicago, on the tenth of this months came too late to 
permit of our giving it the attention which would nature 
ally be called for by the scholarly accomplishments and 
the public services of the great educator. Under the 
drcomstances, a few brief remarks must take the place 
of the more extensive treatment that we would gladly 
have accorded to his distinguished career. 

The work of organization done by President Harper 
during the comparatively brief period of his official life 
is too patent to need any conunent. He created a great 
university system, in some respects the most compre- 
hensive in the entire country, kept it in working order, 
prorided for its progressive development as the means 
heeame available, and left it as the lasting monument 
of his tireless energy and his arduous devotion to its 
cause. His personality inspired the confidence which 
placed large sums of money at his command, simis 
which were not solicited by him, as he frequently took 
pains to declare, but which were offered freely by 
friends of the institution. The principal, although by 
no means the only, source of this support was of such a 
nature as to expose both the institution and its executive 
head to a great deal of ill-mannered criticism from the 
public press, and the burden thus unjustly laid upon 
President Harper's shoulders was heavier than most 
people realized. That he bore it patiently and uncom- 
plamingly, even when it far exceeded the boimds per- 
missible in legitimate discussion, offers one of the finest 
illustrations of his character. 

Another illustration is offered by the cordial relations 
which he maintained with his colleagues. Given a 
giant's power by the confidence of his board of trustees, 
he knew how tyrannous it would be to use that power 
like a giant, and thus saved a sitiuition which, as may be 
seen in the example of certain other institutions and 
executives, might easily have become critical. The 

conditions of his office made him the embodiment of that 
one-man power which is to-day the chief menace of our 
university life, but pride and arrogant self-seeking were 
so alien to his nature that he did not exercise the power 
in an offensive way. He never took the attitude of a 
superior being, but deferred readily to the opinions of 
his colleagues, and did not think of embarking upon any 
important new policy without first gaining the support 
of the faculty. His example in this respect might pro- 
fitably be imitated in other quarters. 

Besides the adverse criticisms already alluded to, 
attacks of another kind were constantly made upon him, 
and were met with the same admirable equanimity. The 
dreadful mistake of giving to the University, by means 
of its charter, a sectarian label, was so minimized in its 
consequences by the President's broadness of view as to 
bring no practical impairment to the efficiency of the 
institution. Yet for this he suffered a persistent on- 
slaught from the sectarian bigotry which thought it 
intolerable that freedom of opinion should characterize 
the life of a school thus designated by a theological 
trade-mark. But no fact is more evident to those who 
have known the University intimately than that it has 
always stood unswervingly in letter and in spirit for the 
highest ideal of academic freedom. No theological test 
was ever applied to teacher or student; no disability was 
ever laid upon either by reason of private opinion or 
public utterance. 

It would not be proper to close even so brief a char- 
acterization as the present without saying a word about 
President Harper's last year. During that year he was 
under sentence of death, and almost constantly the 
victim of severe physical suffering. Yet this condition, 
which woidd have disheartened most men, and weak- 
ened the spirit of their labors, served only to arouse 
him to a renewed determination to accomplish all that 
might humanly be accomplished before the light failed. 
He continued tranquilly at his appointed tasks, and 
illustrated throughout his remaining days the truth of 
Spinoza's noble saying: ** Homo liber de nulla re minus 
quam de morte cogitat." He thus vindicated the free- 
dom of his own spirit as he had before championed the 
spirit of academic freedom. Few men have been so 
tried, and far fewer have so well borne the test. It is 
safe to say that whoever watched his brave struggle 
with the ancient enemy of mankind came to feel, what- 
ever had been felt before, a redoubled admiration for 
the qualities of essential manhood that were then for 
the first time fully revealed. 

LiiHT OF New Books. 

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The Ufs of Fronde. By Herbert Paul. With photosravure 

portrait, 8vo. ffilt top. pp. 4M. Charles Scrlbner's Sons. 

$4. net. 
Iionia XIY. and La Ghrande Kademolaelto. 1662-1688. By 

ArvMe Barine. Authorized Enfirlish version. lUus.. 8vo, 

gilt top. pp. 894. G. P. Patnam's Sons. $3. net. 

William T. Sherman. By Edward Bobins. With portrait. 
12mo. gilt top. pp. 682. "American Crisis Biographies." 
George W. Jacobs A Co. |1.25net. 


The Joumeya of LaSalle and hia Ckmipaniona. 1668-1687. 
As related by himself and his foUowers. Edited by Isaac 
Joslin Cox. Ph.D. In 2 vols.. lUus.. 16mo. "The Trail- 
Makers." A. S. Barnes A Co.* |2. net. 



[Jan. 16, 

Nation Bnlldrnw. By Edgar Mayliew Baoon and Andrew 
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uncut, pp. 411. "Main Currents in Nineteenth Century 

literature." Macmillan Co. 
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Smith. 16mo. gilt top, pp. 260. Oxford University Press. 

60 cts. net. 
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Album Presented to Lady Mary Lowther, Christmas, 1819. 

With portrait, 16mo. gilt top, pp. 106. Oxford University 

Press. 90 cts. net. 
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rope. By Lynn Thomdike, Ph.D. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 110. 

Columbia University Press. Paper. 
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Gansevoort Chittenden. 12mo. gilt top, uncut, pp. 151. 

Hinds. Noble ft Eldredge. $1. 


IjiTOS of the BnffUsh Poets. By Samuel Johnson, LL.D. ; 
edited by George Birkbeok Hill, D.C.L. ; with brief memoir 
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M.A. In 8 vols., large 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Oxford Univer- 
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The Poetical Works of WlUlam Blake. Edited by John 
Sampson. With facsimiles, 8vo, uncut, pp. 884. Oxford Uni* 
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Letters of Horace Walpole, Fourth Earl of Orford. Edited 
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Ijetters and Addresses of Thomas Jefferson. Edited by 
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The Lyrical Poems of WlUlam Blake. Text by John 
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BUlton's Ode on the Kominr of Christ's Nativity. With 
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Songs in a 8im-(Hmien. By Coletta Ryan. 12mo, gilt top, 

uncut, pp. 101. Herbert B. Turner ft Co. $1. 
The Book of the Singrinr Winds. By Sara Hamilton 

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Smile and Sing, and Other Verses. By Annie Marie Bliss. 

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The Storm Signal. By Gustave Frederick Mertins. lUus., 

12mo. pp.425. Bobbs-Merrill Co. $1.60. 
Kr. Scraggs. By Henry Wallace Phillips, nius.. 12mo. uncut, 

pp.188. Grafton Press. $1.25. 

The Belations of Faith and Life. By Rt Rev. A. C. A. 

Hall, D.D. 12mo, pp. 89. Longmans, Green ft Co. $L. net. 
The Failure of the "Higher Criticism" of the Bible. 

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Half Oentory messages to Pastors and People. By D. W. C. 

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Christianity in Kodem Jai>an. By Ernest W. Clement. 

nius., 12mo, pp. 206. American Baptist Publication Society. 
Teachers' Ghiide to the International Sunday School Lessons 

for 1906. By Martha Tarbell, Ph.D. lUus., large 8vo, pp.637. 

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Studies in the Old Testament. By Charles Herbert Morgan 

and Thomas Eddy Taylor. 8vo. pp. 217. Jennings ft Graham. 

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The Life of Christ. By the Very Rev. Alexander Stewart. D.D. 

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Animal Snapshots, and How Made. By Silas A. Lottridge. 

12mo, pp. 888. Henry Holt ft Co. $1.75 net 
The Prairie and the Sea. By William A. Quayle. Illus.. 

large 8vo. gilt top. pp. 848. Jennings ft Graham. $L net 
Ferns, and How to Grow Them. By G. A. Woolson. nius., 

12mo, pp. 156. " The Qtaden Library." Donbleday, Page ft 

Co. $1. net. 


National Bdaoational Association: Journal of Proceedings 
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National Bdaoational Association. Reports of the Com- 
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Great Pedagogical Bssays: Plato to Spencer. Edited by 
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Caesar's (HOUc and Civil Wars. Edited by Maurice W. 
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Thackeray's Henry Esmond. Edited by Hamilton Byron 
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First Tear in Algebra. By Frederick H. SomerviHe. 12mo, 
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Elementary Physical Science, for Grammar Schools. By 
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The Oonstitntional Decisions of John Marshall. Edited 

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The Dissociation of a Peirsonality: A Biographical Study 

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Xing' Ijeopold II.: His Rule in Belgium and the Congo. By 

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A Decade of CiTic Development. By Charles Zueblin. 

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Studies in Koro History, Law, and Baligion. By Najeeb 

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War Inconsistent with the Beligion of Jesus Christ. 

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DIAL, 66 

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Part 7F. (85 oto. ): Htmdbook of PromumekUion for adTMiood grade; 


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Ten Volumes. 

**A writer who has endowed oar lancoage with admirable 

poetry, the brother of Lamartfne, of Hugo, and of Byron, a 

who, in one aet, liae made the Gomedie Fran^alee earn more 
money than we giro it In six monthe; one of thoM thinkers 

of fortone and podtion.** aLKXAHDRE DUMAg. 





[Jan. 16, 1906. 

The Nordfeldt Prints 

C Designed and cut on the wood by B. J. Olsson-Nordfeldt and printed by him after the 
Japanese method, in water colors. Recognized here and abroad as an art item of unique and 
extraordinary interest. A few of the prints heretofore produced by Mr. Nordfeldt may still be 
had at from $8.oo to |io.oo each. A selection of these will be sent to responsible persons 
on approval. 


CMr. Nordfeldt will produce twelve sets of blocks in 1906, the number of impressions from 
each set to be limited to 250, each to be numbered and signed — the blocks to be destroyed. 
They will be sold only by subscription and only in full sets of twelve, to be delivered by regis- 
tered post as issued — one each month. Not more than two sets allotted to any one person. 
CThe price for the full set is $20. in January, increasing 10 per cent each month during the 
year. Thus the February price is $22. , the March price $24. , etc. Payable quarterly in advance. 
C The January price in England is four guineas, February four and one-half guineas, March five 
guineas, etc. , advancing half a guinea per month during the year. Payable quarterly in ad'vance. 
C Circular containing six half-tone reproductions, free upon application. Send subscriptions 
and remittances to 



The Fine Arts Building, CHICAGO 


- Examples may be seen and subscriptions arranged for in New York at the New Gallery, 
1 5 West Thirtieth Street. A collection of the Nordfeldt Prints is now being shown, 
by special invitation, at the annual exhibition of The International Society, London. 


We want the names of buyers of Americanay 
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The author of '* The Turn of the Road.*' 


58 THE DIAL [Feb.1, 


Messrs. A. C. McCLVRG now have in preparation some important 
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This series will consist of translations of rare works on topics of interest 
to library workers. Edited by JOHN COTTON DANA, Librarian of the 
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VoL I. Concerning the Duties and Qualifications of a Librarian 
Vol. II. The Reformed Library Keeper 

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The Book that Won the Nobel Peace Prize 


(**Die WaflFen Niederl") 



THE wide publicity given the Baroness von Suttner's '* Die WafFen Nieder I " 
which won the Nobel Peace Prize for 1905 ($40,000), has made it necessary 
to bring out a re-issue of this admirable translation. 

"Ground Armsl" has been not unaptly called the "Uncle Tom's Cabin" of 
the peace propaganda. It is, like Mrs. Stowe's famous book, a work of fiction, 
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striking way, and is supposed to have exerted the greatest influence in bringing 
about The Hague Tribunal. " Ground Arms I " has had an enormous circulation 
in Europe. 

New Edition, with Portrait of the Author, $1*25 






Recently Pablished 


Thirty-one essays on the romance of the earlier days, 
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One might read a dozen histories and not get so real 
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of practical value, by Miss Betham-Edwards, Officier 
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The Abb£' Klein* s famous book about the United 
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This life of the poet-astronomer is by a Persian 
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In Preparation 


A delightfully written account of what a boy saw of 
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trated. $1.00 net. 


The Isthmian Canal and the West Coast 
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The author, Charles M. Pepper, is a distinguished 
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The Romance of Would-be Founders of Em- 
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Romantic tales of the daring adventurers who became 
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author, William Horace Brown, knows his subject 
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In Modem Science and Ancient Wisdom 

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ing not only scientists, but laymen, in ever increasing 
numbers. This volume offers for the first time a com- 
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to be found only in the most scattered and inaccessible 




[Feb. 1, 

Have We a Huxley Among Us? 



" The call goes up for a new Moses in the wilderness, a new Huxley who shall 
lead us out of darkness into light. But whither shall we turn?" says The 
New York Herald, August 6th, 1905, in a full-page review of 

The New Knowledge 


Sir William Eamsay and M. Beoquerel pronounce it one of the great books of 
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tale. It brings the knowledge of the world up to date. 

Clothy $2.00 net. By mail, $S.16. Fifth Edition. 

A Little History of 
Colonial Life 

(In two volumes) 

1. Our First Century 

2. Life in tiie IStli Century 

<^ Social features of Colonial life, its religion, 
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its play, its work, its commercial and agricul- 
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Each volume 12mo, $1.20 net. 

Lives of Great 


In the Days of Cliaucer 
In the Days of Shalcespeare 
In the Days of Milton 
In the Days of Scott 

'<As an open-minded student Mr. Jenks un- 
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Each volume 12mo, $1.00 net 


The Business of Life Insurance 


Cloth, 12mo, $1.50 net. Second Edition. 

" Practical, suggestive, and soundly informative, this hook should find a wide audience." 

— The Outlook. 
Catalogue on AppliecUion. 





"The history of the world is the 
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"Unnecessary to comment upon the value 
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A Library of History and Exploration. Professor JOHN BACH McMASTER, Consulting Editor. 

History toid by the Makers of History 

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The Explorer of the Miasitsippi. 
The Journeys of La Salle and his Companions* 1678-1687. As related by himself and his 
followers. Edited, with an Introduction, by Professor I. J. Cox, of the University of CincinnatL 
In two volumes. 

First Across the Continent. 
The Journey of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de 
Vaca» and his companions from Florida to 
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Translated by Fanny Bandelier. Edited, 
with an Introduction, by Ad. F. Bandelier. 

The First Explorer of the South. 
Narratives of the Career of Hernando 
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1642, as told by a gentleman of Elvas, by 
Luys Hernandez De Biedma, and by Rod- 
rigo Ran j el. 

Edited, with an Introduction, by Professor 
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The First Explorer of the West. 
The Journey of Coronado, 1540-42. From 

the City of Mexico to the Buffalo Plains of 

Kansas and Nebraska. 
11 ^Translated and |Edited,| with an Introduc- 
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"" D-^ Founder of New France. "^3555 

Voyages and Explorations of Samuel de 

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{^Translated by Annie Nettleton Bourne. 

Edited, with an Introduction, by Edward 

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First Across British America. 
Voyages from Montreal through the Con- 
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and Pacific Oceans In 1789 and 1793. 

By Alexander Mackenzie. In two volumes. 

The Oreatest American Exploration. 
History of the Expedition Under the 
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With an Account of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase, by Professor John Bach McMaster, 
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Dial (Ohioago) : — •*TUa edition b a veritabto boon.** 






[Feb. 1, 





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CHRISTIAN RBLIOION. III. CbristkuiHy Iron the Isbunle 
Stamlpoliit. ByAllSBBALI,M.A.,C.LE. 

AOB. By the Rev. HEBER NEWTON, D.D. 


Profeeaor HENRT JONES, LLD. 


In CtaristlMilty . By SIR OLIVER LODGE. 





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ihibeoriptiona are booked and aingle nnmbcra aold by 

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1906.] THE DIAL 69 



This series is to be a veritable encyclopaedia of humor. Not only Mark Twain and others known 
to the public as humorists will be represented, but the great editor will go further and give rvhtful 
place to all writers who have shown a vein of real humor in their work. That Mark twain 
knows best what is lasting humor and how to select it goes without saying. 

This volume contains some of the most laughable writings of Artemus Ward, Eugene Field, 
Bret Harte, John Kendrick Bangs, Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Bill Nye, " Mr. Dooley," E. S. 
Martin, and others; also humorous selections from the works of W. D. Ho wells, Henry James, 
C. D. Warner, G. W. Curtis, etc., while ample space is given to Mark Twain's own writings. 

Illustrated. Crown 8vo. Price, lti.25. 


Author of "The Thrall of Lcif the Lucky,*' etc. 

A romance of the fabled Norse occupation of America, flushed with passion and great deeds, and 
starred with beautiful episodes. Randvar, the jarl's song-maker, loses his heart to the jarl's sister — 
the old love-tale, but in a new atmosphere, where stirring fact and mystic legend meet. 
Throughout resounds the clangor of arms, with soft interludes of love and poetry. The were- 
wolf myth is interwoven with the story with telling dramatic effect. Altogether it is a tale of real 
crispness, of charm, novelty, and stirring romance. 

With frontispiece in colors. Price, lti.50. 




Author of '< Young Folks* History oi Mexico,** etc. 

The career of the great explorer is followed in detail, and his personality set forth with striking 
clearness. Mr. Ober, under a commission from the United States government, has made extensive 
travels to seek out whatever vestiges of the early settlements remain in the West Indies. These 
researches, together with his visits to Spain, have thrown much new and valuable light on 
Columbus's career, which is herewith presented. 

Illustrated. Price, {i.oo net. 


By C. W. SALEEBY, Ph.D. 
Author of "The Cycle of Life," etc. 

Dr. Saleeby is known as one of the ablest and most scholarly writers on scientific subjects. In 
this volume he gives an explanatory and illuminating comment on the doctrine of Herbert Spencer, 
in which he discusses and illustrates the theory of evolution as it is now known in the light of the 
enormous mass of knowledge that has been gained in the forty-four years since "First Principles'* 
was written. In addition to the intrinsic interest of his subject-matter. Dr. Saleeby's manner of 
presentation is admirable. His English is clear and terse, and his illustrative examples are 
numerous and to the point. 

Price, ^2.00 net. 




[Feb. 1, 

The Bible ii Plata bglith 

Many of the Bible's deepest and mo6t significant 
passages are misunderstood or altogether missed by 
~ the average reader, because of 

the strange and unfamiliar 
words no longer used or known 
except to the student and 

It was to make the meaning 
of the Scriptures plain to all that 
the work of bringing out the 




was undertaken. For twenty- 
nine years the ablest and most 
devout scholars in America and 
England gave themselves to 
reverent, patient and careful 
study of the original text, and 
how to convey its exact true 
meaning in the language ot 

The American Standard is 
not a ntiM^ Bible^ but the old 
Bible made plain- Not a n^m slory, but the Old 
Story more clearly and simply told. 

It is not a departure from the inspired Word, but 
a drawing closer to {t. 

It is the standard for alt the great religious 
papers of this country, and is uaed by Ministers, 
Theolosleat SemtnarieSp Bible Tralnlfig 
Schools, Y. M,C A. » Universities, Colleges, 
Religious AsAoclstlons, and the various 
Societies of every deitom I nation j because it is 
ike Bihie in. plain English^ thus making the use ol 
Bible Commentaries unnecessary. 

Writa f«r Our 40-pigi Book, 
"Stori of tho Aim rloan Stanilard BIbIa" 

SENT FREC. «hich telU why tHe 
Hibtc wai revised, how \\ was iic> 
comp lished , and thowa lannnle 
paat$4^ hinH!nif»» elc, of the m^ny 
iitylufti issued. YcHir name on a postal 
caH. wHh the name of yotir 
btHklcKlkr. will get yoti Qua book. 

All lKK>kR«Meri have In stock,. 
t>r can qinckly uci from us^ny style 
o( thr Arnerican Standard Bible you 
order. Prices uc, lo ^iS.w, aCConl- 
inif to sijc nnd binding. See (hat 
Vni i?et ihe Amcrlcsii StAndard 
K^itian. T^ttk (ar the Nelson im- 
print ami the endorsenitnt of the 
Amfricati Rcvinion Committee on 
ihe h^ick of the title iwice. (^"We 
kII direct where DoaksellJeni will 
not Knppjf , 

41 V, EHt ISth Straat, New York 

A Few 
Pilgrim Press Pubiications 

that •v»ry Publlo Library should havo 

A. Knight, author of « The Song of our 
Syrian Guest/* $i.oo. 
A strong story of whaling days in New Bedford. 

THE BOY PROBLEM By W. B. Forbush, 
with introduction by President G. Stanley 
Hall. 75 cents net. 


MEN By £. N. Hardy. $1.25 net. 

rallglous disolplino of youth By C. E. 


Henry Ward Beecher*s Books, Dr. R. S. Storr^s 
Orations and Addresses, and stories by Frank 
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Impressions of 
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and the Allied Arts 


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Wllllflin Elliot Qriffla iiri : ■' A very iblc and ddifht- 
f u L bdok . M r, C ra m .h« • entered i ato the >p 1 rit f J ip«Q , 
ind fail work ii true ippreciatioDp which will tarely win 

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73 iliustrattofis. Net $1.50 

A critical lad hittorical trcmtmcDt of picturei by the lead- 
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Burrows' New Books 


Oid France in the New World 

(Qnfibee in tlie 17th Coitiiry) 

OrtftTo, Bneknm, «zfei», fiUly illiifteitod, $2M net. 

(Pottagv, 21 oentB.) 

li a Tilinbte ad^ . 

iMy**; and tbs ifa»il0ta .AtM Ptms, In a four oolanm orltiqae, 
»■ rill ill Mfoikmi: "•Old Fraoee'wfflbainnaiwbto to thoMwho 
vlib to ota4]r In tho f omatlvo poriod tho people who now iorm one- 
AM o< the population of tlM Dominion.** 

A Book Without aa Unfavorable Notice. 

lUa full and oomprehenelve voliune bj Dr. Donglaa, on the earlj 
Mrtaij of Oaaadn, b realy an epitome on aU that la Intereettiw In 
^ - ' I hiatoijdiuinf the period oovered. Thellnal<dia^ra 

of great tansth the ilTmprerftTWftiMM said: ••Thework 
addMon to the inoreaainf Uteratore of Canadian hla- 

_ with the Hndaon Bey Oompany, Oolonintion Oompanieo Paat 
Preeent, and the portionadeyoted to Tndlana and AroluBology, are 

J}6$oH>pU9§ dfwUot en tyjtpiiic&hoHm 


Five American Politicians: Burr- 
Dougias-Clay-Cllnton-Van Buren 

Sbb, 7Hz6% ibaIim; 447 pagM, photogzanm portraiti, 
doth $2.00. (Pottagv, 12 oenti). 

■aeUaofy of rnodom poUtioa had Ite Inoeptlon in tho deaije 
I man to earrj oat iaeoee and fnliU amUtlona highly neoeaaary 
There haye oeen many die- 
It has been Dr. Orth' 
nlage of thia aaaentlally Amerioan fdiaae of 

pthe b 

a In thia peooUar field, bat It has been Dr. Orth's object 
Bcinnli^ of thia aaaentlally Amerioan phaae of poUtioa] 
of tiie Ave great namea eontriboted some special feature. 

Iblann Burr may be given the eredit of the flrat American poUti- 
taiwmAtam. It hae eonrlTed the oentnry aa Tunmaay HalL 

De Witt Glfarton wae the foonder of the Bpolto Qyatam, the earlieet 

The life of the 


of all forms of graft. The life «f the man wae a 
^es; the strong and weak points constantly In contrast 

by Olinton was deftly canled by another to 
The story of Martin Yen Boren Is one of carefal plotting 

aimBS presniii 

and Ylotim of Oompronise and Ooalition, Henry Olay 
■Bmlasnt Wkn tiiMa lie stood ' 
on our political stage; the oiganiaer of 


•penm ftd pMty; the originator of great Issoee. 

stood for tho prssiden^, < 

deftated. l&rhalfa 

Oas ether HMBo—BtMhen A. Douglas, Deftaider of Btate Bighta, 
maabetoelnded. His life was glten to that period which dotermlBed 
l» IS whether w wore to be a nation or a confederation. 

Ihi book Is written In a Inoid, straightforwaid manner, the aathor's 
•htaf ehleot bein« to btii«oat the foremoet peUtioal episodes in the 

ne growth of-the Bystem and par^ machinery; the origin of the 
masai and tts dooiino; the rise and disTolopnient of the convontion 
flm^ and other details of modem poUtioa are t rea t ed ezhanstlTely 

Narrative of the Adventures of 
Zenas Leonard, • Nativo of cioarfioid 

Coufiisr« Pa., who spent five years in Trap- 
ping for Furs» Trading with the Indians, 1839. 

by Dr. W. F. Wiaaia. An accurate reprint of one of the 
oi Amerioena, tivoe or four copies only being known to 
fomia X3 


of the Walker Calif o 

^ Xxpedltlon of 188M4 
Ml ewe o< Beawevllle's party at a later date, the author gives many 
hato heiaiotore naaothantloatod. Portraita, lUustratlons, and maps 
an added, and the Tolnae ranks with Lewis and Otark or the Oass 
I of five hundred and twenty copies only will be 

Oota;n>, eUrth, eztia, $5.00 net. (Pottaga, 12 oents.) 


:: :: . cletelakd, Ohio 


Published In 1905 by 


29 WMt Twenty'thltd Street, New Yortc 


On Ten Plays of Shakespeare. By Stopvobd 
Bbookb. 12mo. $2.25.* '' A mora deliffhtfal vdliinia of 
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Dramatists off Today. By Edwabd Evuubtt Haxa, Jr. 
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Shakespeare's London. By H. T. Sg aymi r a oy. 
With oyer 40 illnatrations. 12mo. $2.00.« 


A Guide to the Study of Fishes. By Dayid Stabb 

Jordan. 1223 pp. 086 illnafcrations. 2 yoU. 8to. 

American Insects. By Vebitoh L. Kbllooo. WLth 

812 fignies, 11 odoiad plates, 647 pp. 8yo. |5.00.« 
Animal Snapshots. By Silas A. Lottbidgb. With 

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aUa book traating of wild life baa ever oome ander onr 

notice."— JPWcT and Stream, 
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. 12mD. $1.76.« 
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trated. 12ino. $1.26. 
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trated. 12mo. $2.60. 
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arranged."— 7%s Critic 

* Add ten per cent of price for postage. , _.- 

72 THE DIAL. [Feb.l,l»06. 

Important New Macmillan Books 


Mr. William Holman Hunt's reminiscent 
. Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood 

Two volume; riMy iUuttrated, flOOO net. 
^ At last there is set before the world the book which has been none too patiently waited for 
for many years past^ and an absorbing, interesting, and yalnable book it is, fluently and admir> 
ably written, and on its lighter side vastly entertaining. . . . Likely to survive as long as 
English art is treasured and studied." — Daily Oraphic (London). 


Mr. F. Marion Crawford's Salve Venetial Gleanioss from History 

^^ These two volumes, rich in anecdote and story, packed with legend and fact gleaned from 
Venetian history, make interesting reading. . . . The make-up of the book is most attractive, 
and it is beautifully and lavishly illustrated with 225 drawings by Joseph Pennell, . . . and 
they render admirably the picturesque quality of Venice." — The Eoening Poet (New York). 

Two volumee in a box erown 890, $5,00 net (earritige extra). 

Mr. Samuel Isham's illustrated History of American Painting 

^' Those of his acquaintance have long known Mr. Isham's exceptional fitness for his task. 
... It was expected to be good ; it is even better than was expected." — The Nation. 

Uniform with '' Taft's Seulpture," in a box, $5.00 net. 

Mr. B. L Putnam-Weale's The Re-Shapins: of the Far East 

By the author of •«Manchu and Muscovite*' 

Illustrated from fine photographe. Two volumee, $6.00 net. 
" A remarkably searching, anal3rtical, clear, and comprehensive presentation of what is on the 
surface, and beneath it as well, an intricately complicated and perplexing situation. . . . 
Withal, there has been nothing printed so far that so minutely dissects and so lucidly demon- 
strates the complex organism of Oriental diplomacy." — The New York Tribune. 

Mr. Winston Spencer Churchiirs Life of Lord Randolph Churchill 

'< There is every dish in it that can whet the palate, all the things that everyone wants to know 
and only a very few can find out ; the real views that lie behind the plausibilities of the plat- 
form, the private relations that lie behind public politeness, all the secret springs of which the 
world sees only the resulting acts. And yet it is no book of the backstairs. The revelations 
are of things of real interest, and are griven in letters from the actors themselves, published 
with their consent" — Times' 8 Literary Supplement (London). 

In ttoo 8vo volumes, $9 00 net. 

Dr. flenry Charles Lea's A History of the Inquisition of Spain 

By the author of the ^' History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages." In four volumes, 8yo, 
to be issued at intervals of about six months. 

The price of Volume /., ready January 25, is $2,50 net. 
The standing of Dr. Lea's '^ History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages," which has been 
translated into both French and German, g^ives assurance that this work will take a permanent 
position as an authoritative and dispassionate account of an institution which possesses 
perennial interest, whose history extended over nearly five hundred years disastrous to the 
glory and prosperity of Spain. 


S SbtmufAm^lS, 


iicigm, IBlwaMian, aiUi IntonnaUoiu 

THE DIAL (fmmded in 1880) U publUhad on the Ut and 19th 
tfeaeh month, Tbbms op SvBOcaupTnMcIf . a year in tgdvanee, 
posUiQt prepatd in the United StcUee^ Canada^ and Mexico; 
fti othet^eountriee eomprieed in the Postal Union, SO eente a 
fear for extra postage mutt be added. Bbcrtahobs ehould 
be Hf eheek, or by expreee orpoetal order, payable to THE 
DIAL COMPANY, Unleee otherwiee ordered, eubseriptione 
via begin with the current number. When no direet requett 
to diteotatnue at expiration of aubeeription i$ received^ it i$ 
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AmmnuiNo Batbb fumithed on application. A II eomtnuni- 
eatUnu ehoutd be addreeeed to 

THE DIAL, Fine Arte EuiUUnff, Chicago. 


No. 471. 

FEBRUABT 1, 1906. 

Vol. XL, 





Some Bibliographic Needs and PosribilitieB. 

Eugene FairfUld McPike. 
Mr. Sirinbiinie ae *'a Lore Poet." Franeie 

Howard WiUianu. 


Percy F. Bicknell 80 


H, Parker Willis 82 


Rkoadea 86 


Sogers 87 


Charles H. A. Wager 89 


The negro influence in onr history. — A poeVs 
firrt hook of prose. — Washington as explorer and 
expansionist. — Dr. Osier in pithy paragraphs. — 
Romantic episodes in the history of niinois. — 
IGlton and his contemporaries. — Records of a 
photographer-naturalist. — English men and meas- 
ures from 1876 to 1886.— A contribution to the Gar- 
rinn anniTersary. — Comments on things and places, 
hooiks and men. — A liTcly study of **La Grande 






The effort to bring public libraries into coop- 
erative relations with public schools, which had 
its tentatiye beginnings about a quarter of a cen- 
tury ago, has since that time steadily progressed 
until the work of the teacher has gained numer- 
ous points of contact with the work of the libra- 
rian, and both schools and libraries have been 
benefited by the work. In many places, teachers 
are given special facilities for obtaining the books 
they need in their classrooms, and pupils are en- 
couraged to become card-holders at the libraries. 
Sometimes delivery stations are established in 
the schools themselves; while in the libraries, 
special rooms are invitingly fitted up for the use 
of children, and special attendants provided to 
meet their peculiar needs. 

This is the briefest kind of summary of an 
extension of library activity that has accom- 
plished many good results, and may be expected 
to accomplish many more. But no amount of 
effort of this description can absolve the school 
from the duty of having a library of its own, 
and of enlisting library intelligence to put the 
books to their proper use. Now schools do not, 
as a rule, perform their duty in this respect, and 
their failure to perform it constitutes one of the 
mpst obvious present defects in their manage- 
ment. It is the purpose of the present article 
to indicate in rough outline what the schools 
ought to do, and what the friends of public 
education ought to insist upon until the needed 
reforms are secured. What we shall say will 
apply mainly to schools of higher grade, because 
elementary schools cannot do very mudi in this 
direction. They can encourage a taste for read- 
ing good books of the juvenile class, and can see 
that such are made obtainable ; they can also 
give children some elementary instruction in the 
use of books for study. For these purposes a 
few works of reference and a carefully-chosen 
circulating library should suffice. But when 
the high-school years are reached, a far more 
thorough-going plan should be adopted. A 
general idea of what that plan should be, and 
some notion of its points of application to the 
ordinary high-school course of study, will be 
given in the present discussion. 



[Feb. 1, 

A concrete example will serve to indicate our 
point of view. We have just now in mind one 
of the largest and newest high schools in one of 
our largest cities. It is a school occupying half 
of a city block, and costing upwards of a quar- 
ter of a million dollars. It is a school providing 
an extensive variety of courses in ma^ematics, 
natural science, ancient and modem languages, 
history and literature, besides the courses in those 
so-called " commercial " subjects with which so 
many of our schools have been equipped of late 
years by way of a concession to the demand for 
what is hastily assumed to be a ^^ practical" 
form of education. Now a full third of the 
space of the school — practically one whole floor 
out of the three — is set apart for the laborar 
tories in which are taught the courses in physi- 
ography, biology, physics, and chemistry. One 
small room constitutes the library, a room that 
will accommodate about thirty students at a 
time, and will hold barely twenty-five hundred 
volumes ! Nor does this school offer a very ex- 
ceptional case. Many other high schools of its 
kind are in existence, or are now being built 
upon the same lopsided plan, and it is time to 
make an energetic protest in behalf of the 
cultural subjects and the proper provision for 
their pursuit. 

School authorities have become so used to this 
state of things that they do not stop to think how 
absurd it is. Roughly speaking, we may say 
that the work of a typical high school falls into 
five classes, approximately equal in the amount 
of attention they receive. One of these five 
classes is the natural science group, another is 
the foreign language group, another is the his- 
tory group, and another is the English language 
and literature group. The fifth group is a mis- 
cellaneous assemblage to which everything else 
may be relegated. Now the all-important thing 
to be noted is that the library must be the laborar 
tory of two entire groups besides parts of others, 
or of fully one-half of the entire work done by 
students of the school. Yet in the typical case 
we have outlined, the natural science group alone 
has something like twenty times the laboratory 
space assigned (in the library room) to the far 
larger group of the studies which are best called 
humanities. The disproportion between bread 
and sack in Falstaff's tavern score is the only 
parallel worthy of the occasion. 

We would not be taken as grudging in any 
way the most liberal provision of appliances for 
the teaching of science. In the endeavor to 
rescue education from the grasp of text-book rou- 
tine, scientific studies presented the first phase 

of the difficulty to be attacked, because their 
need of such rescue was the most urgent. To 
teach physics and chemistry from books alone, 
or witli ^e aid of sl few demonstrations by the 
instructor, was a farcical proceeding, and it is an 
undoubted gain to have substituted therefor a 
more rational method. But that difficulty has 
been coped with, and now hardly exists. The 
urgent problem of the present is to provide the 
means for teaching history and literature by the 
direct use of their materials ; that is, to substi- 
tute the easy use of many books for the hard 
memorizing of one. Our schools are only just 
beginning to grapple with this problem, and its 
solution will not be reached until the same meas- 
ure of facilities is afforded in this group of 
studies as it has long been taken for granted must 
be afforded in the scientific groups. In other 
words, the teaching of history and literature 
must be carried on in a well-equipped library, 
with constant use of the authorities, with the 
setting of tasks that cannot be performed with- 
out the student's own correlation of many printed 
sources of information, and with the kind of in- 
telligent guidance that can alone be given bj 
the instructor who is himself familiar with the 
methods and materials of historical and literary 

To bring about this desired result a school 
must have a library in which at least one-half 
of the class-work in history and literature may- 
be done. The library must be large enough to 
accommodate all the classes that need to use it, 
which means that the space it occupies should 
be approximately equal to the space now occu- 
pied by the combing laboratories. It must be 
provided with many books, and often with many 
copies of the same book, which is quite as neces- 
sary a thing to do as to provide many microscopes 
for students of biology and many balances for 
students of chemistry. And it must have a gen- 
erous appropriation for its maintainance, whicb 
means that the total sum annually available for 
school supplies ought to be apportioned about 
equally between library and laboratories. It is 
a matter of the barest justice that as much 
money should be spent upon books as upon 
biological supplies and chemical glassware and 
reagents. We believe that the most important 
thing now to be done for the improvement of our 
secondary education is to develop the human- 
istic studies upon the lines here suggested, and 
to make of the library the chief centre of the 
school's activity. 

A school can do nothing more valuable than 
thus to accustom its students to the intelligent 




ttf^nHling of books. The watchword of the last 
generation was an appeal to get away from 
books and into direct contact with things^ This 
was justifiable in so far as it meant the getting 
away from text-books, and into contact with 
the real materials of knowledge, and the ap- 
peal has been fully vindicated in the case of 
the scientific subjects. Now in the case of 
history and literature, it must be remembered, 
the books themsdves are the things — not the 
student's own text-book, which may here be 
as much of an obstacle or a nuisance as it was in 
the other case, but the books that are used for 
mvestigation, for comparison, for criticism, and 
.for the training of judgment and logical faculty. 
There is no respect in which work done with 
books in this sense may not prove as effective 
for the ultimate purposes of education as work 
done with the microscope and the balance. We 
regard this as an understatement of the truth, 
and would not hesitate to make a much larger 

Furthermore, when we consider how much the 
education that is continued after schooltime is 
over depends upon the right use of books, we 
can hardly be too emphatic in asserting that 
something of that use should be learned in the 
school. Yet almost nothing of the sort really is 
lesuned. The average student in a high school 
does not know the difference between a table of 
oont^its and an index, does not know what a con- 
cordance is, does not know how to find what he 
wants in an encydopsedia, does not even know 
that a dictionary has many other uses besides that 
of supplying definitions. Still more pitiful is 
his naive assumption that a book is a book, and 
that what book it is does not particularly mat- 
ter. It is the commonest of all experiences to 
hear a student say that he has got a given state- 
ment from a book, and to find him quite inca- 
pable of naming the book. That tiie source 
of his information, as long as that information 
is printed somewhere, should be of any conse- 
quence, is quite surprising to him, and still more 
Uie suggestion that it is also his duty to have 
some sort of an opinion concerning the value 
and credibility of the authority he thus blindly 
quotes. If the school Ubrary, and the instruction 
given in connection with it, should do no more 
than impress these two elementary principles 
apon the minds of the whole student body, it 
woold go far towards accounting for itself as an 
educational means. That it may, and should, do 
much more than this is the proposition that we 
have sought to maintain, and we do not see how 
its essential reasonableness may be gainsaid. 


Every civilized nation has learned that education 
pays on the material side as well as on the higher 
plane. No wise statesman dares neglect it Our free 
schools reach the remotest hamlet. Indeed, distri- 
bution of schools has been overdone, and like other 
states New York finds that many of its 11,000 
school districts could wisely be consolidated ; for it 
would often be cheaper to transport the children 
from two or more of the weakest districts to a better 
school, than to attempt to support so many different 
buildings and teachers. Whatever the method, no 
intelligent man denies that every home must be 
reached with educational facilities. 

Tlus education is for the young, in school, and 
for a limited course. It is of priceless importance, 
and well worth the many millions paid for it yearly. 
But there is another means of education quite as 
important, not for the young alone but for all, to be 
had at home instead of in school, and lasting not 
for a short course but through life. For this the 
term " home education " has wisely been chosen to 
differentiate it from school education, which is 
obtained not at home but in regular teaching insti- 
tutions. The problems of home education are com- 
paratively new. There is great lack both of men 
and money for its work. We must choose from many 
possible plans those that will give the best practical 
results from limited resources. In a comprehensive 
view of home education we find five distinct factors : 
libraries, museums, dubs, extension teaching, and 
tests and credentials. Of these any competent stu- 
dent is sure to find libraries easily the most important, 
efficient, and economical, and the natural centre for 
the other four agencies. The growing recognition 
of this fact is shown by more than a hundred new 
laws concerning libraries passed in America, and 
402 gifts, made from private resources, aggregating 
$16^000,000, in a single recent year. There has 
been nothing in educational history equal to this 
modern library movement It has the most support 
and the least opposition, the most liberal grants by 
taxpayers, the most generous gifts from philanthro- 
pists. We are astounded to find how much has been 
done for this side of education, but more astounded 
when we study deeper to see how little of what is 
needed has as yet been accomplished. We spend 
fabulous sums each year and are proud of our sta- 
tistics, but we reach only a small proportion of those 
who most need help. Any observer who looks below 
the surface finds many houses in both city and coun- 
try where no good books are bought or read. Some 
people read nothing; some only newspapers, and 
these often the poorest rather than the best; some 
read magazines, good, poor, or indifferent; but the 
number of book readers is pathetically small. There 
are some whole villages where not half a dozen of 
the best books find their way. There are colleges 
where the amount of the best reading outside the 
prescribed text-books is startlingly restricted. Stu- 
dents are too busy with required studies and other 



' [Feb. 1, 

datieBy and as a result are graduated and sent out 
to swell the army of non-readers, though the reading 
habit would have been worth to them more than all 
the learning of their college text-books. 

We have learned that in education as in farming 
new soil g^ves the largest crops. A given amount 
of effort does double good when spent on the young 
rather than on adults. Profiting by this knowledge, 
we give more attention than ever before to the 
needs of children. Special rooms, and librarians 
naturally fitted and trained for assisting children, 
are being added to the best libraries. Home libra- 
ries reaching little groups ^^ with books and a friend " 
are sowing good seed, but there is not more than one 
where a thousand are needed. The wise farmer who 
has more land than he can work properly looks 
over his territory and selects for first attention that 
which promises best returns. As we look over the 
library field ripe for the harvest on every side, we 
find the greatest need at present in the rural sec- 
tions. A little over half of our people live in the 
country. They have a larger margin of leisure, 
fewer distractions, and fewer opportunities to get 
the best reading. They read more slowly and care- 
fully, and get more good from books tha^ their high- 
pressure city cousins, whose crowded lives leave little 
time for intellectual digestion. These facts are un- 
questioned, and one would think that philanthropists 
wishing to do the greatest good with a given sum of 
money would look to the country, rather than to the 
town where large niunbers in a small territory make 
it easy to support public libraries. One might fairly 
expect that more than half the gifts for books and 
libraries would go to that half of the people who by 
conunon consent have most leisure for reading and 
fewest opportunities to get books ; but instead of hav- 
ing their pro rata share, which would have been 
about 52 per cent, an analysis of the 402 gifts of a 
recent year aggregating $16,000,000 shows less 
than one per cent, devoted to this rural reading. 
The explanation is doubtless that attention has never 
been properly called to the facts, and that the solu- 
tion is not obvious. A rich man who wishes to im-. 
prove the reading of his fellows can build a library 
or stock it with books in a city, but he hardly knows 
how to reach rural homes even if he understands 
their pressing needs. 

As a partial solution of the problem, we started 
our New York State system of travelling books, 
pictures, and collections, in 1892. Remarkable re- 
sults have been secured, and the system, still growing 
rapidly, has been gradually but generally accepted 
as a permanent factor in education. A community 
which is too small, or which thinks itself too small, 
to own and support a public library may thus feel 
free to accept, for a small fee for transportation, 
a hundred of the choicest books for six months. 
Novelty has then worn off. A library, like a res- 
ervoir, becomes stagnant, and the interest of readers 
can be maintained only by adding new books at 
frequent intervals, or by changing the entire libra- 
ries in the travelling system. Thus the same books 

move on from point to point till they are actually 
worn out in service, giving larger returns for each 
dollar invested than has ever been found possible 
in any other field. This* method, one of the moat 
valuable in modern librarianship, does the greatest 
good at moderate cost. 

It is easy to devise ways of doing good, but most 
of them cost too much to be practicable. It is easy 
to devise inexpensive plans, but most of them are 
not effective. To secure efficiency at low cost is 
the great problem in all educational, religious, or 
philanthropic work. You may compel your horse 
to go to the water, but he will drmk only if he 
wishes it. The best library, either permanent or 
travelling, is of little use to the man who will not 
read. It is weU worth all it costs to supply books 
to those who are hungry for them, but we must not 
neglect the underlying problem of creating the appe^ 
tite. Our system is not a complete success until it 
reaches most of the people for whom it was planned. 
The inexorable law of circulation, which applies to 
a community as much as to the blood, has taught ns 
that we cannot safely ignore the submerged tenth. 
Five Points filth may beget Fifth Avenue fever. 
Their f oUy may cause our f uneraL If there is a 
cancer in the foot the poison will circulate to the 
heart and brain. A town is not safe because it has 
sewer mains through every street if the residents 
fail to connect their houses with them. Schoolhonses 
and teachers do not educate if the children stay 
away. Boards of heUth may compel reckless citi- 
zens to connect their houses with the sewer system, 
truant officers may enforce compulsory education 
laws, but statutes cannot help us in our equally press- 
ing need of inducing people to read the best books. 

As in war and manufacturing, it is the man behind 
the nmchine or method that determines its efficiency. 
Much good is done by making books readily avail- 
able. The taste of readers improves by reading 
even without guidance, but the best results demand 
that behind the library's books there shall be an 
earnest human soul, whose chief concern is to make 
other lives better and more useful, through the influ- 
ence best exerted by good reading. The visitor in 
our little home libraries who meets once a week with 
the children, to give needed help ; the reference libra- 
rian, now so prominent a factor in the best libraries ; 
and the children's librarian, one of the best of the 
new special workers, — these are all practical recog- 
nitions of the fact that no magnificence of buildings, 
wealth of resourses and endowments, excellence of 
catalogues and indexes, or liberality of hours and 
rules, can ever take the place of the trained expert 
who is at heart the reader's sympathetic friend. 
Such a helper may change the whole course of a life 
by giving the experimental reader confidence and 
stimulating interest at the first short interview. The 
man or boy who has been spending his evenings 
lounging about the country store or saloon and 
doubtfuUy tries the experiment of going to the 
library instead, should be handled with as much 
skill as the trout that approaches the bait, for he is 




as easfly frigliftened away. He needs a sympalhetic 
keiping hanni across the stepping^tones of an un- 
tried stream. The range of books is vast The new 
reader needs not only books, bat a friend. A coun- 
try boy, who has never seen the city, dropped at 
night in the Grand Central station of New York may 
have skill and self-reliance enough to find his way 
safely, but he is infinitely better off if a friend meets 
him. In our best large libraries the reference and 
children's librarians perform these functions, for the 
constitaency is large enough to justify the expense. 
How are we to give at practical cost similar help to 
these scattered readers in rural homes who need it 
even more? Obviously no one small community 
can afford to pay for the whole time of a competent 
guide to books and reading. 

The itinerant principle offers a solution. The 
travelling book must be supplemented by the trav- 
elling librarian, who can give a day or two each 
week or month to the locality too small to afford his 
entire time. The economic principle is sound. Hun- 
dreds of thousands of commercial travellers prove 
that business men find the itinerant principle the 
dieapest and beet way to get their wares into com- 
munities too small to support a permanent store or 
agent. The missionary who has seven stations to 
eacbi of which he gives one day a week, the judge 
who moves from point to point to hold his court, the 
orchestra or company who g^iye only one or more 
entertainments in places too small to support a per- 
manent organization, illustrate the universal appli- 
cation of the principle which we must adopt in order 
to get best results at least cost. 

The commercial traveller does his best work only 
when be can carry his samples with him. People 
need object lessons. The travelling librarian must 
have with him a considerable collection of books 
for his house-to-house and individual work. He can 
do much good by gathering those interested in 
schoolhouses or churches for an evening talk, stimu- 
lating interest and good resolutions and giving help- 
foi suggestions ; but when he sits down with the 
family or an individual to talk about personal read- 
ing be must have open before him some of the books 
for which he is trying to create an appetite. As 
these are too heavy to carry about by hand, we must 
have a book wagon with horses or motor, holding 
perhaps a thousand volumes carefuUy selected for 
this peculiar work. With this equipment the man 
or ironuui with a genius for the work has a rare 
opportunity for usefulness. If it suggests the re- 
ligions colporteur distributing books and tracts, we 
must remember that only religious and educational 
work has ever moved deeply the human heart to 
missionary effort, and the work of which we are 
talking belongs clearly to this class. The book 
wagon would have its regular route, repeating its 
visit at intervals of perhaps two or more weeks. 
This book missionary would come to know his 
constituency as a pastor knows his people. He 
would learn natural abilities and tastes, and would 
become skilful in developing latent interests and 

leading promising readers steadily on to higher and 
better things. H on any trip he did not have in 
his wagon just the book wanted, he could record the 
need and bring the book next time from the central 
library from which his routes would radiate. He 
would invite his readers to visit the central library 
whenever they went to town and to feel free to ask 
for help in person or by letter. 

All would know that there was no commercial 
interest behind the work, and would feel confidence 
in asking guidance when they wished to buy books 
of their own. A book owned is much better than a 
book loaned. If the travelling librarian can in- 
duce his readers to apply their money to buying 
good books he will have done an educational work 
of incalculable value. To assist in this, endowments 
or gifts should pay necessary expenses of adminis- 
tration, so that any reader may have brought to him 
at wholesale cost any book among those it is espe- 
cially desirable to distribute. It ib pathetic to see 
how books manufactured simply to sell are scattered 
through rural homes. People impressed with the 
value of good reading give their hard-earned money 
to clever agents who charge them high prices for 
books which ought to go to the paper-mill and not 
on the book shelf. The best way to cure this evil 
is not by declaiming against it, but by giving people 
the best books at cost instead of these poor books at 
high prices. The distribution of trash will stop as 
soon as it is unprofitable, for it is done only from 
pecuniary motives. 

No one who fully appreciates the great influence 
of books and reading can doubt that the money 
required to equip such a book wagon and to pay 
the salary of such a travelling librarian would 
yield very large educational dividends. The wagon, 
horses, and harness would cost about $1000, and 
the thousand suitable volumes would cost as much 
more. If as many books were in the hands of readers 
as ia the wagon, so that while changing the books 
from house to house the wagon continued substan- 
tiaUy full, the stock would be perhaps two thousand 
volumes. This investment would mean about $3000, 
besides the salary and travelling expenses. This 
latter item would be small, for farmhouses would 
compete with each other for the privilege of keep- 
ing the wagon over night and having extra op- 
portunity to examine its resources. A man worth 
$3000 a year could use his time to good advantage 
in this way. There are men of real ability so deeply 
interested in the work that they would do it for much 
less if necessary. Age, experience, and other elements 
would determine the necessary salary, but it would be 
perhaps a moderate estimate to allow $3000 for the 
equipment of the wagon and $2000 a year for salary 
and expenses. When I first proposed this new work 
some five years ago the term ^' field libraries" 
seemed well suited to designate the idea. Admirable 
opportunities, with cooperation and needed super- 
vision, await the first gifts for launching this very 
practical enlargement of the itinerant principle. 

Melyil Dewey. 



[Feb. 1, 




(To the Editor of The Diai^) 

When Lawyer Pleydell compared Dominie Samp- 
son's mind to a pawnbroker's shop stowed with all 
kinds of goods, which, however, were piled in utter 
confusion, he supplied a simile that is not altogether 
inapplicable to the world's store of knowledge at the 
present day. There is this distinction, however, that 
the latter case is not hopeless, for an effective remedy 
lies close at hand. During past centuries, various at- 
tempts have been made, more or less successfully, to 
classify all literature under specific as well as general 
heads. It may well be asked if the science of bibli- 
ography did not exist, at least in crude form, long be- 
fore the invention of tiie printing press, for we are told 
that the clay tablets recently discovered in the library 
of the palace of Assur-bani-pal, at Nineveh, were duly 
arranged in accordance with the subjects to which they 

Bibliographers of the past, like pioneers, have assisted 
in the advance of civilization, but of the modem bibli- 
ographer and skilful prospector increased demands are 
made, for it suffices not that they should submit merely 
a skeleton outline of things examined. Many pertinent 
notes must accompany their respective reports, because 
upon their accuracy and comprehensiveness rests the 
subsequent investment of valuable time and precious 
energies. Even Prescott's " Conquest of Mexico," not- 
withstanding the original researches made by its accom- 
plished author, would possess much less charm except 
for the labors of his predecessors in the same field. 

The bibliogn4>her, however, is likely also to be a 
bibliophile, and the loves of the latter may sometimes 
conflict with the most useful work of the former. The 
American point of view, being essentially practical, in- 
sists that he was right who said: "The only useful 
knowledge is the knowledge that is of use." Logically, 
therefore, the most useful knowledge is the knowledge 
that is of most use. The Library of Congress, in its 
bibliographic and other departments, obviously taflces 
this view of the matter, and endeavors to supply the 
people's wants and to anticipate their needs. Consider, 
for example, the timeliness of one of its recent issues, 
a << List of References on Primary Elections." Here is 
a good illustration of what can be accomplished, bibli- 
ographically, by a watchful observation of the trend of 
public affairs. 

The State Library School at Albany, and some other 
similar institutions, make the presentation of an orig^inal 
bibliography compulsory as a condition of graduation. 
Some of these compilations find their way into print, and 
others are preserved in manuscript form. The com- 
pilation of special bibliographies of subjects of vital and 
current interest or permanent usefulness, seems really 
to constitute one of the most important phases of the 
work yet to be performed. There is now an imcounted 
mmiber of such monographs in print, and the list is being 
augmented daily. To centralize this work, to establish 
a kind of bibliographic clearing-house, in America, is 
the step, a very essential one, that is most naturally 
next in order. How soon this step can be taken depends 
wholly upon the generosity of intelligent, representative 
citizens having the requisite means. 

It is problematical how much longer the Smithsonian 

Institution can consent to act as a regional bureau, in the 
collection and preparation of material for the ** Inters 
national Catalogue of Scientific Literature " published 
by the Royal Society of London, for the International 
Council. The time will come, and that, perhaps, quickly, 
when it will be absolutely necessary to establish an 
American bureau of bibliography upon which will at 
once devolve many important tasks. Among needed 
undertakings that have been suggested are an interna- 
tional catalogue of technological literature, which would 
prove of great interest and use in the United States, 
and a new bibliography of bibliographies. The latter, 
one of the projects informally considered by the Bibli- 
ographical Society of America as stated in a very 
interesting note by President Lane, should prove to be 
the crowning work of bibliography, a veritable index to 
indexes, a kind of starting point for all serious investi- 
gations thenceforth. The general summing up of 
knowledge and the saving of time that such an index 
would insure, are elements too important to escape the 
attention of thinking people. 

In 1004, there appeared from the George Washington 
University of Washington, D. C, an announcement by 
President Needham of the proposed establishment of a 
department of bibliography and library science, as soon 
as negotiations could be completed having in view an 
endowment of two hundred thousand dollars, with 
which to start the work. This evident appreciation of 
the value of bibliographic research in the United States 
will not pass unheeded. The large libraries of many 
American cities offer a wonderful field for study, but 
what can compete with the facilities that are so accessi- 
ble at our national capital? Students residing in the 
city of Washington would have advantages not else- 
where obtainable. The George Washington Universi<y 
has by its proposition given a typical example of the 
spirit of modem American university management. 
Conformable to that spirit, one may safely expect pro- 
ductive work, consisting of many invaluable contribu- 
tions to bibliography, to issue from the collective labors 
of the department when inaugurated. There ia no 
question about the potential energy of a great body of 
enthusiastic students, and of their positive power under 
guidance. They will quickly seize the opportunity thus 
afforded for the performance of useful work, in the 
natural course of study, and the ultimate results will 
undoubtedly be far beyond present estimation. Whether 
or not other educational institutions will add biblio- 
graphic research to their curriculimti remains to be seen. 
The field, which is extremely comprehensive, mi^t 
very wisely be approached inter-coUegiately. It cannot 
be thus approached too soon. The existence of a cen- 
tral bureau of bibliography would facilitate inter- 
communication between investigators and the exchange 
of data relating to monographs wanted or in prepara- 
tion; all which would redound to the advancement of 
knowledge and good citizenship. 

The subject of cooperative cataloguing has proved to 
be of widespread interest, in evidence of which fact 
one needs only consult the pamphlet, issued by the 
Library of Congress, entitled « Bibliography of Co- 
operative Cataloguing," by Messrs. Torstein Jahr and 
Adam Julius Strohm. An examination of this valuable 
collection, comprising 366 titles, is a necessary prelude 
to any serious study of the problem, which, as intimated 
above, is not without a solution. The difficulty is not so 
much to find a solution that will answer requirements 
fairly well, as to extract the best from all the plans 




seTeraUy Buggested, and finally to put the whole scheme 
into operation. Unrestricted cooperative cataloguing 
and uniyersal or international bibliography are subjects 
that must necessarily be very closely related. It ap- 
pears to the writer that among the chief works, perhaps 
the chief work, to be undertaken by a central bureau of 
luhliography, would be the compilation of a new bibli- 
ography of bibliographies, as mentioned above. To 
avoid frequent revision, it should be supplemented 
periodically by notices of additional bibliographies pub- 
lished subsequently or which may have been overlooked 
in previous collections. This problem, from an English 
standpoint, seems very nearly to have been solved by 
Courtney's '< Register of National Bibliography," re- 
cently published. 

Bibliographies need not be, and ought not to be, con- 
fined to works in the compiler's mother-tongue. At 
least a fair working knowledge of other modem lan- 
guages is possessed by many who consult such works, 
and it may be observed in passing that the acquisition 
of an ability to comprehend printed Crerman, French, 
Latin, Spanish, or Italian, offers no insurmountable 
obstacles to the American student, if he is blessed with 
any leisure moments to devote to such fascinating 

Pure science is naturally one of the most attractive 
fields of bibliographic research; wlule science, in its 
broadest meaning, well-nigh covers the entire realm of 
knowledge, including history. There is much that can 
be done in the collection of authorities on the local his- 
tory of American states, territories, counties, cities, and 
towns. These subjects of growing importance and 
interest merit the close attention of individual inves- 
tigators, of whose monographs, deposited in local 
libraries, facsimiles should be transmitted to the Library 
of Congress for the benefit of a wider circle of students. 
These facsimiles might consist of ordinary (typewritten) 
carbon copies, though the « black print," or " vandyke," 
process furnishes a means of duplicating original manu- 
scripts very cheaply and acceptably. The publication 
of a bulletin by the Library of Congress (proposed in 
the *< Library Journal," 30: 858) to report special bib- 
liographies needed or in preparation, would bring inves- 
tigators in touch with each other. It would do more, 
for such a bulletin would form a practical basis for 
cooperation. Eugene Fairfield McPike. 

Chicago, January £0, 1906. 

(To the Editor of Thb Dial.) 

The communication of Professor Pancoast, published 
in The Dial of January 16, commands the respect of 
all who know how eminently he is qualified to discuss 
a question of comparative poetics, and it is to be hoped 
Uiat the points which he raises against Mr. Swinburne's 
matter, as opposed to his manner, may be met temper- 
ately and without recrimination, as he suggests. 

Meanwhile, it seems to me that Professor Pancoast's 
argument is weakened by reference to Emerson, Words- 
worth, and Browning. Mr. Swinburne is essentially and 
avowedly *< a love poet," and it is because of his supreme 
mastery of verbal melody that he excels all others in the 
vivid and compact expression of erotic emotion. Now, 
while I have profound reverence for the names of both 
Emerson and Wordsworth, I should like to remark that 
if there could be anything funnier than Emerson's essay 
on love it would be an 'erotic poem by W^ordsworth. But 

when did Wordsworth ever write a love poem ? Pro- 
fessor Pancoast speaks of his doing so «at rare mo- 
ments." Will he not tell us when these moments were ? 

The reference to Browning strikes me as unfortunate 
because Professor Pancoast cites him as one who writes 
of love as a << high-minded gentleman," and not (like 
Mr. Swinburne) as <<a delirious pagan." Surely if a 
breaking down of conventions is to be taken into the 
count, Browning can give Mr. Swinburne aces and 
spades, for he not only makes love the supreme law of 
life, but brands as sin the usually accepted ethical rules 
established for its control (tnde <<The Statue and the 

It is hardly fair to confuse the sex motive, avowedly 
at the basis of the work of both Browning and Mr. 
Swinburne, with that lofty intellectual passion which 
characterizes the poetry of some of the other writers 
whom Professor Pancoast names. Neither does it seem 
quite fair to refer to some of the most exquisite pieces 
of metrical idealism in the language as « so-called love 

P^°^-" Francis Howard Williams. 

Philadelphia, January 18, 1906, 

In the February number of « The Printing Art " Mr. 
Lindsay Swift has some well-considered remarks on the 
^Atrocities of Color Supplements " (as issued by our Sun- 
day newspapers) which deserve a much wider and more 
general audience than the constituency of the excellent 
periodical in which they appear. Mr. Swift's arraign- 
ment of this distinctively American nuisance is based on 
both ethical and artistic g^unds. We should like to 
quote the entire article, but can find room only for a 
small portion. «It is impossible to describe the vul- 
garity and insanity of their drawing and coloring; and it 
cannot be that the editors, who must be men of some 
ability, however devoid of scruples, approve of their 
own mischievous work. Even the newest of the rich dis- 
play some personal taste in their belongings and adorn- 
ments, and even editors may have artistic consciences. 
Their answer to criticism against their methods invar 
riably is: The public will and therefore must have what 
it wants. I am not so sure about that. The public 
>nsits beautiful museums and libraries and seems to enjoy 
them; it goes to churches where good music may be 
heard; it will support a decent play and condemn a 
nasty one. But it can be debauched and can have its 
dawning sensibilities for art or anything else that is 
worth while blighted; and there is no debauchery or 
blight, outside the domain of obvious immorality, more 
deadening to the public than this continually thrusting 
everything that is sordid, vulgar, and belittling before 
its uncultured but curious eyes. ... It would not be 
so bad if these wretched perversions of so innocent and 
helpful a relish to life as the comic reached only persons 
of mature life. Even readers whose time is so valueless 
that they can afford to waste more than a glance at a 
Sunday paper must realize how worthless pictures of 
this sort really are. It is the children who suffer, for 
they absorb unconsciously the unsavory quality of such 
efforts to amuse, and are thus the involuntary victims 
of voluntary and responsible corruptionists. At a time 
when this country is seriously trying to implant a knowl- 
edge of and stimulate a taste for better things, artistic 
and aesthetic, through exhibitions in museums, libraries, 
and even in Sunday schools, it is not a little disheart- 
ening to realize that every step in this direction gets a 
weeldy setback through these colored atrocities." 



[Feb. 1, 

iKj^je ll^jeb ^00k8. 

A Biography of Cakltls^s 


" H n'y a rien qui s'arrange aussi facilement 
que les faits," says TaUeyraud, and, curiously 
enough, the lemark is quoted with approval by 
Froude. Whether it is also a favorite quota- 
tion of his biographer, Mr. Herbert Paul, is a 
matter of conjecture. Without asserting that 
his Life of Froude exemplifies the facility of 
arranging facts to the best advantage, it is cer- 
tainly true that the book is highly etdogistic ; 
but what good biography is not ? K the biogra- 
pher is not in hearty sympathy with his subject, 
what zest can the read^ bring to the perusal of 
his book? And surely Froude has been bit- 
terly enough and often enough assailed as a 
wilful perverter of &icts to deserve a handsome 
presentation of the case by counsel for the de- 
fence. As a Lincoln's Tnn barrister and a lit- 
Urateur of proved ability, Mr. Paul appears to 
be exactly the man for the task to which he has 
put his hand. It is true, he claims to have had 
no personal acquaintance with the historian; 
near the end of his book he describes his ^^ one 
and only experience of Froude and his ways," 
which was confined to the overhearing of an 
after-dinner talk ; but he may be all the more 
trustworthy in his account of the man for not 
having experienced more intimately the charm 
that so many of Fronde's friends foimd in the 
historian's personality. 

Three of the eleven chapters into which the 
author divides his book are especially note- 
worthy. In his first he presents a picture of the 
motherless boy's harsh upbringing that will be 
new to most readers. In his fifth he gives a de- 
tailed and amusing accoimt of Freeman's fren- 
zied assaults on his commendably unretaliatory 
brother historian, which it is hard to read with- 
out taking sides against the aggressor and his 
" ferocious pedantry," as Matthew Arnold hap- 
pily styled it. His eighth chapter deals with 
the relations between Froude and Carlyle, and 
reviews briefly, and without violating good taste, 
the alleged indiscretions of Carlyle's biographer. 
Of course Froude is vigorously defended, and 
even the most hostile reader cannot but be im- 
pressed with the difficulties and embarrassments 
that beset the unfortunate literary executor. 
Other chapters, perhaps equally interesting, 
describe Fronde's student life at Oxford, his 

*The Life of Fboudb. By Herbert Paul. 
New York : Charlefl Scribner's Sons. 

With portraits. 

twenty years of labor on his History, his visit 
to this country and his lectures here on Ireland, 
his South African experiences, and his Oxford 
professorship, to which he was appointed as 
Freeman's successor. 

Turning back now to the first chapter, we 
find the author acknowledging himself, botih as 
writer and as reader, no £riend to genealogical 
details. So far so good ; but his contenticm that 
^^ few indeed are the families which contain more 
than one remarkable figure " might easily be 
met by a very respectable array of refutatory 
instances. !Kood will tell, to some extent. How- 
ever, Fronde's ancestry needs no apologies, 
although one may gladly enough begin with the 
subject proper of the book. Besides losing his 
mother (Margaret Spedding) in early childhood, 
and having an imsympathetic father in the Arch- 
deacon of Totnes, little Anthony was subjected 
to a peculiar discipline at the hands of his older 
brother Hurrell, whom nevertheless he wor- 
shipped as ^^ a bom leader of men." The fol- 
lowing passage has a certain significance : 

<< Conceiviiig that the child wanted spirit, Hurrell once 
took him up by the heels, and stirred with his head the 
mud at the bottom of a stream. Another time he threw 
him into deep water out of a boat to make him manly. 
But he was not satisfied by inspiring physical terror. 
Inyoking the 'aid of the pnetematnral, he taught his 
brother that the hollow behind the house was haunted 
by a monstrous and malevolent phantom, to which, in the 
plentitude of his imagination, he gave the name of Pen- 
ingre. Gradually the child discovered that Peningre 
was an illusion, and began to suspect that other ideas of 
Hurrell's might be illusions too. Superstition is the 
parent of scepticism from the cradle to the grave. At 
the same time his own faculty of invention was rather 
stimulated than repressed. He was encouraged in tell- 
ing, as children will, imaginative stories of things which 
never occurred." 

The ill usage and want of sympathy experi- 
enced by the boy as pupQ at Westminster, and 
also in the succeeding three years of home life^ 
until his entrance at Oxford, might well have 
had a permanent and blighting influence on 

his character. 


« Unhappily, in spite of the head master's remon- 
strances, Froude's father, who had spent a great deal 
of money on his other sons' education, insisted on placing 
him in college, which was then far too rough for a 
boy of his age and strength. On account of what he 
had read, rather than what he had learnt, at Bnckfast- 
leigh, he took a very high place, and was put with boys 
far older than himself. The fagging was excessively 
severe. The bullying was gross and unchecked. The 
sanitary acconmiodation was abominable. The language 
of the dormitory was indecent and profane. Fronde, 
whose health prevented him from the effective use of 
nature's weapons, was woke by the hot points of cigars 
burning holes in his face, made drunk by being forced 
to swallow brandy punch, and repeatedly thrashed. He 




wu also moie than half starved, because the big fellows 
had the pick of the joints at dinner, and left Uie small 
fellows little besides the bone. . . . Public schools had 
not yet felt the influence of Arnold and of the reform- 
ing spirit. Head masters considered domestic details 
beneath them, and parents, if they felt any responsibility 
at all, persuaded themselves that boys were fdl the bet- 
ter for ronghing it as a preparation for the discipline of 
the world. The case of Froude, however, was a pecu- 
liarly had one. He was suffering from hernia, and the 
treatment might well have killed him." 

Mr. Paul's admiration of Froude as historian 
is enthusiastic. ^^ He was not a chronicler," he 
admits, ^^ but an artist, a moralist, and a man of 
geniuB." And further, ^* A paste-pot, a pair of 
scissors, the mechanical precision of a copying 
derk, are all useful in their way ; but they no 
more make an historian than a cowl makes a 
numk." With a relish that it is di£B.cult for the 
reader not to share, the biographer points out 
some rather surprising errors in Freeman's ac- 
rimonious criticism of the man whom he chose 
80 bitterly to revile under the shelter of anon- 
ymity. The style of his criticism is familiar 
to riders of the Keview in which it appeared 
as the sucoessive volumes of Fronde's History 
were published. Freeman's professing of no ill- 
will, ^^only a strong sense of amusement in 
bowling down one thing after another," re- 
odves a curious comment in the marginal notes 
to his copy of the work criticised. It may 
furnish amusement to quote a few of these from 
Mr. Paul's pages. ^^ Beast!" is one entry, 
^Bah!" another. ^^May I live to embowel 
James Anthony Froude ! " is a third fervent 
interjection. ^^ Froude is certainly the vilest 
brute that ever wrote a book," is still another 
mode of expressing this ^^ strong sense of amuse- 
m^t." Such revelati(ms of temper hardly 
betoken the dispassionate calm of authoritative 
criticism. The whole story of this paper warfare 
— a warfare in which, except for Fronde's late- 
appearing and admirably temperate rejoinder 
entitled ^^ A few words on Mr. Freeman," the 
hostilities were almost all on one side — serves 
to illustrate anew how weak is the cause that 
omsents to employ the aid of sarcasm, innuendo, 
supeiciliousness, or even the milder forms of 
imperfect courtesy and half-candor that lie so 
perilously ready to the hand of critic or editor. 
The disingenuousness that may lurk even in the 
apparently innocent " we fear," or " we hope," or 
" we trust," of one who argues for victory more 
thau for truth, is a matter of daily illustration. 
It has long been charged against Froude that 
in writing his History he made but the most 
cmsory examination of valuable papers placed 
at Mb disposal at Hatfield. Perhaps the follow- 

ing letter to Lady Salisbury will be illuminating: 

<<If Lord Salishury has not repented of his kind 
promise to me, I shall in a few weeks he in a condition 
to avail myself of it, and I write to ask you whether 
ahottt the heginning of next month I may he permitted 
to examine the papers at Hatfield. I am unwilling to 
trouble Lord l^disbury more than necessary. I luEtve 
therefore examined every other collection within my 
reach firMt, that I might know clearly what I wanted. 
Obliged as I am to confine myself for the present to 
the first ten years of Elizabeth's reign, there will not be 
much which I shall have to examine there, the great 
bulk of Lord Burleigh's papers for that time being in 
the Record Office — but if 1 can be allowed a few days' 
work, I believe I can turn them to good aoeonnt." 

Furthermore, to those who allege that Froude 
wrote without sufficient preliminary reading of 
authorities, Mr. Paul declares that he *^ neg- 
lected no source of information, and spared 
himself no pains in pursuit of it. At the 
Record Office, in the British Musemn, at Hat- 
field, among the priceless archives preserved in 
the Spanish village of Simancas, he toiled with 
unquenchable ardour and unrelenting assiduity. 
Nine-tenths of his authorities were in manu- 
script. They were in five languages. They 
filled nine hundred volimies." The hand- 
writing, too, was often well-nigh ill^ble. All 
of Fronde's voluminous transcripts from the 
Simancas papers he is said to have deposited in 
the British Musemn, as a sort of public check 
on his own fidelity in dealing with the sources 
of his narrative. 

The chapter entitled " Froude and Carlyle " 
reveals a decidedly tangled state, of affairs as 
existing after Carlyle's death, in the matter of 
his piles of papers and his probable desire as 
to their ultimate disposition. Pathetic is poor 
Fronde's plaint in a letter to Max MtUler, in the 
midst of all his troubles as literary executor.. 
^^ What have I done," he asks, ^^ that I should 
be in such a strait ? But I am sixty-four years 
old, and I shall soon be beyond it all." Unless 
we hold the stem doctrine of James Mill, that 
only acts and not motives are proper subjects 
for judgment, it is impossible to refuse some 
measure of condonation to a well-intentioned 
offender. To know all is to pardon all, and 
when we once recognize in Froude the streak of 
literary freakishness that was peculiar to his 
genius, it is scarcely in human nature to be 
severe with him — except that one must always 
censure anything that looks like wilful perver- 
sion of truth, or weak surrender to prejudice. 
The romancer gets the better of the historian 
in his case ; he has, in short, the defects of his 
qualities, and without those defects he would not 
have charmed precisely as he did his thousands 



[Feb. 1, 

of readers, or produced a biography that, with 
all its faults, has a fascination approaching even 
that of Boswell's masterpiece. Yet this must 
not be taken as a whitewashing of Froude, or as 
excusing lenity on a biographer's part toward 
notorious swervings from the straight line of 

Attempting to refute a familiar charge against 
Carlyle, Mr. Paul writes : " Nothing annoyed 
Carlyle more than to be told that he confounded 
might with right. He declared that, on the 
contrary, he had never said, and would never 
say, a word for power which was not founded 
on justice." This is rather amusing. Of course 
Carlyle was annoyed. What man of sense and 
humanity would consciously uphold the mon- 
strous doctrine that might makes right ? Nev- 
ertheless a predisposition to discover right 
pretty uniformly on the side of might may be 
so ingrained in a man's nature that he cannot 
suspect its presence any more than he can look 
into his own eyes. As Martineau long ago well 
expressed it, for Carlyle, ^^ as for so many gifted 
and ungif ted men, the force which will not be 
stopped by any restraint on its way to great 
acluevement, — the genius which clmms to be 
its own law, and will confess nothing diviner 
than itself, — have an irresistible fascination. 
His eye, overlooking the landscape of humanity, 
always runs up to the brilliant peaks of power : 
not, indeed, without a glance of love and pity 
into many a retreat of quiet goodness that lies 
safe beneath their shelter ; but should the sud- 
den lightning, or the seasonal melting of the 
world's ice-barriers, bring down a ruin on that 
green and feeble life, his voice, after one faint 
cry of pathos, joins in with the thunder and 
shouts with the triumph of the avalanche. Ever 
watching the strife of the great forces of the 
universe, he, no doubt, sides on the whole 
against the Titans with the gods : but if the 
Titans make a happy fling, and send home a 
mountain or two to the very beard of Zeus, he 
gets delighted with the game on any terms and 
cries, ' Bravo ! ' " 

If lives of men of letters are, to many read- 
ers, too often but dreary reading, it is a com- 
plaint that cannot be brought against Mr. Paul's 
life of Froude. Whether it be that his sym- 
pathy with his subject has imparted to him 
something of Froude's own consummate art as 
a literary craftsman, certain it is that he has 
produced a very readable account of one whom 
Sir John Skelton enthusiastically described as 
" the most interesting man I have ever known." 

Percy F. Bicknell. 

Some Current RAiii way-Rate 

The railroad-rate question is apparently faring 
distinctly better than did the monetary problem 
in one respect at least. This is that the atten- 
tion of careful investigators as well as of the 
general public was attracted to the subject prior 
to the time when it became an acute public 
issue. Enough had already been written, before 
the problem of government control of railway- 
rates became prominent in the public mind, to 
provide a body of material upon which investi- 
gators could &11 back, and to furnish, what was 
even more important, a fund of experience in 
the inquiry indicating the points at which fur- 
ther study and analysis was desirable. It has 
thus been possible, when the necessity came, for 
trained investigators to continue the preparation 
of information as to railway rates for use by 
legislators and by the public. On the other 
hand, it remains true theit much of the study 
that has been devoted to the railroad problem, 
during the past few years, has either run along 
special lines or has been hidden in public docu- 
ments and court decisions. A real service both 
to the semi-technical world and to the general 
public, therefore, is performed by those who are 
prepared to gather up the results thus made 
ready for assimilation. 

Since President Hadley's book on American 
railroad transportation, fragmentary and incom- 
plete as it was, which attracted so much atten- 
tion some years ago, there has been relatively 
little in the way of comprehensive study of this 
question. The appearance of a group of studies, 
chief among which may be mentioned Professor 
Johnson's valuable book of a year or two ago, 
was the beginning of a series of volumes which 
have now provided a body of literature for the 
enlightenment of that part of the reading public 
which wishes to inform itself upon serious ques- 
tions of current import. Merely to give a list 
of the titles of the books that should be included 
in the group here described would be a consid- 
erable task ; but the publication within a few 
weeks of one another of books as useful as 
Professor Meyers's " Government Regulation of 
Railway Rates," Judge Noyes's "American 
Railroad Rates " and Mr. Haines's " Restric- 
tive Railway Legislation" is itself notable. 
Here we have three volumes, one by an 
academic student of the question, one by a 
jurist and railway president, and one by a civil 

*Ambbican Railroad Rates. 
Boston: Little, Brown, & Co. 

RBaTBXcnvE Railway LsaiSLATiON. 
New York: The MacmlUon Go. 

By Walter Chadwick Noyes. 
By Henry S. Haines. 




engineer and practical railroad manager. It is 
interesting to note that in certain respects these 
Tolumes, while they do not cover the same 
ground, come to sinular conclusions. Professor 
Meyers's book, already very fully discussed else- 
where, need not be further considered here. It 
stands in a somewhat different dass from the 
two companion volumes, both because of its 
broader scope, the smaller practical experience 
of its author, and his greater dogmatism. The 
work of Judge Noyes and Mr. Haines represents 
the ideas of the sane and conservative railway 
men of the country. As such, these two vol- 
omeB are entitled to exceptionally' close study 
not only because they embody the result of actual 
experience, but because they evidently voice the 
ideas of those who know how legislation would 
affect a great industry. 

Of the two books, the broader, as the title 
denotes, is that of Mr. Haines, the more inten- 
sive and special is that of Judge Noyes. Both, 
however, have their main centre of interest, at 
least at the present time, in the question of how 
far government control of railroad-rates can be 
really successful. 

Judge Noyes gives a lengthy and most care- 
ful study of the way in which rates grow up, of 
their linutations, and of the questions relating to 
classification and changes in rates. He points 
oat clearly what conditions give rise to discrimi- 
nation, and analyzes the effect of the so^^ed 
^^ basing point " system and similar plans. Just 
here, it is interesting to note Judge Noyes's 
general conclusion, with regard to discrimina- 
tion, that the state of affairs existing in 1898, 
when the Interstate Commerce Conunission re- 
ported that a large part of the railroad business 
was done upon illegal rates, has now come to 
an end. Personal discrimination, thinks Judge 
Noyes, is now practically over. He admits the 
continued existence of discrimination between 
localities, but believes that it is inevitable that 
some such differential rates shall exist. They 
result from the application of the ^^ principle of 
value" in rate-making. The same service may 
have a different value when rendered to different 
localities. When competition makes local dis- 
criminations necessary, they are justified by the 
yalue principle. As for discriminations between 
commodities, this is a problem of classification, 
and involves no hardship if what the author con- 
siders proper principles in rate-making are care- 
fully applied. The conditions that have brought 
about tiie present more satisfactory state of 
affairs as to personal discriminations, which, 
says the author, "are opposed to all good busi- 

ness principles and are whoUy indefensible and 
vicious" are, according to Judge Noyes, four 
in niunber : (1) prosperity, (2) the Elkins law, 
(3) railroad consolidation, and (4) a belated 
realization of the injurious effect of discrimina- 
tions. Evidentiy the author did not have in 
mind the existence of the pass system, when 
these words were written, but referred only to 
freights. It may be observed that his opinions, 
as thus stated, are in substantial accord with 
those of the public officials in Washington who 
are charged with the duty of enforcing the rail- 
way legislation of the country. Continuing, he 
traces the effect of competition and combination, 
and shows how far rates vary and how far they 
are influenced by changes in equipment. 

Mr. Haines naturally looks at the railroad 
question from the standpoint of an engineer 
and business man rather than from that of a 
lawyer or student. His chapters on railroad 
finance and railroad construction are enlighten- 
ing. He traces with some care the nature of 
the railroad charters that have been granted 
and the character of the restrictions by which it 
hafl been sought to regulate and control the 
growth of the great railroad net of the United 
States. In this connection, it may be observed 
that two of the most important things connected 
with the growth of the railroad system have not 
been the subjects of much if any restrictive regu- 
lation or legislation. One of these two points is 
the gauge of the roads, which, says Mr. Haines, 
was made uniform by the railways, at their own 
instance, and at very substantial cost, while the 
other is the matter of route. The author's 
chapters on railroad operation and on railroad 
traffic are less satisfactory than those already 
referred to, yet they furnish a good and clear 
review of these topics. In reviewing the growth 
of a system of rate-making, Mr. Haines adopts 
a historical method in part. In part, his treat- 
ment is analytical ; but, like Judge Noyes, he 
regards rates as the result of practical competi- 
tion. The rate-maker, he says, ^^does not origi- 
nate or create rates." In practice his rates are 
determined, as to reasonableness, by what the 
traffic will bear, and, where competition exists, 
by rival bidding for the business. Discrimina- 
tion between places is regarded by Mr. Haines, 
and also by Judge Noyes, as to some extent a 
necessary incident. At times, it may become 
unjust or unreasonable, — primarily when more 
is charged for the short haul than for the long one 
in the same direction. Regulation of rates is 
first considered from a historical standpoint by 
Mr. Haines. He has a general chapter on the 



[Feb. 1^ 

regulation of rates through pooling associations ; 
then one on the work of Si^te railroad commis- 
sions, and then a chapter on pending legislation 
affecting interstate commerce. In Chapter XI. 
is given a theoretical discussion of ^' State con- 
trol of corporatious engaged in a public service," 
and lastly a final treatment embodying some 
"Conclusions." The chapter in which Mr. 
Haines parallels Judge Noyes's discussion to 
some extent is that which deals with pending 

As already noted, the main present interest 
in both Mr. Haines's and Judge Noyes's work 
is in what they have to say of the present efforts 
at State control of rates and their theoretical 
bearing. In a careful constitutional discussion, 
Judge Noyes, as it seems to us, demonstrates 
the following ideas : The power of Congress and 
of the State legislatures is limited by the com- 
merce clause of the federal constitution and by 
the fourteenth amendment. The making of 
rates by law is purely a legislative function. 
The legislature may act either directly or through 
a commission or other administrative body. 
Three limitations, however, of special character 
apply in the case of Congress : (1) the division 
of the function of government into three depart- 
ments, (2) the fifth amendment, and (3) the 
provision against port preferences. The division 
of functions indicates that there must be no 
confusion of legislative, executive, and judicial 
functions, resulting from any act that Congress 
may pass. The fifth amendment provides that 
no private property shall be taken, without due 
process of law or without just compensation. 
The provision against port preferences makes it 
plain that no preference to the ports of any one 
State, resulting from the acts of Congress, will 
be held constitutional. The ultimate real test 
of the constitutionality of a law-made rate is, 
however, whether such rates are confiscatory. 
As a result of his reasoning along these lines, 
and of his application of them to existing legis- 
lation. Judge Noyes reaches the conclusion tihat 
existing remedies for unreasonable charges are 
ineffectual as far as they go, and do not go far 
enough; while because of his view that the 
adjudication of the reasonableness of a rate is 
a judicial function, of the further opinion that 
judicial and legislative functions cannot be com- 
bined, and of the view that judicial functions 
can be exercised only by judges holding their 
offices during good behavior, he is led to think 
that most of our pending legislation, including 
the recent Esch-Townsend bill, is impossible. 
The greater number of the measures now pro- 

posed require the exercise of judicial functions 
by the Interstate Commerce Commission and the 
exercise of non-judieial functions by the courts. 
Judge Noyes's suggestion for legiedation is the 
establishment of a special interstate commerce 
court which should ascertain whether or not a 
given rate is or is not unreasonable. In case a 
given rate were found unreasonable, this fact 
should be certified to the Interstate Conmieroe 
Commission, which should then, on the basis of 
the papers in the case and without further 
hearing, make a ma.ximum rate to take the 
place of the unreasonable rate. This new rate 
should remain in force for a specified time. 

YHiile Mr. Haines does not go into any such 
complete analysis, or recommend any such de- 
tailed plan as does Judge Noyes, there is noth- 
ing in his treatment that is not in accordance 
with the latter's views. He does not believe in 
any quasi-judicial commission, nor does he seem- 
ingly believe that any general power for rate-mak- 
ing should be granted the Interstate Commerce 
Commission under existing conditions. Should 
a rate-making power be accorded to it, however^ 
" it should be in iact a court of first instance," 
says Mr. Haines. It should act solely on com- 
plaints. It should never prosecute of its own 
motion. It shotdd be stricily impartial. In this 
view of the case. Mr. Haines has evidently in 
mind somewhat the same thought as has Judge 
Noyes, — the creation of a real railroad court. 
He does not carry the idea further, and surest 
the delegation of the rate-making function to 
some commission as a separate and independent 
administrative body charged with the revision 
of given rates. But it is evident that this is an 
idea which — granting the interference of gov- 
ernment in rate-making as unavoidable — would 
be in harmony with the general tenor of his 
thought. These ideas as to railroad rate con- 
trol, therefore, with the reasoning which leads 
thereto, and with the abundant supply of in- 
formation upon allied topics which is provided 
in both books, are the chief contributions made 
to the pending discussion by two of the most 
careful of recent thinkers on railroad questions. 
H. Parker Willis. 

Of special interest in connection with the Franklin, 
bicentennial anniversary this year is the announcement 
from Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. that they have 
in preparation a notable limited edition of Franklin's 
Autobiography, to be printed under the direction of Mr. 
Bruce Rogers, and illustrated with famous portraits in 
photogravure. In style and excellence of typography 
and manufacture, the volume will resemble the edition 
of Cavendish's Life of Cardinal Wolsey recently issued' 
by this house. 




A Defesttivk 60ETH£ Biographt.* 

Ten years ago Grennan scholars published sev- 
eral notable biographies of Goethe, and others 
have since appeared. The single volume by 
Bichard M. Meyer, for example, is a preisger 
hronte Arbeit, brief and at times trenchant in 
its critical estimates, a book for the student 
lath^ than the general reader. The needs of 
the latter were especially met in the two vol- 
mnes by Heinemann, a readable and attractive 
aoeount of the poet's life, environment, and 
works, and particularly valuable for the numer- 
ous pictures of places and people. Both these 
biographies appeared in the same year with the 
first volume, and with the other works alluded 
to preceded the second volume of Bielschow- 
sky's Goethe eein Leben und seine Werke. 
Each of these various works has merits of its 
own, but n<xie has taken the place that Biel- 
flchowsky's may fairly claim. Its importance, 
as the best bi<^raphy of the poet that has 
appeared, is so generally acknowledged that a 
translation has been called for, and this is now 
supplied by Professor William A. Cooper of 
Stanford University. The Englisb-reading pub- 
he is thus paying to the lamented German 
scholar the compliment that the Germans paid 
many years ago to Mr. Lewes's ^^Life and 
Times of Goethe," and as their translation of 
that book was long their most popular account 
of the poet's life, so Bielschowskf's book, by 
reason of its fuller and more accurate informa- 
tion, will now take the place in our libraries that 
Mr. Lewes's held so long. 

Bielschowsky based his work upon the rich 
material made accessible by the opening of the 
Goethe archives and by recent philological in- 
vestigation ; but as he designed it for the use 
of the widest circles, he felt that the choice and 
selection of material was imperative. As he 
remarks in the preface to the first volume, 
only details disclose the man and the poet, and 
the surest safeguard against error in the proper 
understanding of his works is afforded by ap- 
proaching them in relation to his life. This idea 
was further confirmed by his view of Goethe's 
character as typically presenting an intensified 
picture of humanity. He therefore entered into 
a detailed study of the circumstances and influ- 
ences that formed the poet's character and con- 
trolled his career. He studied carefully all 
sources and exploited all new material ; but he 

*Thb Lxfb of €k>BTBB. By Albert Biel8eliowB]c7, Ph.D. 
Authorized translation from the German by WiUiam A. Cooper, 
A.M. Volmne I., 1749-1788., From Birth to the Betnm from 
Italy, niiutrated. New York: G. P. Patnam'e Sons. 

wisely excluded from his text, and relegated to 
notes, all critical discussion of the statements 
made. His original intention was to make of 
these notes a continuous scientific discussion of 
the facts upon which his narrative is based, but 
considerations of space prevented this ; and, as 
they stand, the notes sometimes amplify, and 
sometimes merely state authorities, regarding 
mooted points. 

It must be evid^it, even to the casual reader, 
that Bielschowsky possessed unusual penetration 
and acumen in psychological analysis. He de- 
velops his story much as a good novelist might, 
and so reveals the growth of the poet's character 
in its various phases. In his critical estimates 
he uniformly leads up to the circumstances un- 
der which the work in question was produced ; 
and, in the case of the more important, he fol- 
lows this with a lucid and extremely sympathetic 
outline of its content. This is done in a way 
to hold the interest of the reader and to emphsir 
size the central thought, and is followed by 
judicious criticism, either favorable or unfavor- 
able as the case may be. The treatment of 
Werther affords an admirable illustration. 
Goethe's experiences at Wetzlar, related in a 
previous chapter, prepare the way for an ac- 
count of his Lotte cult, of which tiie story is a 
poetic reflection. After outlining the plot, em- 
phasis is placed upon the point, so often unap- 
preciated, that everything in the story flows 
naturally from the character of the hero. The 
author further remarks the wealth of life de- 
picted, the firm though brief delineation of the 
various subordinate characters, and the wonder- 
ful naturalness and warmth that characterizes 
it, and concludes with an account of the effect 
of the story upon Goethe's contemporaries. 
Especially noteworthy in this whole treatment 
is ihe fact that the biographer makes his reader 
not simply comprehend but feel, as perfectiy 
natural, the effect that Goethe's book produced ; 
he does not simply understand the situation, — 
he sympathizes with it. 

Bielschowsky's treatment of Goethe's atti- 
tude toward the War of Liberation is charac- 
teristic of the sympathetic and yet judicial way 
in which he deals with the poet's career. He 
makes clear the reasons why Goethe failed to 
respond to the enthusiasm against Napoleon by 
indicating his just appreciation of the political 
reforms brought about under French domina- 
tion, and the slight danger that he felt of any 
real loss of the essentially German spirit in 
education and literature. He also points out 
Gt>ethe's idea of the effect of the Prussian or 



[Feb. 1, 

Austrian supremacy that would result from the 
overthrow of the French, — "an emancipation 
not from the yoke of the foreigners but from 
one foreign yoke," as he expressed it. " And 
yet," so tiie author concludes, "the experienced 
Goethe was wrong." He underestimated the 
power of national feeling, and did not appreciate 
that the German spirit must always be alien to 
the French, and hence under tiieir tutelage 
could not but fail in the full development of its 
inner individuality. Political reasons based 
upon the position of the Duchy of Weimar also 
had weight in determining Groethe's conduct 
and, to some extent, his sympathies, so that his 
contemporaries were neither surprised, nor did 
they expect him to act differently. They also 
realized the permanent value of his work and 
its power as a national force ; there is, further, 
no lack of evidence that Goethe's attitude was 
not the result of indifference. Thus Biel- 
schowsky presents the poet's position and the 
influences that determined it, neither entirely 
commending nor wholly censuring, but stating 
it in the light of contemporary conditions, 
rather than from the standpoint of the special 
pleader holding a brief for or against the poet. 
The chapter on Groethe's Lyrics is one of the 
most valuable and suggestive in the work. The 
poet attributed much of his power to the influ- 
ence of Spinoza, whose conception of God, in- 
carnate in the world, involved the idea of the 
divine in all objects as necessary parts of the 
whole, but as more or less fully manifested, in 
proportion as the object is more or less com- 
pletely essential and enduring. But the essen- 
tial and permanent in Groethe was, Bielschowsky 
argues, his nature as a poet, while that which 
was accidental and temporary found expression 
in the man of the world and of affairs. The 
poet saw as with "annointed eye" the tdtimate 
truth in the contradictions and confusions of 
human life, while the man was often distracted 
and went astray. But it was in this very con- 
fusion and error that the poet often found the 
material that he treated as typical and symbolic, 
and thereby, as he said, corrected his conception 
of things. A long chapter on the various 
groups of lyrics follows, tracing each poem, as 
far as possible, to the incident or experience 
that called it forth. Space forbids any detailed 
analysis; rather the question suggests itself 
whether the brilliant rhetorical discussion just 
outlined applies only to the poet's method. 
May it not suggest an explanation of the strange 
contradictions that the story of his life affords, — 
his calm serenity and generous nobility, his 

fickle passion and intense personal selfishness. 
Bielschowsky certainly does not think of it in 
this relation. He neither glosses faults nor fails 
to tell the pain they caused. His attitude is in. 
general one of cordial affection, that may dis- 
approve but is ready to forgive, but he offers 
no explanation of that subtle dual personality 
that any student of the poet must feel. 

The chapter on latest also deserves special 
mention, but this is only partially the work of 
Bielschowsky. At the time of his death he had 
completed the account of the genesis of the 
poem ; the balance of the chapter was written 
by lus friend, Professor Ziegler of Strassburg. 
In this portion the pages dealing with the clas- 
sical Walpurgisnacht and with Homunculus 
are especially to be commended. In their brief 
outline and frank censure of those elements in 
these scenes that are wholly without any real or 
fancied connection with Fausty far better ser- 
vice is rendered toward the proper understand- 
ing of the poem than in any attempt to justify 
or explain them. Common sense and poetic 
insight are happily blended, and without any 
attempt to make out a symbolism that it is more 
than doubtful the poet ever imagined. 

Professor Cooper's translation is, in general, 
a very satisfactory piece of work. He renders 
paragraph by paragraph, indeed sentence by sen- 
tence, excepting in one or two instances men- 
tioned in his preface. The language is usually 
well-chosen, and renders the thought, and in 
some degree the style, of the original. Occa- 
sionally a phrase or sentence smacks somewhat 
of the class-room, and a less literal rendering 
would have made the meaning clearer. For ex- 
ample, the phrase ^' becomes absorbed with her 
[Frau von Stein] in the bony structure of man," 
is an awkward way of saying " studied care- 
fully the structure of the human skeleton." 
So " the irridescence of Merk's nature " (^Dclb 
SchUlemde) hardly conveys to the English 
reader the idea of versatility which the context 
shows to be the author's thought. '^ The cor- 
roded [durchgebeizf] sons of the twentieth cen- 
tury " is literal and meaningless ; so also ^^ the 
lapidary personality of Orange " is hardly clear. 
Other instances, especially in the literal render- 
ing of figurative language, might be cited. It is 
also to be regretted that the page headings of 
the original have not been preserved ; they cer- 
tainly facilitate the use of the book as a work 
of reference. On the whole, however, the few 
trifling faults, unnoticed except by the critic in. 
quest of such material, are so far outweighed by 
the conspicuous merit of the work that it is 




hardly fair to mention them. It is sincerely 
to be hoped that the concluding volmnes — the 
translation is to be in three rather than the two 
of the original — tnay not be long delayed. 
Lewis A. Rhoades. 


Professor Santayana's two notable books on 
^*The Life of Reason," which recently appeared, 
have been followed up promptly by two addi- 
tional volumes in the same series, which deal 
regpectively with ^^ Reason in Religion" and 
" Reason in Art." This leaves impublished only 
the final volume, on ^^ Reason in Science." Oi 
the two latest volumes, the one on ^^ Reason in 
Religion " has the greater speculative interest, 
since it is in the problems of religion that the 
opposition culminates between the general philo- 
sophical conception which Professor Santayana 
represents, and that which more commonly 
passes current. As readers of the earlier books 
will recall, ^^ The Life of Reason " is constituted 
by that realm of ideal values in experience 
which, springing from the soQ of the natural im- 
pulses and passions, has for its task the bringing 
of these to a self-conscious and harmonious ex- 
pression. It ia no part of its business to leave us 
with an account of what reality is beyond our 
experience ; rather, its sole function is the prac- 
tical one of understanding and accepting and 
using the situation in which a mortal may find 
himself. This, of course, is valid equally of the 
religious experience. For the author, therefore, 
religion is frankly conceived as poetry. It is a 
symbolic rendering of the moral experience, 
which has its value by reason of its power to 
vitalize the mind and transmit by way of par- 
ables the lessons of life. Accordingly, as be- 
tween religions there is a difference only of better 
and worse, never of true and false. It is the 
root defect in religion — the tendency to forget 
that it is poetry, to arrogate to itself literal 
truth, and lay claim to be an objective state- 
ment of fact. In this way the mytii, which was 
but a symbol substituted for empirical descrip- 
tions, becomes an idol substituted for ideal val- 
ues ; instead of a representation of experience 
as it should be, it becomes a pretended infor- 
mation about experience or reality elsewhere. 
This always tends to confuse intelligence and 
dislocate sentiment. The essential harm of it is 
that by persuading man that the world really 

*Trb Lifb of Bbaboh. By Gtoorge SuitaTan*. New toI- 
imies: Beaton in Beliffion. and Beason in Art. New York: 
Charlet Scribner's Sons. 

is such as his rather arbitrary ideali^tion has 
painted it, the true value of the ideal is lost. 
Moral haimonies are not given, they have to be 
made ; and the curse of superstition is that it 
justifies and protracts their absence by pro- 
claiming their invisible presence. Thus God, 
for practical religion, stands only for that which 
makes for the Good. A theodicy which attempts 
to extend the divine to the entire world, and to 
prove that whatever is is good, breaks down the 
very distinction which gives goodness and the 
divine their human meaning, and reduces every- 
thing to the dead level of an immoral naturalism 
or pantheism. The whole difficulty again lies 
in the supposed need of turning a practical 
moral ideal into an account of the objective 
constitution of the universe. It is chimerical 
to expect the rest of the world to be determined 
by that moral significance which by its very 
nature is in terms of particular human interests. 
^*' The attempt to subserve the natural order 
under the moral is like attempts to establish a 
government of the parent by the child — some- 
thing children are not averse to." So that 
religion ought to be for each man, not a literal 
account of what is or has happened, but the 
imaginative expression of those ideals which are 
most vital to his own natiire. Each man may 
have his own loves, but the object in each case 
is different. So it is, or should be, in religion. 
Literal truth is as irrelevant, as it is irrelevant 
to an artist's pleasure to be warned that the 
beauty he expresses has no objective existence. 
There is little space to consider the more par- 
ticular treatment from this general standpoint 
of religion in its historical expressions, though 
this contains much interesting matter. The 
earlier chapters take up the more primitive as- 
pects of the religious experience, such as magic, 
sacrifice, prayer, and mythology. Interesting 
also is the hiBtorical appreciation of Hebraism 
and of Christianity, llie author's natural sym- 
pathy is with the Greek rather than the Hebraic 
type of mind. Paganism seems to him nearer 
than Hebraism to the Life of Reason, from the 
fact that its myths are more transparent and its 
temper less fanatical ; and it is probable that 
there are elements in the Hebrew religion 
which he fails in consequence to give their just 
emphasis. It certainly is a question whether 
the religious position of the historical Jesus 
has the quite derivative and incidental signifi- 
cance which his generalizations — following a 
popular interpretation — assign to it. Fully 
adequate or not, however, the analysis is acute 
enough and true enough to make very good read- 



[Feb. 1, 

ing. The characterization of the Protestant ele- 
ment in Christianity is particularly happy, in its 
opposition to the Oriental strain of unworldliness 
and asceticism with which it has entered into un- 
stable combination. Professor Santayana's vision 
is keen for the weaknesses of the Protestant and 
Teutonic temper, — its emphasis on the supreme 
importance of success and prosperity, its con- 
ventional conceptions of duty and earnest ma- 
terialism, its cheerful optimism, its regard for 
profitable enterprise and practical ambition as a 
sort of moral vocation, its tendency to mistake 
vitality, both in itself and in the universe, for 
spiritual life. ^^The point is to accomplish 
something, no matter particularly what ; so that 
the Protestant shows on this ground some re- 
spect even for an artist when he has once 
achieved success." In the later chapters there 
follows an instructive analysis of the main as- 
pects of the religious life — piety or loyalty to 
the necessary conditions of life, spirituality or 
devotion to ideal ends, and charity ; and in con- 
clusion there is a discussion of the ideal in- 
terpretation of immortality. The chapter on 
^*' Spirituality and its Corruptions " — fanaticism 
and mysticism, namely — may be recommended 
as a particularly good expression of that whole 
temperamental attitude toward life which is 
summed up in ^^ The Life of Reason." 

^^ Reason in Art" lends itself especially to 
quotation, and I can perhaps not do better than 
to put together as nearly a^ possible in the 
writer's own words some of the points which 
are particularly characteristic. There are two 
main aspects to the book. On the one hand, it 
takes up the arts in particular, and, tracing 
them back to a purely automatic and spontane- 
ous expressiveness, without ideal value, it tries to 
show how they come to take on more and more an 
ideal and rational significance. The most no- 
table thing about the treatment, however, is less 
its suggestions in detail toward an historical 
understanding of the arts than the general crit- 
ical attitude which underlies the volume as a 
whole. It would be hard to point to a more 
searching criticism of the irrationalities that 
enter into the artistic and aesthetic side of ex- 
perience, or a more effective dealing with the 
common fallacies by which these irrationalities 
are not merely overlooked but are exalted into 
essential conditions of art and beauty. Starting 
from the definition of art as that element in the 
Life of Reason which consists in modifying its 
environment the better to attain its end, the 
book is a sustained argument against the view 
which would loosen the fine arts from this fun- 

damental connection with rational and — in the 
end — social and moral experience. The rose's 
grace can more easily be plucked from its petals 
than the beauty of art from its subject, reasons, 
and use. The fine arts are butter to man's 
daily bread ; there is no conceiving or creating 
them except as they spring out of social exi- 
gencies. Irresponsibility in the artist, the rest- 
ing content witii the mere mystic glow of a per- 
sonal experience, must be fatal to a true and 
adequate art. To be bewitched is not to be 
saved, though all the magicians and aesthetes in 
the world should pronounce it so. The spontar 
neous is the worst of tyrants, for it exeroises a 
needless and fruitless tyranny in the guise of 
duty and inspiration. The earth's bowels are 
full of all sorts of rumblings ; which of the 
oracles drawn thence is true can be judged only 
by the light of day. If an artist's inspiration 
has been happy, it has been so because his work 
can sweeten or ennoble the mind, and because 
its total effect will be beneficent. Art being a 
part of life, the criticism of art is a part of 
morals. No personal talent avails to rescue an 
art from labored insignificance when it has no 
steadying function in the moral world, and must 
waver between caprice and convention. 

In form, then, art represents that which 
should be the goal of life — experience harmon- 
ized, self-justifying, the revelation of an intrin- 
sic value. Beauty gives men the best hint of 
ultimate good which their experience as yet can 
offer. Its defect lies in the fact that lutherto 
it has been content with its minor harmonies, 
and, immersed in them, has failed of any large 
grasp on reality as a whole. And so long as it 
needs to be a dream, it can never cease to be a 
disappointment. Its facile cruelty, its narcotic 
abstraction, can never sweeten the evils we re- 
turn to at home ; it can liberate half the mind 
only by leaving the other half in abeyance. In 
the mere artist, too, there is always something 
that falls short of the gentleman and that de- 
feats the man. The poet, at home in the me- 
dium, is, in the world he tries to render, apt to 
be a child and a stranger. Poetic approhen- 
sion is a makeshift in so far as its cognitive 
worth is concerned ; it is exactly in this respect 
what myth is to science. The poetic way of 
idealizing reality is dull, bungling, and impure ; 
a better acquaintance with things renders sucli 
flatteries ridiculous. % 

A consequence of this is that a large part of 
our art is artificial and simply made to be ex- 
hibited ; it is therefore gratuitous and sophisti- 
cated, and the greater part of men's concern 




with it is affectation. A living art does not 
produce curiosities to be collected, but spiritual 
necessities to be diffused. What we call mu- 
seoms — mausoleums, rather, in which a dead 
art heaps up its remains — are those the places 
where ^e Muses intended to dwell ? An artist 
maj visit a museum, but only a pedant can live 
tha;e. But there is possible an art more ade- 
quate to the Life of Reason. Such an art must 
be an achievement, not an indulgence. It will 
rise above the incidental dreams and immature 
idealizations of poetry as it now is, to a new 
and clarified poetry which, while having the 
power of prose to see things as they are and the 
courage to describe them ingenuously, shall also 
idealize in the true way, by selecting from this 
reality what is pertinent to ultimate interests 
and can speak eloquently to the soul. Art, as 
mankind has hitherto practised it, too much 
resembles an opiate or a stimulant. Itisadream 
in which we lose ourselves by ignoring most of 
our interests, and from whicli we awake into a 
world in which that lost episode plays no further 
part and leaves no heirs. Life and history are 
not thereby rendered better in their principle, 
but a mere ideal is extracted out of them and 
presented for our delectation in some cheap 
material, like words or marble. The only 
precious materials are flesh and blood. The 
moments snatched for art have been generally 
interludes in life, and its products parasites in 
natore. To exalt fine art into a truly ideal 
activity, we should have to knit it more closely 
witib other rational functions, so that to beautify 
things might render them more useful, and to 
represent them most imaginatively might be to 
see them in their truth. To gloat on rhythms 
and declamations, to live lost in imaginary pas- 
sions and histrionic woes, is an unmanly life, 
eat off from practical dominion and from ra- 
tional happiness. A lovely dream is an excel- 
lent thing in itself, but it leaves the world no 
less a chaos, and makes it by contrast seem even 
darker than it did. That beauty which should 
have been an inevitable smile on the face of 
society, an overflow of genuine happiness and 
power, has to be imported, stimulated artificially, 
and applied from without ; so that art becomes 
a sickly ornament for an ugly existence. True 
art is simply an adequate industry ; it arises 
when industay is carried out to the satisfaction 
of all hmnan demands, even of those incidental 
sensuous demands which we call aesthetic, and 
which a brutal industry in its haste may despise 
or ignore. To distinguish and create beauty 
would then be no art rel^ated to a few ab- 

stracted spirits playing with casual fancies ; it 
would be a habit inseparable from practical 
efficiency. All operations, all affairs, would 
then be viewed in the light of ultimate interests 
and in their deep relation to human good. The 
arts would thus recover their Homeric glory ; 
touching human fate as they clearly would, they 
would borrow something of its grandeur and 
pathos, and yet the interest that worked in 
them would be warm, since it wotdd remain 
unmistakably animal and sincere. 


Two Recent Books on Shakespeabe.* 

However disastrous the triumph of Baconian- 
ism may prove to all Shakespearian biography 
and to much Shakespearian criticism, it wiU 
not cause such books as Professor Stephenson's 
on *^ Shakespeare's London" to depreciate. in 
value. The London of ^^ Shake-speare," the 
pseudonymous playwright, is also the London 
of ^^Shaksper, the Stratford actor-manager." 
Wherefore, it behooves the scholar who would 
make a permanent contribution to the subject 
to be wise in time, and if he cannot yet go with 
the Baconians, at any rate not to exclude him- 
self from a share in their triumph. Professor 
Stephenson, however, has not been as wise as 
this ; while the substance of his book will be 
equally valuable, whichever way the future may 
decide the question, he himself gives too many 
indications of orthodoxy not to be liable to perse- 
cution when the heretics have their turn. And, 
to say the truth, the orthodox may look for 
scant quarter in that great day, for they have 
given none. 

We could wish that Professor Stephenson's 
book might commend itself as certainly to the 
lover of good letters as to the lover of history. 
Its style is hardly worthy of its theme. YHiile 
we are far from wishing to be captious, we can- 
not praise the following sentences as likely to 
do honor to American academic culture : " The 
plan fawiiliRr to us, from Bacon's essay Of 
Building J was followed by many of the EUzsr 
bethan builders, though lack of means to build^ 
and room for the double court, in the Lond<m 
houses, often led to a considerable alteration " 
(p. 14) ; ^^ A pair of draw-strings working oppo- 
site the small of the back enabled one to tighten 
or loosen his doublet at will" (p. 37). Such 

^Shakbspbabb'bLondoit. ByHaniy ThewStopbenBon. New 
York : Henry Holt & Co. 

Baoon Crtptoobahb in SHAKB8PBABB. By Isaac Hull Piatt. 
Boston : SmaU, Maynard & Ck>. 



[Feb. 1, 

sentences are by no means uncommon ; nor is 
a '* false concord " absolutely unknown. The 
Shakespearian reminiscence in ^^a monument 
that age cannot wither" (p. 285), hardly pro- 
tects the expression from criticism ; and the am- 
biguity of the sentence quoted below, even in its 
context, is likely to give pause to the most alert 
of readers. Speaking of the fall of water be- 
neath London Bridge at certain hours, and of 
its effect on river traffic, the author says : ^^ If, 
in the journey, it was necessary to cross the 
bridge at mid-tide, the passenger had to land 
and wait " (p. 63). To such slips, of course, 
any writer is liable ; but they ought not to occur 
in a work connected with tiie study of Shake- 
speare. It is too often forgotten that literary 
lliemes involve stylistic obligations. The proof- 
reading, for the most part, is satis&tctory, though 
the first comma in the following clause conceals 
a well-known Elizabethan idiom : ^^ whether 
wheat be good, cheap, or dear" (p. 182). The 
spelling of Spenser with a c (p. 248) seems 
to have escaped both proof-reader and author. 
The index, as is usually the case, is not com- 
plete, and the usefulness of the book is thereby 
materially diminished. 

We have found no important errors in mat- 
ters of fact. ^'The despicable pedant from 
Scotland" (p. 178) is perhaps too severe a 
characterization of James the First, and it is 
certainly an exaggeration to say that Camden's 
Britannia ^^ to this day is the starting point of 
all study of ancient Britain " (p. 122) ; at least, 
John Richard Green did not think so. The 
author, undeterred by Mr. Sidney Lee, asserts 
that ^^ in 1598 William Shakespeare was living 
in the parish '* of St. Helen's (p. 206). 

The work is, of course, founded on Stow's 
" Survey of London," of which the first edi- 
tion appeared in 1598 ; and naturally the most 
interesting parts of it are the quotations from 
Stow and otiier contemporary chroniclers. But 
Professor Stephenson has brought together a 
large amount of material scattered in modem 
works and reprints (p. v.), and has illustrated it 
by frequent quotation from Elizabethan drama- 
tists. We could perhaps have spared some of 
his facts, many of which are neitiber important 
nor relevant, for the sake of a larger number 
of illustrative passages from the plays. ^^ The 
Shoemaker*s Holiday" and '' The Knight of the 
Burning Pestle," for example, are mines of in- 
teresting allusion that could have been worked 
to advantage. We must not, of course, find 
&ult with Professor Stephenson for not doing 
what he did not undertake to do, but we are per- 

suaded that his accounts of Elizabethan places 
and customs would have been more vivid and 
interesting if confirmed by constant reference 
to dramatic literature. As it is, his book will 
render intelligible many an obscure allusion. 

It will not, however, give its readers a clear 
or a unified picture of Elizabethan London. 
We can fancy such a picture, a composition, not 
a catalogue, sufficiently detailed to have reality, 
and so vivified and harmonized by the construc- 
tive imagination as to leave upon the reader*8 
mind much the same impression as the pictur- 
esque old city must itself have left on all who 
had eyes to see it. This, perhaps, will be the 
delightful result of such work as Professor Ste- 
phenson's. Meantime, we may be content with 
the glimpses that he gives us of rural London, 
and its ^^fair hedge-rows of elm trees, with 
bridges and easy stiles to pass over into the 
pleasant fields, very commodious for citizens 
therein to walk, shoot, and otherwise to recreate 
and refresh their dull spirits in the sweet and 
wholesome air*' (Stow); the cottages in the 
suburbs " for poor bedrid people," who lay " in 
their bed within their window, which was toward 
the street, open so low that every man might 
see them, a clean linen cloth lying in their win- 
dow, and a pair of beads, to show that there lay 
a bedrid body, unable but to pray only," ap- 
pealing to the charity of the devout ; the fires 
burning in the city streets thrice a week to 
cleanse the air polluted by the refuse of the 
^^ kennels " ; and the bell of St. Sepulchre^s toll- 
ing for the execution of criminals, while the bell- 
man read, as the malefactors passed the church, 
^^All good people pray heartily unto GUmI for 
these poor sinners who are now going to their 
death for whom the great bell doth toll." In 
the chapter on the theatres, the author makes 
the interesting suggestion that the hut above 
the stage, which figures in several contemporary 
prints, contained the machinery that operated 
the traverse (pp. 320, 823). 

The book is illustrated with many interesting 
and unusual prints, plans, and maps. Alto 
gether, it is a useful addition to the library of 
tiie student of the Elizabethan drama. 

It is quite true, as Mr. Isaac Hull Piatt re- 
marks in his «^ Bacon Cryptograms in Shake- 
speare,'* that while the ^^ Shaksperians " are in 
possession, they are not in unduturbed possea- 
sion. Mr. Piatt's little book is the latest at- 
tempt to create such a disturbance. And at the 
outset we feel bound to say that while we do not 
find Mr. Piatt's arguments convincing, we quite 




agree with him that the ^^ Shaksperians " who 
liaTe taken part in the controversy have rather 
often confounded ridicule and refutation. Im- 
plications of asininity and idiocy no doubt ^^ im- 
part a gusto," as Charles Lamb would say, to 
the pages of the ^^ Saturday Heview," but they 
ue not war. We would not, therefore, lay our- 
selyes open to the charge of failing to approach 
^ Bacon Cryptograms *' in a spirit of becoming 

The book consists of eight more or less con- 
neeted papers, the most important of which are 
*^The Bacon Cryptograms in Love's Labour's 
Lost," which d^ds with the Latin of Act V., 
Scene I., ^^ The Bacon Cryptograms in the 
Shakespeare Quartos," and '^ 'The Testimony 
of the First Folio." Mr. Ratt's tone is emi- 
nently moderate. ^^ I wish distinctly to deny," he 
sajs, '^ that what I am about to present proves 
Bacon's authorship of the Flays. What I do 
daim, and I think in reason, is that they seem to 
oonstitate grounds for a very strong suspicion 
diat he waA in some manner concerned in their 
production or associated with them " (p. 2). 

The arguments presented are so detailed 
that it is impossible to do them justice in a 
brief summary. Boughly it may be said that 
Mr. Flatt resolves the nonsense word **• honori- 
ficabOitudinatibus " (L.L.L., 5. 1. 44) into 
^^^Hi ludin tuiti sibin Ft, Bacono natV which 
may be translated, ^ These plays, originating 
witfi Francis Bacon, are protected for them- 
selves,' or ^ entrusted to themselves,' " of which 
it is doubtful whether the Latin or the English 
is more cryptic ; that he finds the name Bacon in 
Ae headpieces of the quartos of The Taming of 
a Shrew, The First Fart of the Contention, and 
fiidiard n.; and that Jonson's connection with 
the First Folio and his relations with Bacon and 
^ Shaksper, the actor-manager," *^ seem to bring 
Bacon pretty dose to, at least, an editorial asso- 
ciation with the Folio." It must be admitted 
that in dealing with the last of these points he 
has taken a neat vengeance on Mr. Churton 
Collins, whose paper on ^^The Bacon-Shake- 
speare Mania " in his '* Studies in Shakespeare " 
must be cheerless reading to all Baconians. Mr. 
GoDins rashly asserts that ^^ there is not a par- 
ticle of evidence that Jonson gave the smallest 
assistance to Bacon in translating any of his 
works into Latin" (p. 352); and adds in 
a footnote, referring to Archbishop Tenison's 
Baeoniana^ ^*the only translator named is 
Herbert." Mr. Flatt shows that a few pages 
further on, Tenison says, ^* The Latin tranda- 
tion of them was a work performed by divers 

hands ; by those of Doctor Hacket. . . . Mr. 
Benjamin Johnson (the learned and judicious 
poet), and some others. . . ." 

We have already intimated that we do not 
find Mr. Flatt's reasoning cogent or his posi- 
tions tenable. Yet it would not be profitable 
to undertake a refutation here. As he truly 
says, ^^ the argument for the Baconian author- 
ship depends upon a vast mass of circumstantia 
evidence. It is not a chain, but a bundle of rods. 
Whether Jupiter can break it or not, remains to 
be seen ; but to pull out one or two of the weak- 
est of the rods from the bundle and triumphantly 
proclaim their weakness does not materially 
affect the strength of the case " (p. 101). But 
supposing one rod after another is withdrawn 
from the bundle, here and there, by this student 
or that, and neatly broken ? In any given dis- 
cussion, we may admit that the body of testi- 
mony in favor of the Baconian authorship is not 
invalidated ; but when all the important argu- 
ments have been severally demolished, as we 
believe they have been, the case collapses. This, 
of course, assumes that the Baconians have 
irrefragable evidence enough to put the Shake- 
spearians on the defensive, which we are far from 
admitting. Let us take a rod or two at random. 
Mr. Flatt quotes Davies's sonnet to Bacon, the 
last lines of which are, — 

" My Mom thni notes thy worth in erery line I 
With ynoke which thni ihe sogan ; ao, to ahine," 

and comments, ^^ The allusion in the last line, 
... to Shake-speare's ^ sugared sonnets among 
his private friends' seems very obvious " (p. 28). 
To which we reply, only to a convinced Baconian. 
The name Bacon, that he discovers in the head- 
pieces of certain quartos, is, we assert, visible 
only to the eye of faith. The discovery of a 
Bacon cryptogram at the beginning and end 
of Lucrece is — we try to "deliver all with 
charity " — absurd. His interpretation of the 
Latin of " Love's Labour's Lost" is incoherent 
and unintelligible, and of the nonsense word 
still more nonsensical. His notion that the 
Lucy caricatures (he seems to be unaware that 
2 Henry IV. contains one of the best) were 
suggested to the playwright by the Stratford 
actor-manager from his own experience, is, to 
put it mildly, fantastic. He believes the address 
'« To the Great Variety of Headers," in the 
First Folio, to be by Bacon, partly because it is 
" topheavy with legal phrases "; but he forgets 
that legal phraseology is a literary convention 
of the period, as the sonneteers bear witness. 
He cites the passage, dear to the Baconian heart, 
from Timber, in which Jonson says of Bacon 



[Feb. 1, 

that he ^^ performed that in our tongue which 
may be compared or preferred either to insolent 
Greece or haughty Some," and reminds us that 
in the First Folio lines Jonson applies abnost 
the same words to the author of the plays. But 
Jonson in both passages is imitating Seneca ; 
the original contains the words insolenti Grce- 
ciae^ and it is surely not remarkable that a 
scholar should apply to different persons an in- 
teresting literary allusion, especially when it con- 
tains a sonorous phrase into the bargain. Mr. 
Piatt exclaims, we believe in jest : ^' Think of 
it — the author of Hamlet allowing his daugh- 
ters to be brought up without being taught to 
write ! That fact alone is sufficient to put Mr. 
William Shaksper out of court." If inatten- 
tion to the education of one's daughters is to be 
regarded as a test of the authenticity of one's 
works, " Paradise Lost " must no longer be at- 
tributed to that very neglectful parent, John 
Milton, but to the " syndicate of which Elwood 
was president," referred to by Mr. Churton Col- 
lins (" Studies in Shakespeare," p. 333). 

Such are some of the rods, and duch their 
frangibility. The Shakespearians may breathe 
a sigh of relief, and resume their immemorial 
repose. Mr. Piatt, at any rate, cannot break 
their sleep. Charles H. A. Wagek. 

Br£bfs on New Books. 

Then4oro ^^^ John C. Reed of Atlanta, for- 

influencein merly a Confederate soldier and a 
our hutory. member of the Ku Klux Klan, is the 
author of an interesting volume called '^The Broth- 
ers' War" (Little, Brown, & Co.). The book is 
not an account of the Civil War, but a philosophical 
explanation of the differences between North and 
South during the nineteenth century, — a treatise 
on the negro influence in American history. Mr. 
Reed writes in the best of temper, out of the fulness 
of personal knowledge on some subjects and in 
curious ignorance on others. In his introduction he 
tells the South that it must recog^nize that slavery 
had to be destroyed because it stood in the way of 
national unity, and that it must now allow free and 
calm discussion of the race question; on the other 
hand, the North, he says, must acknowledge that 
slavery was mainly a good to the blacks and an 
evil to the whites ; that the negroes of great ability 
are not fair representatives of their race but are 
tinctured with white blood ; that the Ku Klux Klan 
did a great work in saving the South from Afri- 
canization; and, finally, that the purity and sin- 
cerity of the Southern ante-bellum leaders must be 
conceded. Some of the topics treated are : Slavery 
as a disruptive force, and as a social and economic 

institution; the struggle between free and slave 
labor ; the nationalization of the North and of the 
South, which practically resulted in two nations under 
one government; abolitionists and '^fire-eaters"; 
Calhoun, Webster, Davis, Toombs, and "Uncle 
Tom's Cabin "; and the race question. In the long^ 
strife between North and SouUi the writer's opinioa 
is that both sides were right, but he has small regard 
for the moral convictions of abolitionists and the 
principles of " fire-eaters,'' whom he considers natu- 
ral phenomena. The "powers unseen" — that is, 
natural forces, or evolution, — fought on the side of 
the North and gave to that section the victory. Mr. 
Reed, by personal observation and long experience 
in the Black Belt, was well acquainted with slavery, 
and is an authority on the present condition of the 
blacks ; but while he asserts the great advantages 
of free over slave labor, he seems not to understand 
the real economic evil at the basis of slavery ; nor 
does he explain exactly how slavery injured the 
Southern whites, though he states that it was an evil 
to the whites. In fact, like some other Black Belt 
writers, he seems to lose sight of the fact that the 
South had free as well as slave labor, that most of 
the whites were non-slaveholders, and that mainly 
upon this dass fell the evils of the system. Speak- 
ing only of the mass of the blacks, he compares 
their condition under slavery with their present 
situation under the crop-lien, convict-lease system^ 
and peonage, and decides that their later state is 
the worse. Though weak in his knowledge of the 
statistics and economics of slavery, he sees that it is 
better for the whites that the system was destroyed. 
Mr. Reed states that in Greorgia he has observed that 
the negro is losing ground in shops and mines, on 
the farm, and as a servant, and he believes that the 
race cannot stand against the competition of the 
white. The smaU upper class of negroes who have 
won their economic freedom is left out of considerar 
tion. The book is valuable because it is written by 
one who is familiar with much that he writes about ; 
but there are many who will hardly agree with some 
of the conclusions presented. 

Convenient volumes that one can take 

bookof'^^oie ^ ^^ ^®' ^^^ *^*' *^® ^* '^P ^^^ 
short chapters that stimulate without 

taxing the brain, are always attractive to the book- 
lover. Sir Lewis Morris, lutherto known to readers 
as a poet, now offers a collection of twenty-eight 
short papers and addresses, which he collectively 
entitles " The New Rambler " ( Longmans). " He 
will," he says in his preface, referring to himself 
in the third person, "be well content should his 
attempts in prose meet with a measure of the suc- 
cess awarded to those which he has only heretofore 
made in verse." Merely noting by the way the curi- 
ous misplacing of " only " in Uiis sentence, we pass 
on to the body of the book, which contains some 
very good reading. Especially conunendable are his 
remarks on "The Place of Poetry in Education." 
Talleyrand's warning to the youth who had no taste 




for whisty — " Young many you are preparing for 
yourself a miserable old age," — he thinks might 
also be addressed to the young person insensible 
to the charms of poetry. His denial that poetry 
requires to be clothed in metrical form, and his asser- 
tion that ^< much of Mr. Ruskin's Stones of Venice, 
or Modem Painters^ and almost the whole of Mr. 
Carlyle's History of the French BevoltUiony is un- 
mixed and fine poetry," will not pass unchallenged ; 
nor will his opinion that Milton and Spenser were 
unfortunate in the choice of a theme for their great 
poems. What he says, in his strictures on current 
enticism of poetry, about a '< conspiracy of silence " 
unong critics, is a familiar cry ; yet who but a dis- 
appointed poet would say it is not also a foolish and 
groundless complaint? Sir Lewis Morris, however, 
is far from being an unsuccessful poet, for he tells 
ns on another page that his " Epic of Hades " ^ ran 
through three editions of 1000 copies each in its 
first year, and thence went steadily onward, till in 
the present year it has reached its fiftieth thousand 
or more"; and that "gresi lawyers not a few, the 
whole world, in fact, of cultiyated people, and last, 
not least, my friend and master. Lord Tennyson, 
hastened to acknowledge the merit of the somewhat 
sodaeious new writer." Once upon a time, as Sir 
Lewis wiQ doubtless remember, an author who com- 
plained of this diabolical ''conspiracy of silence" 
was advised to join the conspiracy. One whose 
hooks of poetry sell to the extent of Sir Lewis's 
sordy need not hesitate to follow the advice. Ap- 
preciative and somewhat extended mention is made 
of Mr. Charles Leonard Moore's half-serious, half- 
whimsical essay entitled ^ A Competitive Examina- 
tion of Poets," which appeared in The Dial some 
yean ago. Sir Lewis, as some will recall, has labored 
long in the cause of public education in Wales, be- 
sides producing rapidly-selling volumes of verse; 
and bu experience of life and acquaintance with 
fiteratare niake his reflections and reminiscences and 
eoonsels well worth reading. 

WoMhinoUm " Washington and the West " (Cen- 
iu eTpi4yrer and tury Co.) is the title of a volume 
tzparuionut. embracing Washington's Diary kept 
dozing his western journey in September, 1784, 
togetibier with an Litrodnction and an explanatory 
essay by Mr. Archer Butler Hulbert, author of 
'^ Historic Highways." In 1783, before resigning 
from the army, Washington wrote a friend: *'I 
shall not rest contented till I have explored the 
Western Country and traversed those lines . . . which 
have given bounds to a new Empire." Already, 
between 1748 and 1783, he had made five trips to 
various parts of the western country. This last and 
longest journey, through western Maryland, western 
Pennsylvania, and northwestern Virginia, was un- 
dertaken in September, 1784, for two purposes: 
Washington wanted, first, to look after the extensive 
tracts <rf western lands belonging to him, which 
squatters were settling upon and speculators were 
off erii^ for sale in Europe ; and, second, as he had 

stated, '< to obtain information of the nearest and 
best communication between the Eastern and West- 
ern waters, and to facilitate as much as lay in my 
power the island navigation of the Potomac." The 
Diary is almost entirely a study of the western 
highway problem. Washington's belief was that 
*' there is nothing which binds one country or one 
state to another but interest "; and this '^ cement of 
interest" was needed to attach to the East the rap- 
idly growing West, whose people "stand as it were 
on a pivot, and the touch of a feather would almost 
incline them either way." It was necessary, for 
political as well as commercial reasons, that the 
West be opened up to the East, and not be left to 
cast its lot politically and commercially with the 
Spaniards of the South or the British of Canada. 
And as a good Virginian, Washing^n was con- 
vinced that the proper route from the East to the 
West lay through Virginia. The Diary shows that 
on this western trip he sought for and obtained 
detailed information about every river and creek and 
valley that could possibly be used for purposes of com- 
merce. After careful investigation, he concluded 
that an all-Virginia route to the West was not 
practicable ; but that Maryland, which was willing, 
and Pennsylvania, which was unwilling, must also 
assist in the undertaking and share the benefite with 
Virginia. Mr. Hulbert's part has been to edit care- 
fully the Diary, which has not before been published 
as a whole, and to add a careful essay on the 
" Awakening of the West," which is, so to speak, a 
translation of the Diary into modem narrative, with 
explanations of the text Washington's spelling of 
proper names was phonetic and eccentric, and for 
the general reader Mr. Hulbert has performed 
genuine service in explaining the crabbed text and 
the picturesque orthography. According to him, 
the great value of the Diiuy is to throw a side4ight 
upon the Washington who was <* First in Peace," — 
the daring explorer, the shrewd clear-headed busi- 
ness man, the ^ first conunercial American," whose 
influence upon American expansion and upon the 
policy of internal improvements was so profound, — 
"the greatest man in America had there been no 
Revolutionary War." 

Dr OMier "^^ Soldier on parade should have 

inpuhy his nerves under such control that 

paragrapht. ^ spider might spin its web over his 
face without causing so much as the twitching of a 
muscle. This perfect self-command, in small wor- 
ries as in larger anxieties and dangers, is repeatedly 
and emphatically enjoined upon the physician by 
Dr, William Osier in his " Aequaninutas," and else- 
where. From his numerous addresses and printed 
papers a handy volume of '^ Counsels and Ideals " 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) has been compiled, with 
the author's consent and cooperation, by Dr. C N. B. 
Camac From the days of Sir Thomas Browne, to 
go no further back, our polite literature has been en- 
riched with the productions of physician-authors, the 
humanities and the beneficent art of healing having 



[Feb. 1, 

a certain natural inter-relationship, or consangrninity. 
To this noble line of wielders of both pen and scal- 
pel, to whom Dr. Osier more than once refers with 
professional pride, his own name has already been 
added by the reading public. His claiming of Keats 
as one of the physician-poets may at first produce a 
slight interrogative uplift of eyebrows; but it ap- 
pears that the author of '* Endymion " was in fact a 
licensed surgeon, however completely one may have 
forgotten his brief term of hospital practice. What 
most impresses one on examining this selection from 
forty-seven of the author's fugitive pieces is not only 
the professional and practical wisdom displayed, and 
the breadth of view revealed, but also the wide read- 
ing in writers not commonly held to be a necessary 
part of a doctor's library. Even a careless turning 
of the leaves of '^ CounselB and Ideals " brings to 
light many apt allusions to and quotations from 
Ilato, Anstode, St. Paul, Shakespeare, Milton, 
Bunyan, Sterne, Oscar Wilde, Lowell, Greorge Eliot, 
and numerous others. Of especial interest to young 
physicians, this book also attracts the general reader 
by reason of its fine literary quality, to say nothing of 
the sound substance to which this quality serves as 
a sauce. An instructive commentary on a certain 
pet theory of the author's is furnished by the dates 
at which the forty-seven cited addresses and essays 
were delivered or published. Only one is dated ear- 
lier than 1890, while fifteen belong to the years 
1900-1905. Take 1849 as a subtrahend, and be- 
hold the result ! 

Romantic When a successful historical novelist 

epuodea in turns historian in the sober sense, we 

niinou history. ^^^ ^^^ „p^^ ^ readable book. 

When he has for his subject so significant a region 
as the State of lUinois, we may count also upon a 
remarkable degree of interest This is the case of 
Mr. Randall Parrish, whose <' Historic Illinois : The 
Romance of the Early Days," has recently been pub- 
lished by Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. It remains 
to be added that the author has made use of a wide 
range of good authorities, and has not allowed imag- 
ination (save as far as picturesque effect is concerned) 
to get the better of fact. It is his bold but not ap- 
parently exaggerated contention that no State of the 
Union surpasses Illinois in the romantic incidents 
of early days. These are full of color, action, and ad- 
venture, for above these peaceful plains and woods 
.once waved the flags of four contending nations, 
while men of the white race and the red strove 
continually for mastery. A few of Mr. Parrish's 
subjects may be mentioned to illustrate the richness 
of his field. There are the mound-builders, the Fort 
Dearborn massacre, and the Black Hawk War. There 
are the explorations and adventures of Marquette, 
La Salle, and Tonty. There are the stories of the 
Spanish invasion, of Clark's expedition, and of the 
Mormon expulsion. There are the narratives of lead- 
mining, border outlawry, and the struggle against 
slavery. And there are special chapters upon such 
subjects as the story of the capital, notable border 

characters, and old steamboat days. There are also 
many illustrations. Altogether the book is highly 
attractive, and will be found particularly useful in 
the schools, every one of which should be provided 
with a copy. 

Mrs. Boas's «With Milton and the 

Milton and Ms QavaUers " ( James Pott & Co. ) is not 

contemporaries, . ^ ^^ „ '^ ^ t^ x, 

an mstmctive or a well-wntten book. 

It is a compilation of familiar facts concerning 
seventeenth century notables, made in accordance 
with the theory that ''we must follow the lives of 
those of Milton's time who helped to make En- 
gland what he knew it " in order that we may have 
'' some faint appreciation of the difficulties in which 
his lot was cast, and to which perhaps he owed the 
clearest insight poet has ever shown into the won- 
derful dealings of the Creator, and 'man's first 
disobedience.' " The papers, however, are not oonr 
nected in any way, and therefore fail to suggest 
the unified view of the period, at which Mrs. Boas 
aims. The style is rambling and inconsequent, the 
paragraphing eccentric, and the author's critical and 
interpretative comments feeble. The following is 
her remark on the style of Sir Thomas Browne : " He 
was a most industrious writer throughout his long 
life, and his works well repay careful study. . . . 
His style has a charm of its own, and one which left 
its mark upon the prose of the time at which he 
wrote." The author has not even the doubtful merit 
of a good strong prejudice on either side of the great 
seventeenth century struggle. The Latin dedication 
to the memory of Professor York Powell, however, 
is charming. We are grateful, too, for the follow- 
ing passage on the child's vision of the world, from 
Tiaheme's "Centuries of Meditation": 

" The com was orient and immortal wheat whioh never 
should be reaped nor was ever sown. I thought it had stood 
from everlasting to eyerlasting. Hie dnst and stones of ih» 
street were as precious as gold : the gates were at first the end 
of the world. The green trees when I saw them first lliroii^ 
one of the gates transported and ravidied me ; their sweetness 
and unusual beauty made my heart to leap, and almost mad 
with eostaoy, they were sueh strange and wonderful things. 
. . . Boys and girls tumbling in the street were moving jewels : 
I knew not tibat they were bom or should die. . . • The 
city seemed to stand in Eden or to be built in Heaven. The 
streets were mine, the temple was mine, the people were mine, 
their dothes and gold and siWer were mine, as much as tlieir 
sparkling eyes, fair skins, and ruddy faces. The skies were 
mine, and so were the sun and moon and stars, and all the 
world was mine ; and I the only spectator and enjoyer of it.** 

Records of a ^^ nature book has heen writtten for 
photographer, a long time SO comfortable in its gen- 
naturaiuu gral tone as Mr. Sihis A. Lottridge's 

'< Animal Snapshots and How Made" (Holt). It 
occasions no misgivings about the author's accuracy, 
and causes even the ordinary reader little emba^ 
rassment at his own ignorance. Lovers of nature- 
sensations may call the book commonplace, and so 
in a sense it is, for the animals it presents in text and 
pictures are those with which every farmer's boy is 
familiar — woodchuck, musk-rat, squirrel, fox, and 
raccoon, — and the birds are those we all know. 




There are no thrilling tales, except as the tragedies 
of an out-door life are thrilling to readers who have 
sympathies. The author does not even make as 
much as he might out of his heroic struggles for 
photographs of tiie shyer creatures ; indeed the ohvi- 
OQS f Milt of the book is that it does not emphasize 
the method of securing pictores enough to justify 
its title. But the very familiarity of the subjects 
endears them, and the author's modesty is refresh- 
ing. The only danger is that the reader, taking 
comfort in much that he already knows, will miss the 
rarer quality of certain passages. There is plenty 
of implicit poetry in some of the descriptions, such 
as that of a tryst with the gray squirrels at dawn, 
when '< there is a regular tattoo of sounds on the 
forest floor, caused by tiny showers of dew shaken 
from the leaves, as the squirrels leap from the end 
of one slender branch to another." And as for 
originality, nothing more need be said than that Mr. 
Lottridge placed a ndcrophone in the wall of his 
bluebird box, and attached a telephone to it, so 
that he heard all the family conversations during 
the nesting season. The photographs are aU enjoy- 
able, while a few of them — that of a muskrat swim- 
ming, of a woodcock on her nest, and of a chicken- 
hawk ^^at attention" — are triumphs of the art 

n.^M.& -.^ The fourth volume of Mr. Herbert 
and meaaures Paul s << History of Modern £n- 
tnm 1876 to 1886, gland" (Macmillan) covers the ten 
years fr<Hn 1876 to 1885. As in the preceding 
volumes (previously reviewed in The Dial) the 
author's method is that of strict chronological nar- 
rative, based on a study of Parliamentary Papers 
and of the few biographies and memoirs so far 
available. His work is everywhere compact, but 
his terse and vigorous style gives emphasis to what 
might otherwise easily read like a mere summary 
of political events. In the present volume also, Mr. 
Piral evidently feels himself much more familiar 
with the conditions he is studying and much more 
free to give a personal judgment upon the policies 
adopted or upon the acts of parliamentary leaders. 
He is himself a Liberal in politics and has been a 
Member of Parliament, so that his criticisms must 
necessarily be read witb allowance for his point of 
view. Yet he is free in his criticisms of both par- 
ties, and his intimate knowledge of the inner work- 
ings of political life, and his personal acquain t ance 
with the men he is describing, render such criticisms 
weU worth while in themsdives. In general he is 
inclined to attack the policies of the Tory party, 
and to criticise his own party simply on the ground 
of errors in political manoeuvring. As this history 
approaches tbe present time and becomes more per- 
tinent to presentrday conditions, it assumes a livelier 
tone, and many little-known but illuminative anec- 
dotes of men are introduced that serve to render the 
history itself much more attractive. Disraeli's 
flippant yet piercing phrases, Gladstone's ponderous 
oratoricflJ effects, or Bright* s clear-cut analyses of 
conditions, all help to leave an impress of the men 

themselves. The fifth and concluding volume of 
Mr. Paul's work, approaching still nearer to the 
present time, should be of yet greater interest to 
those who wish an understanding of contemporary 

English politics. : 

A coniributian ^h® William Uoyd Garrison centen- 
to the OarrUon nial anniversary has elicited from the 
annivertarv. pen of Mr. Emest Crosby a little vol- 
ume entitled <' Grarrison the Nour-Resistant," which 
comes from the Public Publishing Company of Chi- 
cago. Considering the history of the past few years, 
it is a fact of hopeful significance that such a char- 
acter as that of Garrison has received so generous 
and widespread recognition as the hundredth anni- 
versary of his birth has called forth. There are 
many who assert, and who doubtless honestly be- 
lieve, that Garrison was a drag rather than a help 
to the anti-slavery cause, for the reason that his 
methods were not generally adopted, and because 
the actual freeing of the slaves came about as an 
incident of a policy to which he was ardently op- 
posed. Those who go below the surface know the 
shallowness of such a view. Just such an agitation 
as Grarrison led was absolutely essential to that re- 
vulsion of public opinion without which the freedom 
of the slave, by any method whatever, was an utter 
impossibility. We cannot agree with Mr. Crosby 
in his criticism of Grarrison for not throwing hu 
talents as a reformer into the cause of labor in its 
conflict with capital. Freedom or slavery was a 
clean-cut question of right and wrong ; there were 
good and bad people on both sides, but one side was 
essentially right in what it asked and the other 
essentially wrong. No such clearly definable issue 
has as yet appeared in the struggle between capi- 
talists and laborers. Also, while we agree with Mr. 
Crosby in his ardent opposition to war, we can 
hardly assent to his view that Garrison's abolition- 
ism was a mere incident in his career as a non- 
resistant Apart from these possible flaws, however^ 
Mr. Crosby has written a wholesome book for the 
times, and we hope that it will have a wide reading. 

CommentM on -^ volume of 320 pages in which there 
tMnff§andpi<»ee9,are thirty-eight essays or articles on 
bookt and men. ^^^^^to 9S widely different and un- 
related as <'The Tannery at Mondoa" and <'The 
Religious Significance of Precious Stones " presents 
some difficulties to the reriewer which are not re- 
concilable to the usual critical standards. The 
final chapter, '< Chips from a Literary Workshop," 
adds fifty different topics commented upon in short 
paragraphs ; and all of this material goes to make 
up the latest published wori^ of Mr. Frederic Row- 
land Marvin, <'The Companionship of Books, and 
Other Papers" (Putnam). The author has here 
collected articles, essays, notes and scraps, often- 
times mere paragraphs or sentences about various 
things, — books, places, and men. Some of the longer 
articles have been published in magazines ; others 
are here printed for the first time. To judge of 
the whole as literature is out of the question. To- 



[Feb. 1, 

read it as the note-book of a man well-read and 
broadly interested in a vast number of things, lit- 
erary and otherwise, is the best method of approach. 
Mr. Marvin has covered a large field in his choice 
of subjects, and they sound well as titles, but are 
often disappointing in their unfolding. He fails to 
realize an ideal in the chapter on <' The Companion- 
ship of Books," but he is tender and sympathetic 
over the tomb of Heloise and Abelard and the story 
of Paolo and Francesca. He is perhaps at his best 
when musing over the qualities of an old friend or 
some obscure hero. He becomes lugubrious when 
lingering in graveyards or writing about ''The 
Modem View of Death" or ''Dust to Dust," etc., 
etc. Mr. Marvin recalls to our minds a number 
of forgotten themes in a pleasant way, and says a 
great many good and wise things in a plain and 
simple manner. There is in his writings a little of 
the preacher and a little of the teacher and a good 
deal of the philosopher, but less of the literary man 
than one nught expect to find in such a volume. 

A lively attuiv ^ fortunate choice of subject and a 
of** La Grande decided skill in presenting it places 
Mademoiteiie." -^xne. Arvhde Barine's " Louis XIV. 
and La Grande Mademoiselle " (Putnam) in quite 
a different dass from the perfunctory and colorless 
studies of the heroines of the old French r^gune 
which are turned out in large numbers at every 
publishing season. It would perhaps be more diffi- 
cult to write a dull book about " La Grande Made- 
moiselle " than a brilliant one. But Mme. Barine 
has made her heroine's strange personality so vivid 
and individual, and has entered so thoroughly into 
the spirit of her mad vagaries and misguided im- 
pulses, that the narrative has all the vivacity of 
fiction, though at the same time its historical care 
and accuracy are evident at every turn. This vol- 
ume takes up the career of MUe. de Montpensier 
where the same author's previous study, "The 
Youth of La Grande Mademoiselle" dropped it, 
just at the close of the Fronde. Mile, de Montpen- 
sier never lost the ideals of her youth and accepted 
the new r^me of absolute monarchy and abased 
nobility only after a life-time's hopeless struggle. 
Next to depicting her heroine, Mme. Barine has 
been interested in making intelligible the enigmat- 
ical personality of the young king, so different from 
the old man of Saint-Simon's "M^moires," and in 
showing how he imposed his ideas of kingship, 
which were Spanish rather than French, upon his 
generation. Altogether, she has written a delightful 
study of a fascinating epoch. The translation, which 
is anonymous, is easy and unaffected. There are 
thirty iUustrations from contemporaneous sources. 

Rose Eytinge was in the hey*day of 
her popularity during the "palmy 
days " of the American drama, — the 
days of Edwin Booth, Lester Wallack, £. L. Daven- 
port, and Angustin Daly, of all of whom she was the 
associate and personal friend. She entered the pro- 

An American 
the old aehool. 

fession when a mere girl; success followed so fast 
that in a few years she was playing with Booth, of 
whom she has several pleasant personal anecdotes 
to relate in her entertaining autobiography, " The 
Memories of Rose Eytinge" (Stokes). The most 
interesting portions of the book deal with the larger 
professional career of Miss Eytinge, when she be- 
came one of the best known of our women players ; 
with her official residence in Cairo, as the wife of 
the American representative, George H. Butler; 
with her return to the stage as a member of 
the famous Union Square Company — her " Rose 
Michel " days ; with her triumphs in London, where 
she became acquainted with Charles Dickens, Wilkie 
Collins, Edmund Yates, Robert Buchanan, Mrs. 
Gladstone, and others as well known. The book 
abounds in interesting bits of reminiscence, anec- 
dotes, and incidents of public characters, with aide- 
lights on their idiosyncrasies, — forming the nafve 
chronicles and observations of over half a century. 


Two new volmnes in the attractive " Oxford Poets," 
published by Mr. Henry Frowde, are the << Complete 
Poetical Works of William Cowper," edited by Mr. 
H. S. Milford, and a reprint of the three-volume edi- 
tion of Browning's poems issued in 1863, with ** Pau- 
line " and two short fugitive pieces added. Especially 
welcome is the Cowper volume, which includes every 
poem of his hitherto printed except the translationa of 
Homer and '< Adamo," with full and careful editorial 
apparatus. These well-printed and inexpensive edi- 
tions of the poets deserve high praise. 

« The American Catalog " (mic) now sent us from the 
office of "The Publishers' Weekly," covers the five 
years 1900-4 inclusive, and is a thick volume of about 
fifteen hundred pages, each year being paged sepa- 
rately. It differs from the other volume of the same 
title in giving f nU title entries with annotations, instead 
of condensed titles. It is practically a reprint, sya- 
tematised into one alphabet for each year, from the 
weekly reooid of «The Publishers' Weekly," and is, of 
course, a work of indispensable importance to librarians, 
editors, and booksellers. The publishers plan to issue a 
similar volume at the end of each five-year period. 

« The Chief American Poets," edited by Mr. Curtis 
Hidden Page, and published by Messrs. Houghton, 
MifBin & Co., is a companion volume to the same edi- 
tor's «« British Poets of the Nineteenth Century." It 
ahns to provide not an anthology, but a carpus of the 
best work of the nine poets included, who are Bryant, 
Poe, Emerson, Longfellow, ¥rhittier, Holmes, Lowell, 
Whitman, and Lanier. Since the volume has over seven 
hundred two-colunmed closely-^rinted pages, it is not 
impossible to give a fairly adequate representation of 
this number of poets. The work of the editor includes an 
introduction, footnotes, indexes, biographical sketches, 
and bibliographies. Each bibliography has four sections : 
editions, biography and reminiscences, criticinn, and 
tributes in verse. The number of references here grren 
is sufficient for a fairly complete study of each oi the 
poets concerned, and it is particularly for this feature 
of the volume that we are grateful. 




Lippinoott's « Complete Pronouncing Grazetteer, or 
Geo^n4>hical Dictionary of the World " has been for 
many years one of the works of reference absolutely 
indi^nsable to every school, library, and home, not 
merdy because it has had no rival, but also because it 
hss been, in its successive editions, a work of such 
thorough execution and admirable plan as to leave no 
room for adverse criticism. A work of this sort, of 
eonzse, must be revised at intervals, and the book in 
question has now been given a very complete revision 
ii the hands of Messrs. Angelo and Louis Heilprin. It 
is printed in new type from cover to cover just half a 
centmy from the appearance of its first edition. There 
ftre upwards of two thousand two-columned pages. 

No better idea of the great advances made of late 
in the field of artistic photography could be gained than 
from the volume called <<Photograms of the Year," 
published by Messrs. Tennant & Ward, New York. 
This is a collection of reproductions and criticisms of 
typical photographic pictures of the year just closed, 
compiled by the staff of the English *< Photographic 
Monthly," assisted by A. C. R. Carter. There are re- 
ports from France, Grermany, Denmark, Canada, and 
Spain, besides a general retrospect of *< The Work of 
the Year " and detailed accounts of the two great Eng- 
lish exhibitions of 1905. More than one hundred and 
fifty representative photographs, finely reproduced and 
printed, illustrate the pages of this interesting volume. 

The ft^ninMi.1 volume of proceedings of the National 
Educational Association, reporting the Asbury Park 
meeting of last July, has now been published, and will 
be found to contain a series of discussions, quite as im- 
portant as usual, of most of the educational topics of 
timely interest. Even more valuable, in some respects, 
are the three special reports, separately printed, that 
accompany the main volume. The subjects of these 
reports are industrial education in rural schools, taxa- 
tion in its relation to education, and the present condi- 
tions of salary, tenure, and pension, under which the 
teachers of Uie United States are performing their 
poorly-rewarded labors. These reports ought to serve 
as the basis of an early improvement in the professional 
itatos of the teacher, and of a widened sense of respon- 
sibility in the matter of taxation. 

Particular interest attaches to the new volume of 
English « Book-Prices Current " (London: Elliot Stock) 
because of the tmusual number of rare and valuable 
books which have been sold at auction during the sea- 
son of 1905. Some sixty-nine works, most of them in sin- 
gle volumes, brought their owners over £24,000. Fust 
and Schaeffer's Psalter of 1459, the Countess of Pem- 
broke's " Au Tonie," dated 1595, Caxton's « Book called 
CatoD," and twenty-one Shakespeariana were among 
the great prizes of the year. Another item of unusual 
mterest to collectors is the catalogue, running to ninety 
pages, of the library of the late Mr. John Scott, of Largs, 
Ayrshire, whose volumes of English history, because 
of their extreme rarity, have an interest for the biblio- 
phile quite out of proportion to their market value. 
This new volume of << Book Prices Current " has, like 
its predecessors, been very carefully compiled and fuUy 
indexed. The subject index which formerly stood at 
the beginning of the work has been united with the 
general index, and the whole now appears in one alpha- 
bet at the end. On the whole, bibliophiles will find the 
new volume more than ordinarily interesting and useful; 
while to booksellers and librarians it is, of course, an 
ndispensable working tool. 


Dr. C. T. Winchester, Professor of English Literature 
at Wesleyan University, has written a popular Life of 
John Wesley which the Macmillan Co. wiU presently 

« Napoleon and his Times " is the title of the new 
volume in " The Cambridge Modem History." It 
will probably be completed in time for issue during 

« Tarry at Home Travels " is the title of a new book 
by Dr. Edward Everett Hale announced by the Macmil- 
lan Co. for Spring publication. The volume will be fully 
illustrated from portraits, old prints, and photographs. 

«A Guide to the Ring of the Nibelung," by Mr. 
Richard Aldrich, is published by the Oliver Ditson Co. 
There are numerous illustrations in musical notation, 
and the book furnishes a very helpful aid to the study 
of Wagner's great tetralogy. 

"The Plays and Poems of Christopher Marlowe'* 
and « The Miscellaneous Works of Goldsmith " make 
up the contents of the latest volumes in the ever- 
welcome " Caxton Thin Paper Series," imported by 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Dr. Stopford Brooke's new volume of criticism, which 
he is now preparing, will probably be entitled "The 
Poetic Movement in Ireland." The book will contain 
appreciations of Matthew Arnold, Dante Grabriel Ro- 
setti, Cloughf and William Morris. 

The Open Court Publishing Co. send us a pamphlet 
containing Count Tolstoy's essay on « Christianity and 
Patriotism," accompanied by extracts from certain others 
of his essays, the whole translated by various hands, and 
provided with an epilogue by Dr. Paul Cams. 

An explanatory list of " Abbreviations Used in Book 
Catalogues " has been compiled by Mary Medlicott of 
the Springfield City Library, and is published by the 
Boston Book Co. Many otiiers besides librarians will 
find this modest pamphlet of much usefulness. 

A timely addition to the "Old South Leaflets" is 
made in "Franklin's Boyhood in Boston," a selection 
from the opening i>ages of the Autobiography. At the 
end of the pamphlet aro printed the provisions relating 
to Boston in Franklin's will and a few helpful notes. 

We have just roceived from the Government Printing 
Office a " List of the Benjamin Franklin Papers in the 
Library of Congross," compiled by Mr. Worthington 
C. Fold, also the annual roport of the Librarian, Mr. 
Herbert Putnam, for the year ending with last June. 

A caroful examination of an interosting but hitherto 
rather neglected subject is promised by the Baker & 
Taylor Co. in a volume entitled " The Country Town, 
a Study of Rural Evolution." The author is Mr. Wil- 
bur L. Anderson, and an introduction is contributed by 
Dr. Josiah Strong. 

Mr. Frederic Harrison has completed a drama on 
which he has been engaged since the publication of his 
Byzantine romance, " Theophano." It is not a drama- 
tized version of that tale, but rather a tragedy founded 
on the same incidents. The play will not be published 
until it has appeared on the stage. 

The " Letters and Addresses of Thomas JefPerson " 
is the ninth volume in the series of roprints issued by 
the Unit Book Publishing Co. It is edited by Messrs. 
William B. Parker and Jonas Yiles, and gives us nearly 
three hundred pages of carefully-selected text, besides 
the notes. Similar volumes of Washington, Adams, 



[Feb. 1, 

Franklin, and Hamilton, are mentioned as being in prep- 
aration. These books are a positive boon for teachers 
of history in our schools. 

Herr Julius Wolffs rhymed narrative of " The Wild 
Huntsman," first published thirty years ago, has found 
a skilful translator in Mr. Ralph Davidson, and a sym- 
pathetic illustrator in Mr. Woldemar Friedrich, the 
combined product now making an English book pub- 
lished by the Messrs. Putnam. 

«The Book of Photography, Practical, Theoretic, 
and Applied," edited by Mr. Paul N. Hasluck, is pub- 
lished by Messrs. Cassell & Co. It is a big book of 
some eight hundred pages, encyclopedic in scope, and 
abundantly illustrated. It will prove a veritable boon 
to amateur and professional photographers alike. 

A pretty ** Lewis Carroll Birthday Book " has been 
compiled by Mrs. Christine Terhune Herrick and is 
published by the A. Wessels Co. There are alternate 
blank pages throughout the volume, with selections 
from Dodgson's inspired nonsense for each day in the 
year, and several of Tenniel's drawings. 

« The Bivouac of the Dead and Its Author," by Mr. 
George W. Banck, is a small book published at the 
Grafton Press. While we are by no means certain that 
the poem in question is " the greatest martial elegy in 
existence," it is important enough to deserve this treat- 
ment, and the accompanying conmiemoration of Theo- 
dore O'Hara, its author. 

« Specimens of Discourse," edited by Dr. Arthur 
Lynn Andrews, is a new volume of the <* English 
Sheadings " published by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. 
The contents are of a nature to illustrate the four fun- 
damental types of composition, and are consequently of a 
very miscellaneous character. The book is intended for 
students in high schools and the early years of college. 

Some time this month the Harpers will publish the 
first volume of a series to be called « The Mark Twain 
Library of Humor." It is the aim of the editor to in- 
clude not only representative selections from the works 
of the recognized fun-makers, but to give full and right- 
ful place to those writers who while working in a wider 
field, have yet given expression to the purest humor. 
The first volume will be called « Men and Things." 

Mr. Clyde Fitch's play, «The Girl with the Green 
Eyes," is published in book form by the Macmillan 
Co., with due reservation of the rights of perfonnance. 
While far from being a distinguished illustration of the 
literary drama, the play reads very well — possibly 
better than it sounds when acted. And we always 
welcome the appearance of acting plays in a form that 
permits of their being read at all. 

After several years' preparation, Messrs. Henry Holt 
& Co. will shortly begin the publication of an important 
series of books dealing with contemporary political, 
economic, and social questions, to be cidled « American 
Public Problems." The first volume is entitled ** Im- 
migration and its Effect upon the United States," and 
is the work of Dr. Prescott F. Hall, for many years 
secretary of the Immigration Restriction League. 
Neither this nor the volumes to follow are designed to 
present any particular theory or to uphold any especial 
doctrine. Eauch will contain a complete history of the 
question treated, in its political and legislative aspects ; 
with all the available facts pertinent to it, and a careful 
and impartial discussion of the policies advocated. The 
series is under the general editorial direction of Mr. 
Ralph Curtis Ringwalt, of the New York bar. 

Topics in IjEAding Pbbiodicaxs. 

February, 1906. 

Architecture, Domestic, Some Becent Designs in. Studio. 
Arctic Two Tears in the. Anthony Fiala. MeClure. 
Army as a Career. Lloyd Buchanan. World^a Work. 
Art Books, Significant. Royal Ck>rtiMOt. Atlantic. 
Barrier, The Last. Charles G. D. Roberts. Harper. 
California's Fruit Crops, Saving. W. S. Harwood. Century. 
Ceramic Work of Burslem Art SchooL B. N.Scott. Studio. 
China, The New. Thomas F. Millard. Scribner. 
Christian Endeavor Movement. H.B.F.Macfsrland. No.Amer. 
Christianity in Japan, Future of. J. L. Deering. World Today. 
City's Fight for Beauty, A. Henry Schott. World^t Work. 
Comet, What is a f William H. Pickering. Harper. 
Constitution, Written, Elasticity of . Hannis Taylor. No.Amer. 
Damrofloh, Frank. E. N. VallandJgham. World*9 Work. 
Electoral Cormptjon in England. Arthur Pottow. No. Amer. 
Eliana: the Latest Windfall. William C. Hadltt Atlantie. 
English Art Club, The New. E. Douglas Shields. World Today. 
Erie Canal and Freigtit Rebates. C. H. Quinn. World Today. 
** Essex, The GtanUeman from." Lincoln Steffens. MeClure. 
Europe, Diplomatic Ifasters of. World^t Work. 
Exploration. N. S. Shaler. Atlantie. 

French Presidency and American. Mnnroe Smith. Rev.ofRev9. 
(Galveston's New Sea^Wall. W. Watson Davis. Rev. of ReviewM. 
G^rgia, A Great Citizen of. Albert Shaw. Review of Reviewe. 
Germany, How Sdenoe Helps Industry in. Review of Reviewt. 
Government as a Home-Maker. Hamilton Wright World Today . 
Gulf Ports, Development of our. Review of Review§. 
Hankey. William Lee, Art of. A. Lys Baldry. Studio. 
Harper, President John H. Finley. Review of Reviewu. 
Hayti, Future of. Eugene P. Lyle, Jr. WorUr§ Work. 
'* Ik Marvel," Charm of. Annie Russell Bfarble. A tlantic 
Imperialist First American. W. S. Rossiter. North Amerietut. 
Impressionist Painters, Reminisoenoes of. George Moore. Serib. 
Industrial Securities as Investments. C. A. Conant Atlantic. 
Japan since the War. Mary C. Fraser. World*a Work. 
Japan's " Elder Statesman." W. Elliot GriflUs. North American. 
Jefferson, Joseph, at Work and Play. Francis Wilson. Serib. 
Kansas Land Fraud Investigation. World Today. 
Keats, Portraits of . William Sharp. Century. 
Lesser Virtues, The. Anonymous. Lippineott. 
Life Insurance Remedy, The. World*a Work. 
Life The Riddle of. H. Charlton Basdan. World Today. 
Mexico, The Year in. Frederic R. Guernsey. Atlantie. 
Miniatures, Recent Vienna Exhibition of. Studio. 
Moose, The, and his Antlers. Ernest Thompson Seton. Scribner. 
National Academy of Design Exhibition. Studio. 
National Portraiture Galleiy. William Walton. Scribner. 
Negro. Joys of Being a. Edward E. Wilson. Atlantic. 
New York Revisited. Henry James. Harper. 
Nola, Feast of Lilies at W. G. Fitx-Goald. World Today. 
Opera in America, Early Days of. Rufos R. Wilson, lAppineoU. 
Parental Schools, Our. Mary R. Gray. World Today. 
Photography, Marvels of. H. W. Lanier. WorUTa Work. 
Pianists Now and Then. W, J. Henderson. Atlantic. 
Poetry, English— What itOwesto Young People. No. American. 
Pure Food Bill and Senate. H.B.Needham. World'a Work. 
Railroads, President and the. Charles A. Prouty. Century. 
Ranch. The 101. M. G. Cunniff. World^t Work. 
Representation, Congress Can Reduce. No. American. 
Richardson, Fred, Some Pen Drawings by. Studio. 
River, Toilers of the. Thornton Oakley. Harper. 
Robinson, Sir John Charles, Etchings of. A. M. Hind. Studio. 
Senate, The United States. William Everett Atlantic. 
Senatorial Courtesy. Salvation by. World Today. 
Severn, Joseph, A Reminiscence of. R. W. G. Century. 
Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Harold Hodge. Harper. 
Sinai, The Egyptians in. W. M. Flinders-Petrie. Harper. 
Society of Western Artists Exhibition. Studio. 
Sonth's Amazing P rogr e ss, The. R. H. Edmonds. Rev. ofReve. 
Speech, Schoolmastering the. T. R. Lounsbury. Harper. 
State Building a, by Oxganized Effort Review of Review: 
Telephone Movement The. Jesse W. Weik. Atlantie. 
TexM, Southwest, Growth of. Review of Reviewt. 
Theatre Francais. The H. C. Chatfleld-Taylor. World Today. 
Tito, Ettore, Paintings of. Ludwig Brosch. Studio. 
Trolley Car as a Social Factor. K. E. Harriman. World Tbefav. 
Trust Company Reserves. G^eorge W. Young. No. American, 
Turgot Statesmanship of. Andrew D. White. Atlantic. 
Umbrian Idyl, An. Anne H. Wharton. lAppineott. 
United States a Parsimonious Employer. North American. 
Villas of the Venetians. George F. Femald. Scribner. 
War. Is the United States Prepared for t Nwth American. 
Workingmen's Insurance. C. R. Henderson. World Today. 




liiST OF New Books. 

[The foUawing list, containing 78 titles, includes books 
received by T&E Dial since its Itut issue,] 


A Lift of Walt Whitman. By Henry Biyan Blnns. nius. in 
Ikhotograyure, etc., large 8yo, gilt top, ixncat, pp. 889. E. P. 
Button ft Co. 

Pnthar Xemoln of the Whiff Party, 1807-1821. With 
some misoeOaneons reminiBoenoeB. By Henry Richard Vaa- 
nll. third Lord Holland ; edited hy Lord Stavordale. With 
photosraTore portraits, large 8vo, gilt top, nncat, pp. 430. 
S. P. Dntton ft Co. $5. net. 

Sdrard Qrieff. By H. T. Finck. Illas., 12mo. gilt top, nncat, 
PPL laou ** Living Masters of Music." John Lane Oo. H. net. 

Jdm FIak«. By Thomas Sergeant Perry. With photograTnre 
portrait, a4mo, gUt top, nncat, pp. 108. "B e acon Bicg- 
laphies.*' Small, Maynard ft Oo. 76 cts. net 

Lord Georve B«ntinok: A Political Biography. By B. 
Disraeli. New edition ; with introduction by Charles Whib- 
ley. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 885. E. P. Dutton ft Oo. $2. net 


The Jews of Sonth OaroHna, from the Earlisst Times to the 
Present Day. ByBamettA.Elzas, M.D. Large 8yo, gUt top. 
uncot. pp. 862. Press of J. B. Lipplnoott Oo. 

The FtodanOiJrt STBtem. 1780-1801. By John Spencer Bassett, 
Fh.D. With maps, 9vo, gilt top, uncut pp. 827. ** The 
American Nation." Harper ft Brothers. 92. net 

Someraet Honee. Fast and Present By Raymond Needham 
sad AlPTanilfr Webster. Hlus. in photogravure, etc. large 
8vo, gOt top, uncut pp. 844. E. P. Dutton ft Oo. i8JS0net 

Oarfhave of the Fhoeniolane in the Light of Modem Exca- 
vation. By Mabel Moore. Ulus. in color, etc., 12mo, uncut, 
pp.184. S. P. Dutton ft Co. 11.60 net 

A Histoary of the Friends in America. By Allen O. Thomas, 
AJ£.. and Bichaid Henry Thomas, M.D. Fourth edition, 
thoroughly revised and enlarged. 12mo. pp. 246. John 0. 
Winston Oo. 


In Pezn of Change: Essays Written in Time of Tranquillity. 

By C F. 6. Masterman, M.A. 12mo, pp. 881. New York: 

B.W.Huebsch. $1.50 net 
The Thread of Gk>ld. By the author of " The Home of Quiet** 

8vo. gilt top, uncut pp. 288. E. P. Dutton ft Oo. |8. net 
Herolo Bomanoes of Ireland. Trans, into English prose 

and verse, and edited, by A. H. Leahy. Vol. II., completing 

the work. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 161. London : David Nutt. 

8eleetlone from the Poetry of John Payne. Made by 

Tracy and Lucy Robinson : introduction by Lucy Robinson. 

With photogravure portrait large 8vo. gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 294. John Lane G6. t2JB0 net. 
Hew Oolleoted Bhymee. By Andrew Lang. 13mo. gilt top, 

uncut pp. lot. Longmans, Green ft Oo. $1.25 net. 
The Oolleoted Poems of WUfired OampbelL 8vo. gilt top. 

imcutpp.8M. Fleming H. Revell Co. $lJM)net 
PosoM of the Seen and the Unseen. By Charles Witham 

Herbert 12mo. uncut PP. 100. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell. 
Words of the Wood. By Ralcy Husted Bell. 12mo, uncut 

pp. 87. Small, Maynaid ft Oo. 
At the Oates of the Oentnry. By Harry Ljinan Koopman. 

lAiiio, uncut pp. 88. Boston: Everett P p eon . ' 
Poems of Love and Nature. By Leonard A. Rlckett 16mo, 

gflt top, uncut pp. 106. Longmans, Green ft Oo. $1.20 net. 
Balmar. Daughter of the Mill. By Charles W. Ouno. Hlus., 

Utaio. pp. 121. Denver : Reed Publishing Oo. $1. 
YsKledyoloes from the Xnse of Beeoh Bend. By William 

Helm Brashear. 12mo. pp. 266. Bowling Green, Ky. : Oon^ 

merdal Job Printing Oo. 


On the Field of Qlory: An Historical Novel of the Time of 
King John Sohieaki. By Henryk Sienkiewici; trans, from 
the Polish by Jeremiah Curtin. 12mo,pp.884. Little, Brown 
AOo. $1.50. 

She Whetf of Ulb. By Ellen Glasgow. 12mo, pp. 474. Dou- 
bledsy.PageftCo. $1.60. 

The Aa^l of Pain. By E. F. Benson. 12mo, pp. 864. J. B. 
LippincottCo. $1.60. 

▲ Xaker of History. By E. Phillips Oppenheim. Hlus.. 
12mo, pp. 806. Little, Brown ft Co. $1.60. 

Doable Tronble; or, Every Hero his Own Villain. By Herbert 
Quick, nius.. 12mo. pp. 320. Bobbs-Merrill Co. tL*60. 

Peter and Alexis : The Romance of Peter the Great. By 
Dmitri Merejkowski; authorized translation from the Rus- 
sian. 12mo. pp. 666. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1 JSO. 

The Ixmg Arm. By Samuel M. Gardenhire. Hlus., 12mo, pp. 
346. Harper ft Brothers. $1.50. 

Vronw Orobelaar and her Leading Oases. By Perceval Gib- 
bon. 12mo.pp. 288. Mcaure. Phillips ft Oo. $1.60. 

Barbara Winslow, BebeL By Elizabeth Ellis. Hlus.. 12mo, 
pp. 408. Dodd, Mead ft Oo. $1JW. 

In Old Bellaire. By Mary Dillon. Hlus.. 12mo. pp. 868. Cen- 
tury Oo. $1.60. 

▲ Lost Oanse. By Guy Thome. 12mo, pp.806. G.P.Putnam's 

Sons. $1.60. 
The 8age Bmsh Parson. By A. B. Ward. 12mo, pp. 890. 

Little, Brown ft Oo. $1JW. 
Napoleon's Iiove Story : An Historical Romance. By Wac- 

law Gasiorowski; trans, from the Polish by the Count de 

Soissons. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, PP. 466. E. P. Dutton ft Oo. 

No. 101. By Wymond Carey. Hlus., 12mo. pp. 878. G. P. 

Putnam's Sons. $1 JSO. 
The Weight of the Crown. By F. M. White. 12mo. pp. 819. 

R. F. Fenno ft Oo. $1.60. 
The Oastleoonrt Diamond Oase. By Geraldine Bonner. 

With frontispiece, 12mo. pp. 228. Funk ft Wsgnalls Oo. $1. 


Plashllghts in the Jungle : A Record of Hunting Adven- 
tures and of Studies in Wild Life in Equatorial East Africa. 
By 0. G. Schillings. Authorized translation by Frederic 
Whyte : with introduction by Sir H. H. Johnston, G. 0. M. G. 
Hlus., large 8vo. gUt top. pp. 782. Doubleday, Psge ft Oo. 
$8.80 net 

The High-Soad of Jfimpire : WaterOdour and Pen-and-ink 
Sketches in India. By A. H. Hallam Murray. Hlus. in color, 
etc., 8vo, gilt top, pp. 458. E. P. Dutton ft Oo. $6. net 

Tho Great Plateau: Being an Aooount of Exploration in 
Central Tibet 1908, and of the Gartok Expedition, 1904^. By 
Captain 0. G. Bawling. Hlus.. 8vo, uncut, pp. 819. Long- 
mans. Green ft Co. $5. 

New Bgypt By A. B. De Guerville. Hlus. in photogravure, 
etc, large 8vo, pp. 860. E. P. Dutton ft Co. $5. net 

A Book of the Bivlera. By S. Baring-Gould. Hlus., 12mo, 
gilt top, uncut pp. 820. E. P. Dutton ft Co. $lJiO net 

SieUy. By the late Augustus J. 0. Hare and St Glair Baddeley. 
Hlus., 16mo, gilt top. uncut, pp. 142. E. P. Dutton ft Oo. $1. net 

Shinto (the Way of the Gods). By W. G. Aston, C.M.G. 8vo. 

pp.890. Longmans, Green ft Co. $2. net 
The Bihle and Spiritual Criticism. By Arthur T. Pierson. 

12mo, pp. 276. Bsker ft Taylor Co. $1. net 
The Tme Dootrine of Prayer. By Leander Chamberlain; 

with foreword by Rev. William R. Huntington, D.D. 12mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 179. Baker ft Taylor Oo. $1. net 
A Chnrcih Calendar for 1908. Large 4to. pp. 61. Thomas 

Whittaker. 60 cts. 


The Nmpire and the Oentnry : A Series of Essays on Impe- 
rial Problems and Possibilities. By various writen; with 
introduction by Charles Sydney Goldman, and a poem by 
Rudyard Kipling entitled ** The Heritage." With maps, 
large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, PP. 900. E. P. Dutton ft Oo. $8. net 

The Cost of Competition : An Effort at the Understanding 
of Familiar Facts. By Sidney A. Reeve. Hlus., 12mo, pp.617. 
MoClure, Phillips ft Co. $2. net 

Xodem G^ermany. By O. Eltzbacher. 8vo. gUt top. uncut 
pp. 846. E. P. Dutton ft Co. $2.50 net 

Ctnakerism and Politics. By Isaac Sharpless, LL.D. 12mo. 
gilt top. pp. 225. Ferris ft Leach. 


Pre-Baphaelitism and the Pre-Baphaelite Brotherhood. 
By W. Holman Hunt, O.M. In 2 vols., illus. in photogra- 
vure, etc., 8vo. gilt tops. MacmiUan Co. $10. net 

Newnes's Art Library. New vols.: Puvis de Ohavannes, 
text by Arsene Alexander ; Dante Gabriel Rosaetti, text by 
Ernest Radford. Each illus. in photogravure, etc.. large 8vo. 
Frederick Wame ft Co. Per vol., $1.26. 



[Feb. 1, 

By Julia Cartwriffht (Mn. Ady). nius.. 24mo. gilt 
top, pp.228. " Popular Library of Art." E. P. Dutton A Oo. 
76 cto. net. 
Bongm and Ain by Gfteorve Friderlo Handel. Edited by 
Ebenezer Prout. In 2 vols. : Vol. I. for high voice, Vol. II. 
for low voice. Large 4to. ** Musician's library." Oliver 
Ditaon (Do. Per vol., paper |1.60, doth 12.60. 

Foat«r'a Oomplete Bridge. By R. F. Foster. 16mo. gilt edges. 

pp.824. McClure, PhilUps & Co. flJiOnet. 
▲ Portrait Oatalogue of the Books Published by Houghton, 

Mifflin & Company. lUus. in photogravure, etc., large 8vo. 

pp. 287. The Riverside Press. 
The Development of Printing aa an Art : A Handbook of 

the Exhibition in Honor of the Bi-Centenary of Franklin's 

Birth, Held at the Boston Public Library under the Auspices 

of the Society of Printers. 8vo, pp. 94. Published by the 

Society. Paper. 
Whittalcer'a Ohnrohman'a Almanao and Parochial List for 

1906. 12mo, pp. 460. Thomas Whittaker. Paper, 26 cts. 


Blementary Ijatin Writing. By Clara B. Jordan. Withfront- 
tispiece, 12mo, pp. 270. American Book Co. H. 

liongmana' Engllah Olaaaioa. New vols: Franklin's Auto- 
biography, edited by William B. Cairns. Ph.D. ; Mrs. Oas- 
keU's Cranford, edited by Franklin T. Baker, A.M. ; Select 
Poems of Browning, edited by Percival Chubb: Irving's 
Sketch-Book, with introduction by Brander Matthews, 
LL.D, and notes by Armour Caldwell, A.B. Each 12mo. 
Longmans, Green & Co. Per vol., 40 cts. 

Oxfbrd Xodem French Series. New vols. : Charles Nodier's 
Jean Sbogar, edited by D. LI. Savory, B.A. ; Erckmann-Cha- 
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What 's in the Magazines 


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No. 47£. FEBRUARY 16, 1906. Vol. XL. 




ING. P«rcy F. BickneU Ill 


A Final Word about Mr. Swinbame as '*a Lore 
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Edith KfUagg Dunton 113 


Sisoon 116 


Simonds 119 


L.Sioussat 122 


Payne 125 

Ccdleeted Sonnets of Lloyd Bfilflin. — The Poems of 
TnunboU Stickney.— GUder's In the Heights.— 
Cawein's The Vale of Tempe.— Lodgers The Great 
Adventore.— Sands's The VaUey of Dreanis.~Wat- 
son*8 Old Ijampe and New. — Bayne^s Perdita. — 
Givler's Poems.— Sherman and SooUard's A Sonth- 
eni Flig^ht.— Soott's New World Lyrics and Bal- 
lads.— Collected Poems of Wilfred Campbell. 


A eontribntion to the study of Dutch painting. — 
A ptaetical believer in the Golden Rule. — A monu- 
mental edition of George Herbert. — Experiences 
wiA a self-supiwrting country home. — More of 
Saintfr-BeuTc's ''Portraits" in English.— A New 
fiiglaad physioian of the old sehooL — The idolatry 
of weal^ in America. — Authoritatiye chapters on 
the Tocal art — Romance and history of an Italian 
▼alley.- Shall the earth be kept still habitable ? — 
The history of our smallest commonwealth. — Leg- 
ends of the Italian saints. 

NOTES 132 



Mr. Lang once remarked, in his aiiy way, 
that the man who really cares for books reads 
them aU. This, we believe, was said a prapos 
of some discussion or other about the ^^ hundred 
best books," or about ^^ courses of reading," or 
about ^^ the pursuit of literature as a means of 
culture." The theme has many names and guises, 
but in all of them it remains the same old theme. 
The anxious inquirer, when he seeks counsel of 
the pundits as to how he may save the literary 

soul within him (assuming that he has such an 
organ), is given lists of books, that he by no 
means wants to read, and well-worn tags, dated 
from Bacon to Ruskin, upon the philosophy of 
the subject. Despairing of these abstract instruc- 
tions, he suppresses his budding aspirations, and 
falls stolidly back upon the diet of husks so 
freely, and in some aspects so alluringly, set 
before him by the public prints of the day. 

The young man or woman who has been the 
victim of systematic literary instruction in the 
schools is in little better case. He has been 
supplied with critical standards, but they con- 
stitute to him no more than a barren formulary ; 
he has read the history of literature, which may 
have stored his memory with names and titles, 
but has not enriched him with spiritual gifts. 
Stretehed upon the Procrustean bed of literary 
study, his members have lost their freedom of 
action, or have been ruthlessly lopped off because 
they did not fit the structure. The annals of 
dead and alien periods have been displayed 
before a mind quivering with vital impulses, and 
his interest in the poets has been suppressed by 
the historical and philological pedantries which 
their proper study entails, as he is given to 
understand it. That literature might yet become 
for him the very bread of life is the last thought 
with which he lays aside the books which have 
presented it to him in so unsympathetic and 
repellant a fashion. 

What may be done to save the soul thus so 
nearly lost? The question is one of the most 
serious ones possible, and whoever succeeds in 
finding the right answer to it is sure of both 
appreciation and gratitude. Probably the first 
delusion to be dismissed is that any one answer, 
or even any hundred answers, will prove ade- 
quate. The matter is one for individual diag- 
nosis and prescription, not for the application 
of general rules. Or rather, this delusion, rightly 
viewed, is the synthesis of all the special delu- 
sions that take ^e form of book-lists, and study- 
courses, and culture-systems. As for Mr. Lang's 
easy dictum, that is obviously a counsel of per- 
fection for the few, a petitio principii for the 
many. The problem is not how to deal with 
those who truly care for books — they may 
safely be left to their own explorations — but 
how to help those who might learn to care for 
books under sympathetic and intelligent guid- 



[Feb. 16, 

ance. And it must frankly be admitted that a 
considerable fraction of those upon whom the 
experiment may be made will be found finally 
incapable of anything like a genuine love for 
literature, even when we frame a highly catholic 
definition of that expression. This atrophy of 
faculty is, however, in many cases more apparent 
than real, and it behooves us all to do what we 
can to promote the activity of the function when 
its failure is the result of either early abuse or 
lack of opportunity. 

We make no claim of profundity for such 
suggestions as we have to offer for tiie suitable 
treatment of these patients, and shall be quite 
satisfied if our remarks rescue a few young 
people here and there from the malpractice under 
which they have suffered hitherto. The heart 
of every person of sensibility goes out toward 
the many unfortunates who, under the impres- 
sion that they are acquiring culture, and that 
the value of the acquisition must be proportional 
to the painfulness of the effort, are to-day toiling 
with artificially-planned courses of reading, or 
plodding through such formidable works as 
Grote's " History of Greece " and Carlyle's 
" Frederick the Great " and Ruskin's " Modem 
Painters" — to say nothing of such works as 
the '^ Mahabharata " and the '' Eiilevala " and 
the " Niebelungenlied," which choice exotics 
invariably blossom in the "gay parterre" of 
every conspectus of the world's best literature 
as recommended for earnest minds. Something 
better than this, surely, it is within the power 
of ordinary intelligence to commend and urge ; 
the case calls for homely simples far more than 
it does for the ransacking of the pharmacopoeia 
in search of strange remedies. 

Our notion is, briefly, that interest and sym- 
pathy form the basis of all good advice about 
reading. Even so admirable a treatise as that 
of Mr. Frederic Harrison upon "The Choice 
of Books " will not do much for the mind untu- 
tored and astray.* Far more may be done by 
some simple suggestion, in the line of an interest 
already existing, made by some person with a 
sympathetic insight into the workings of the 
inquirer's mind. This is the method by which 
library workers are to-day throughout the coun- 
try stimulating young readers, and unobtrusively 
leading them into the pleasant paths of literature. 
This is the method which teachers in the schools 
should employ, and doubtless would employ, 
were it not for the paralyzing restrictions im- 
posed upon them by courses of study and lists 
of books for required reading. The framers of 
these deadly devices will have much to answer 

for when they are called to account for their 
misdeeds before the bar of judgment. 

The philosophical basis of this method is of 
the simplest, and persuasion rather than force is 
its watchword. It assumes that everyone who 
has read at all has developed 8ome special inter- 
ests, and that these interests may be deepened 
by judicious coimsel. It should not be difficult 
to divert by degrees the mind that has found 
pleasure in the tinsel and pinchbeck of " When 
Knighthood Was in Flower " to the sterling joys 
provided by Scott, or the mind that has found 
satisfaction in the cheap buffoonery of " David 
Harum" to the immortal art of Dickens. Taking 
the existent interest as the point of departure, and 
always working upward upon the line of least 
resistance, more may be aceomplished than is 
readily imagined, far more, certwnly, than may 
be accomplished by viewing the subject of the ex- 
periment de haut en baa^ and expecting his tastes 
to conform immediately to standards that are to 
be achieved only after extensive reading and the 
exercise of much discnminating judgment. 

If something be asked for a little more com- 
prehensive than this process of replacing a poor 
novel by a better one, we offer for our final sug- 
gestion the following device. Take as the point 
of departure some book of the highest chara>cter 
that it is safe to choose, and one selected because 
it has the twofold merit of appealing to an 
already established interest of the reader and of 
tending to awaken broader interests of an allied 
nature. Then map out a plan of further read- 
ing for the express purpose of fortifying these 
dawning new interests, until by insensible de- 
grees a new and widened horizon shall be found 
to have replaced the old contracted one. Many 
works of historical fiction, for example, are rich 
in these radiating interests, and might be made 
nuclei for a growth of culture that should be at 
once painless and profitable. " Westward Ho ! " 
" The Cloister and the Hearth," and " Henry 
Esmond" may be given as illustrations. Or, 
if it be safe to venture upon something more 
serious than a novel as the point of departure, 
how effective a use might be made of such a book 
as Trelawney's memorials of Byron and Shelley, 
or one of Mr. Morley's studies of the French 
philosophers, or a volume of Symonds's history 
of the Italian renaissance ! What vistas each of 
these books unfolds to an active mind, and what 
rich pastures does it open to cultivation ! And 
how easy it would be, in pursuit of this plan, 
under skilful guidance, to acquire almost widiout 
knowing it a fruitful acquaintance with one of the 
most significant periods in the life of mankind ! 





A choice instance of a mind edacious of all human 
knowledge is found in Dr. John Brpwn's unde by 
marriage, Mr. Robert Johnston, an elder in the 
church of his brother-in-law and Dr. Brown's father, 
the Bev. John Brown, and a merchant and '^ por- 
tioner " in the little Lanarkshire village of Biggar 
— as we leam from the author of '^Rab and his 
Friends." This Johnston, as is related at some 
length in the first volume of '^ Spare Hours," not 
only intermeddled fearlessly with all knowledge, but 
made himself master of more learning, definite and 
exhaustive, in various departments, than do many 
university scholars in their own chosen specialties. 
^* Mathematics, astronomy, and especially what may 
be called selenology or the doctrine of the moon, and 
the higher geometry and physics ; Hebrew, Sanscrit, 
Greek, and Latin, to the veriest rigors of prosody 
and metre; Spanish and Italian, German, French, 
and any odd language that came in his way; all 
these he knew more or less thoroughly," writes his 
admiring nephew, <^ and acquired them in the most 
leisurely, easy, cool sort of way, as if he grazed and 
browsed perpetually in the field of letters, rather 
than made formal meals, or gathered for any ulterior 
purpose his fruits, his roots, and his nuts — he espe- 
cially liked mental nuts — much less bought them 
from anyone." Every personage in Homer, great or 
smalL heroic or comic, he knew as well as he knew 
the village doctor or shoemaker ; and he made it a 
matter of conscience to read the Homeric poems 
through once every four years. Tacitus, Suetonius, 
Plutarch, Flautus, Lucian, and nobody knows how 
many other classical and post-classical authors, he 
was familiar with, together with such modems as 
Boccaccio, Cervantes (whose <^ Don " he knew almost 
by heart), Addison, Swift, Fielding, Goldsmith, 
Walter Sicott, down even to Miss Austen, Miss 
Edgeworth, and Miss Ferrier. 

But not with the characters of history and fiction 
alone was this village shop-keeper on intimate terms. 
All the minutest personal gossip of the parish, one is 
partly grieved and partly amused to relate, was rel- 
ished and assimilated by him. Poachers and ne'er- 
do-wells appealed to lus sympathies, while on the 
other hand no one could more keenly enjoy a learned 
doctrinal discussion with the parish minister. " This 
singular man," continues the chronicler, ^^came to the 
manse every Friday evening for many years, and he 
and my father discussed everything and everybody ; 
— beginning with tough, strong head work — a bout 
at wrestling, be it Cesar's Bridge, the Epistles of 
Phalaris, . . . the Catholic question, or the great 
roots of Christian faith ; ending with the latest joke 
in the town or the West Raw, the last effusion of 
Affleck, tailor and poet, the last blunder of .^^sop the 
apothecary, and the last repartee of the village fool, 
with the week's Edinburgh and Glasgow news by 
their respective carriers ; the whole little life, sad and 

humorous — who had been bom, and who was d3ring 
or dead, married or about to be, for the past eight 
days." This " firm and close-grained mind," indepen- 
dent of all authority except reason and truth, quick 
to detect weakness, fallacy, or unfairness, and ever 
insistent upon accuracy and clear thinking, served as 
a sort of whetstone on which the minister sharpened 
his wits at these weekly sittings. Of the bodily 
aspect of this interesting man one is glad to be told 
something. Short and round, homely and florid, 
he was thought by his nephew to bear a probable 
resemblance to Socrates. Careless in his dress, he 
habitually carried his hands in his pockets, was a 
great smoker, and indulged in much more thim the 
Napoleonic allowance of sleep. He had a large, full 
skull, a humorous twinkle in his cold blue eye, a soft 
low voice, great power of quiet but effective sarcasm, 
and large capacity of listening to and enjoying other 
men's talk, however small. It will readily be in- 
ferred that he was unplagued by the itch of author^ 
ship. Like the cactus in the desert, always plump, 
always taking in the dew of heaven, he cared little 
to give it out Nevertheless, from first to last, many 
magazine articles and a few pamphlets, dealing with 
questions of the day, dropped from his pen ; but such 
a man, as his nephew says, is never best in a book : 
he is always greater than his work. 

There comes to mind another and much earlier 
devourer of all sorts of then-existent book-learning, 
but one possessed of far less pith and character, 
independent judgment, and power of observation, 
than our canny Scotchman. Marsilio Ficino, the 
Florentine, contemporary with Cosimo de' Medici, 
and placed by him over the Platonic Academy 
which the nobleman had founded not long before, 
distinguished himself by his ardent pursuit of all 
knowledge, but especially of that quintessence of all 
knowledge which we call philosophy. Though a 
Canon of St Lorenzo and Uie avowed champion of 
Christian philosophy, he is said to have kept a lamp 
burning before Plato's bust, and it is certain that he 
produced a Latin translation of Plato's works that 
is still held in high esteem. Extending his studies 
over the entire field of ancient literature, as Pro- 
fessor Villari teUs us, Ficino eagerly devoured the 
works of every sage of antiquity. Aristotelians, 
Platonists, Alexandrians, all weye read by him with 
untiring zeal. He sought out the remains of Con- 
fucius and Zoroaster — and be it noted that this was 
in the middle of the fifteenth century, when such a 
search was something far . different from what it is 
now in the twentieth. Leaping from one age to 
another, from this philosophic system to that, he 
welcomed all learning as grist to his mill. Not only 
did he become a living dictionary of ancient phi- 
losophy, so that his works are practically an ency- 
clopaedia of the philosophic doctrines known up to 
his time, but he was also versed in natural science, 
so far as such knowledge was then obtainable, and 
had received from his father some training in med- 
icine. He is especially interesting, however, as the 
incarnation of that spirit of exultation that was 



[Feb. 16, 

aroused throughout Europe hy the discovery of the 
literary treasures of antiquity. There is enough 
that is likable in him, as portrayed in Professor 
Villari*s work on Savonarola, to make us forgive 
the incurable pedantry of the man. For pedant 
he certainly was, so stuffed with ill-digested learning 
that he had lost the power of independent thought 
and was never content until he could make his 
ideas, if he had any, square with Plato, or with 
Aristotle, or even with some ancient skeptic or 
materialist. And so we leave him, sadly deficient in 
native faculty, but possessed of an admirable thirst 
for knowledge. 

Still another choice spu'it, to whom nothing human 
was devoid of interest, is that genial hypochondriac 
who, to cure himself of melancholy, wrote one of 
the most fascinating, as it is one of the most fan- 
tastic, works of literature. Of the author of ^'The 
Anatomy of Melancholy" far too little is known. 
But there is in the <^ Athenss Oxonienses " a quaint 
characterization of the man that is worth much. 
" He was," says Wood, as quoted in the *' Dictionary 
of National Biography," *< an exact mathematician, 
a curious calculator of nativities, a general read 
scholar, a thorough-paced philologist, and one that 
understood the surveying of lands well. As he was 
by many accounted a severe student, a devourer of 
authors, a melancholy and humorous person, so by 
others who knew him well a person of great hon- 
esty, plain dealing and charity. I have heard some 
of the antients of Christ Church often say that his 
company was very merry, facete and juvenile, and 
no man of his time did surpass him for his ready 
and dexterous interlarding his common discourse 
among them with verses from the poets or sentences 
from classical authors." Bishop Kennet, quoted also 
in the ^^ Dictionary," says of Burton that *' in an 
interval of vapours" he was wont to be extremely 
cheerful, after which he would fall into such a state 
of despondency that he could only get relief by going 
to the bridge-foot at Oxford and hearing the barge- 
men swear at one another, ^^ at which he would set 
his hands to his sides and laugh most profusely"; 
which will perhaps recall to some the passage in 
Barton's preface relating a similar practice attrib- 
uted to Democritus. Burton died at or very near 
the time he had foretold some years before in cal- 
culating his nativity. Wood records a report, cur- 
rent among the students, that he had " sent up his 
soul to heaven thro' a noose about his neck," in order 
not to falsify his calculation. Beneath his bust in 
Christ Church Cathedral, where he was biuied, is 
this curious epitaph, composed by himself : ^^ Paucis 
notus, paucioribus ignotus, hie jacet Democritus 
Junior, cui vitam dedit et mortem Melancholia." 

To the eager devourer of all knowledge, the chaim 
of this incomprehensible universe of ours is in one 
important respect much like the charm of a living 
peroon : it lies largely in what is below the surface 
and only approximately and doubtfully attainable 
by shrewd conjecture. In a human being it is 
found in those reserves of personality that constitute 

so large a fraction of true manhood and woman- 
hood. Should the cosmic scheme ever be so im- 
modest as to lay bare its secret to our gaze, we 
should be literally shocked to death. Thus the fasci- 
nation that lures to the pursuit of ultimate truth is the 
fascination of the unattainable. With the enlarge- 
ment of one's sphere of knowledge, the surface pre- 
sented to the encompassing Unknowable, to use Her- 
bert Spencer's figure, is correspondingly increased ; 
whereby one's sense of awe and mystery and won- 
der is by so much deepened and intensified. And 
although the further one progresses in knowledge, 
the more profound becomes one's conviction of 
ignorance, nevertheless there is a wholesome satis- 
faction in learning how little we really know. To 
attain at last to something like a clear and compre- 
hensive survey of the variety and profundity of our 
ignorance, is well worth the price of a lifetime spent 
in study. To master the domain of human knowl- 
edge (to say nothing now of ultimate truth) is no 
longer possible. All the greater, therefore, our envy- 
in contemplating those bygone dabblers in all then- 
existent branches of learning. They came nearer 
to the attainment of universal knowledge, so called, 
than will ever again be possible. Yet there is com- 
fort in the thought that the literature of power, the 
sum total of things warmly and humanly interesting 
and significant, does not grow nearly so rapidly as 
the field of science and its unliterary literature. 
That the true hunger for knowledge is notably in- 
satiable, is of course easy to explain. Each added 
shred of information draws into view a tangled web 
of countless desirable acquisitions, so that the appetite 
grows with feeding. The domain of possible con- 
quest increases to the learner's vision when once he 
is seized and swept away by the passion for research, 
in a geometrical progression whose constant factor 
is large. 

It may be, finally, as we are often enough assured 
by good men, that this impossibility of satisfying 
the intellectual appetite is providential, and that the 
chief function of the insatiate craving for all knowl- 
edge is to point us at last to the exercise of other 
and higher faculties which shall in the end bring 
the peace that passeth understanding. 

Percy F. Bickkell. 




(To the Editor of Thb Dial.) 

When I ventured to ask some questions in your col-> 
umns about Mr. Swinburne's poetry, I bad no intention 
of entering into any discussion which they might possi- 
bly provoke. But the very courteous communication of 
Mr. Francis Howard Williams, published in The Dial 
of February 1, seems to demand a response. 

As Mr. Williams himself intimates, his communica- 
tion does not deal with the main question, but with a 
side issue — or rather with several side issues. It is 
chiefly a protest against my incidental references to Mr. 




Swinburne's love-poems. Not only does Mr. Williams 
eoDsiiier Mr. Swinburne "essentially and avowedly a 
love-poet," but he claims *< that he excels all others in 
the vivid and compact expression of erotic emotion." 
Passing over this statement without comment, I will try 
to answer Mr. Williams's questions, and in so doing I 
trust that I may make my position more clear. 

Mr. Williams objects to my referring to certain love- 
poems of Mr. Swinburne's as << so-called love-poems." 
This raises too long a question for a short letter. The 
word "love" as we commonly use it is undoubtedly 
broad and elastic enough to include those poems in the 
fiist series of " Poems and Ballads " which I had in 
mind. There are many kinds of love and many classes 
of lovers. Speaking broadly, these poems are properly 
« called" love-poems, but (as I intended to suggest) 
tbey deal with love only, or chiefly, as a thing of the 
senses. In a familiar sonnet (CXVI.), to which I have 
already referred, Shakespeare speaks of love as " the 
marriage of true minds." This is incomplete, but noble. 
In anotiier sonnet (CXXIX.) he lays bare another and 
a very diiferent kind of emotion ; he does not call this 
love, but gives it another and a baser name. In one 
comprehensive line he describes this emotion as "the 
expense of spirit in a waste of shame." PoemE which 
sympathetically portray such an "expense of spirit" 
are " called " love-poems, but, in my judgment, their 
plaee is not with the true love-poems of the literature, 
which deal with a gift which is half divine in its nobler 
and more truly beautiful aspects. Is there not a basis 
of truth in the story of Tannhftuser, as Wagner pre- 
sents it ? The poet of Venusberg is deprived of his 
place among the Troubadours, the true poets of love. 
The poet of " Laus Veneris " shows us human passion 
in its earthly and least exalted form, — passion, with its 
inevitable successors, satiety, world-weariness, and de- 
spair. Whether such poems are true love-poems, or 
whether they profane the name of love, is a matter of 
o^nion and definition. 

A few minor points remain to be noticed. I did not 
say or imply that Emerson did, or could, write love- 
poetry. To that charge I plead not guilty. Mr. Williams 
asks : ** When did Wordsworth ever write a love- 
poem ? " I referred, of course, to the little group of 
poems, which are sometimes spoken of as the " Lucy " 
poems ("She dwelt beside untrodden ways," "Three 
years she grew," etc.), and to the poem beginning " She 
was a phantom of delight." These masterpieces need 
neither praise nor jiistification, but it may be interesting 
to note that Professor F. B. Gummere, in his little book 

00 " Poetics " places them among the most representa- 
tive love-lyrics of the literature. 

I am sorry to be obliged to differ so often from Mr. 
Williama, but I cannot agree with him about Browning. 

1 feel that the poet of that great apostrophe " O Lyric 
Love," the poet who wrote " By the Fireside," " One 
Word More," and " Love among the Ruins " (to give 
only a few examples), ranks with the true love-poets of 
Uie literature. He is the poet of love in its noblest 
aspect as " the greatest good i' the world." Even if 
"The Statue and the Bust " were an exception to this, 
the other poems would remain, but I do not regard it 
as an exception. The poem has pnzzled many readers, 
and it is perhaps somewhat ambiguous, but I am oon- 
stiained to say that in this instance I think Mr. Williams 
has failed to understand Browning's meaning. 

Henry S. Pancoabt. 
Hartford, Conn., Feb, 8, 1906. 

Cj^t ^tto $00k». 

Pre-Raphaelitism from a New Angle.* 

It is impossible to escape a certain feeling of 
disappointment in connection with Mr. Holman- 
Hunt's long-awaited account of the Pre-Baphael- 
ite movement. Other chroniclers have pictured 
this as a dramatic, impassioned revolt. They 
have dwelt upon its splendid enthusiasms and 
generous hero-worship, its light-hearted gaiety 
and its spontaneous humor. Their lively me- 
moirs have been full of clever anecdotes and 
entertaining personalities. The Pre-Baphaelite 
painters have been invariably treated not merely 
as artists and poets but as men, — eccentric at 
times and irresponsible, with more energy in 
undertaking a new project than patience aad 
tmining for finishing it, but full, nevertheless, 
of the joy of living and of working, and of that 
many-sided responsiveness to the best things that 
is the characteristic spirit of the amateur, in 
the true sense of that misused term. And so 
interest in the Pre-Baphaelite movement has 
come to depend less upon approval of its poetic 
or pictorial expression than upon appreciation 
of the remarkable personality of the artists. 

But Mr. Holman-Hunt's idea is that we have 
already had far more of this sort of thing than 
is. good for us ; that in the effort to render the 
movement fascinating and dramatic its real pur- 
pose has been lost sight of, and that in the 
maze of anecdote and personality dates have 
been distorted, followers have been confused 
with leaders, and truth has been outraged. His 
purpose, then, is to write a history that shall 
be accurate, exact, and impersonal, that shall 
show in plain prose how the Pre-Baphaelite 
painters worked among other English painters 
of their day, that shall explain what was their 
theory of art, what each Brother contributed to 
the movement, and how the critics and the pub- 
lic received his work. In particular the author 
wishes to correct certain dominant errors in the 
popular view of the movement. The book, 
therefore, has quite a different scope and inter- 
est from those with which its title challenges 
comparison. Both Mr. Holman-Hunt's author- 
ship and his peculiar understanding of Pre- 
Baphaelitism lead to a heavy emphasis upon his 
own work. But he does not wish the book to 
be considered as autobiography merely. He 
clearly aims at getting a hearing with ibe peo- 


HOOD. By William Holman-Hont. In two voluixies. ninstrated. 
New Tork: The Macmillan Go. 



[Feb. 16, 

pie who have preferred Rossetti's work to his 
own and who have regarded Madox Brown as 
the chief source of Bossetti's initial inspiration, 
— who have accordingly been interested in 
the Pre-Baphaelite movement, without, as Mr. 
Holman-Hunt thinks, in the least understand- 
ing it. 

Of course the whole controversy hinges, like 
most controversies, upon the definition of the 
terms. Mr. Holman-Hunt means one thing by 
Pre-Raphaelitism ; and William Rossetti, Mrs. 
Bume-Jones, and the general reader mean quite 
another. According to Mr. Holman-Hunt, he 
originated, and he and his life-long friend 
Millais talked over and agreed to battle to- 
gether for, the Pre-Raphaelite theory. This 
theory seems to have been simply the accurate 
and careful rendering of natural objects. Hol- 
man-Hunt carried it to its furthest point when 
he went to Syria, subjecting himself to untold 
discomfort and a good deal of danger in order 
to paint sacred subjects in their proper environ- 
ment. But he worked out all his backgrounds 
" with the eye on the object." He took long 
walks over the moors with a lantern to study 
the right effects for " The Light of the World," 
and even painted a large part of the picture by 
lamp-light, out-of-doors, in the damp chill of 
autumn. The original, unalloyed Pre-Raphael- 
ite idea, as Mr. Holman-Hunt uses the term, 
does not seem to have gone deeper than the 
method of getting one's data. It left the imagi- 
nation untouched, and therefore could not affect 
the underlying conception of the painting. 
His picture of " The Scape-Goat," with its ob- 
vious beauties and obvious limitations, perhaps 
embodies the theory more fully, because more 
baldly, than any other one painting ; and an 
attempt to realize how Rossetti might have 
treated the same theme will set the ideals of the 
two painters in illuminating contrast. 

But when, in 1847, Rossetti left Madox 
Brown in despair at the dulness of forever paint- 
ing pickle-jars and came to Holman-Hunt's studio 
to work under his direction, the Pre-Raphaelite 
idea, which had not yet received its name, was 
largely in the air. Rossetti received it with his 
accustomed enthusiasm, — even Mr. Holman- 
Hunt admits that he had a genius for feeling 
and propagating enthusiasm, — and threw him- 
self with eager abandon into the organization of 
a formal crusade against the conventional stand- 
ards and tyrannous Philistinism of the Royal 

It seems little short of amazing, considering 
the temperamental obstacles, that Holman-Hunt 

and Rossetti should ever have been drawn to- 
wards one another, or even imagined that they 
could pull together. From Holman-Hunt's point 
of view the Brotherhood was a disastrous failure. 
Rossetti was from the first utterly oblivious of 
his obligations to it. He confused minute ren- 
dering of nature with medisevalism, which Millais 
and Holman-Hunt abhorred. As soon as he had 
raised a storm of opprobrium with his first 
" P. R. B." picture, which, contrary to agree- 
ment, he exhibited in advance of Millais's and 
Holman-Hunt's, he coolly withdrew from the 
fray and never again exhibited at the Academy. 
But he did not stop with sins of omission. The 
rancorous criticisms of the Academy, put forth 
often anonymously by himself and his friends, 
did them no harm, but greatly injured Holman- 
Hunt and Millais, whose idea had apparently 
been to conduct a peaceful, conciliatory cam- 
paign. Worst of all, Rossetti's showy painting 
and great power of influencing younger men 
misled Ruskin into naming him the leader of the 
movement, a designation that Rossetti accepted 
complacently. As a matter of fact, Rossetti's 
*' Arcb-Pre-Raphaelitism " as his friends laugh- 
ingly named it, was merely arch-heresy in Hol- 
man-Hunt's eyes, and since Millais eventually 
abandoned the gospel that he had professed so 
ardently, Holman-Hunt alone continued to paint 
after the true Pre-Raphaelite manner. 

While we are glad to do justice to Mr. Hol- 
man-Hunt, and interested in comparing his point 
of view with those of other historians, we can- 
not willingly consent to his high-handed substi- 
tution of one stage of the movement for the 
whole story. A Pre-Raphaelite school that leaves 
out Rossetti and accords merely a casual men- 
tion to William Morris and Bume-Jones is 
indeed shorn of its glory. What Mr. Holman- 
Hunt's history fails to allow for is the personal 
equation and its marvellous power of developing 
a situation. . William Rossetti was one of the 
seven original Brothers. A comparison of his 
statement of the aims of the organization with 
Holman-Hunt's will show that even at first there 
were different interpretations. It is impossible 
to imagine Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Holman- 
Hunt understanding the simplest statement in 
precisely the same way, and as the new ideas 
were sown abroad largely through Rossetti's 
magic influence, they were necessarily modified 
in the process, — glorified or distorted accor- 
ding to the point of view. It never seems to 
occur to Mr. Holman-Hunt that his conception 
of Pre-Raphaelitism makes it inmieasurably less 
significant than it has come to be considered. 




That the strongest proof of the virility and power 
of the movement was the wa j it grew to indude 
new thoughts and adapted itself to new person- 
alities is to him inconceivable. He regards an 
idea as a static thing ; to give it life is to destroy 
its nnity, and you must accordingly rename it 
at every stage. 

Holman-Hunt's hostility to Rossetti is inev- 
itable, but there seems to be no better reason 
than jealousy for the former's determined belit- 
ilement of Ford Madox Brown. It is always 
difficult to settle claims of priority; and it is 
of small consequence, since both worked inde- 
pendently, whether Holman-Hunt or Brown 
first arrived at Pre-Raphaelite conclusions. 
Bnt Holman-Hunt is unwilling to give Madox 
Brown any credit for originality. He insists 
apon reducing him to the humble rank of fol- 
lower, declaring that when the Brotherhood was 
organized he was not Pre-Raphaelite, that he 
vHs never officially asked to join the Brother- 
hood, and that his instruction contributed very 
little, if anything, towards Rossetti's develop- 
ment. Even if l^ese contentions are fully justi- 
fied, we should like Holman-Hunt better if he 
had shown more generosity towards a rival. 

But it is high time to turn from the contro- 
versial to the narrative interest of the book. 
Hdman-Hunt tells his story well, in a style 
more earnest than lively, and with a memory 
for detail that is truly marvellous. The Syrian 
journeys, fuU of strange adventures and unique 
experiences, furnish some delightful chapters. 
One of the greatest of the many difficulties 
mcident upon the ignorance and superstition 
of the natives was tiie finding of trustworthy 
models. He tells an amusing story of a shop- 
keeper whose promise he secured to sit for a 
figure in the great Temple picture. The Jew 
fiiiled to appear, and Holman-Hunt's interpreter 
explained his scruple thus : 

^'WeU, you know the merchant's name is Daoud 
Leyi. On the Day of Judgment the Archangel Michael 
will he Htmiding at the gate of heaven, and the names 
of all faithful children of Abraham will be called out. 
. . . When Daoud's name is called, if there were a 
picture of him, it might be that the likeness would 
arriye first, and this might be passed in, and the name 
stmek off the roll; and when he arriyed to demand ad- 
Duttimce he mi^t be told that Daoud Levi has already 
entered in, and that he must be a pretender/' 

Hohnan-Hunt managed to keep a serious face 
while he inquired whether baptizing the por- 
trait with a Christian name would help matters 
any. The Jew thought it would ; so, after the 
first few strokes, Hunt sprinkled the likeness 
with water and declared its name to be Jack 

Robinson. After some alterations had been 
made the Jew feared that the baptized likeness 
had been destroyed, and insisted upon a re- 
christening. Neiedless to say, before the artist 
was through with him he proved to be as great 
a rascal as he was sophistical a reasoner. 

There are vivid reminiscences of Thackeray, 
Tennyson, the Brownings, and the Carlyles. 
Tennyson particularly attracted Holman-Hunt, 
and Uie poet seemed to have treated him with 
unwonted consideration. He gives a lively ac- 
count of a walking trip through Cornwall, on 
which Tennyson, Pal^ave, and Val Prinsep 
were his associates. With his fixed dread of 
being lionized, the poet begged his companions, 
who were all much younger than he, not on any 
account to call him by his surname. Palgrave 
paid no heed to this injunction during the day, 
but as he followed the poet about the cliffs he 
was continually shouting ^^ Tennyson " at the top 
of his lungs. At the inn, however, he ostenta- 
tiously referred to him as ^^ the old gentleman." 
Tennyson objected to this designation, and 
Palgrave retorted that it was absurd to assume 
that his name would be noticed. Each time the 
discussion was renewed Tennyson showed more 
temper, until finally there was an open rupture 
and Tennyson retired to his room to pack. 

"When the poet had gone Palgrave said to us, 
< Yon Ve no idea of the perpetual worry he causes me.' 
Val ejaculated, <Did you say that he caused you?' 
• Yes/ he returned. ' The last words that Mrs. Tennyson 
said to me on leaving were that I must promise her 
faithfully that I would never on any account let Ten- 
nyson out of my sight for a minute, hecause with his 
short-sight, in the neighborhood of the cliffs or on the 
beach of the sea, he might be in the greatest danger if 
left alone. I 'm ever thinking of my promise, and he 
continually trying to elude me; if I turn my head one 
minute, on looking back I find him gone, and when I call 
out for him he studiously avoids answering.' < But you 
call him by his name ? ' we pleaded for the poet. < Of 
course I do, for I find that his fear of being discovered 
gives me the best chance of making him avow himself.'" 

A few moments later Tennyson appeared to 
apologize for the ^^ bickerings " and to explain 
how Palgrave's voice, " like a bee in a bottle," 
had interfered with his opportunities for peace- 
ful revery. And next day he persisted in start- 
ing home, accompanied by the faithful Palgrave, 
and arguing violently, as they drove off, against 
the need of Mrs. Tennyson's caution. All of 
which goes to show that Rossetti was not the 
only genius who tried his friends' forbearance to 
the breaking point. 

There are a great many good stories and 
illuminating bits of criticism in the book which 
would well bear quoting, but these examples 



[Feb. 16, 

must suffice. The great charm of the narrative 
lies in the connected and undetachable story of 
Hohnan-Hunt's career, with its fine concentrar 
tion, its brave, conscientious pursuit of an ideal, 
and its great achievement in spite of heavy odds. 
If we yield one kind of admiration to Rossetti 
and the circle of young enthusiasts that he 
gathered about him, we cannot but grant another 
sort to Mr. Holman-Hunt. Where the others 
rushed gaily over obstacles, he labored with 
dogged perseverence to overcome them. Though 
his range of sympathy was smaUer, he was scru- 
pulous in the discharge of every obligation. ' If 
his inspiration was less exalted and less bril- 
liant than theirs, he pursued it with an industry 
that they could not achieve and an indomitable 
courage that they could not better. Best of all 
he has kept his temper in the face of much 
provocation to lose it ; his attitude toward the 
Academy, toward the critics, and toward Rossetti 
is admirably dignified. Few men, therefore, 
have had more promising material for an auto- 
biography, and there are no dull pages in the 
two thick volumes, though at times the narrative 
moves rather slowly, and the long conversations 
of by-gone years are a little stilted and colorless 
in repetition. 

The illustrations in photogravure and half- 
tone are numerous enough to reproduce all 
Holman-Hunt's important works and a great 
mass of sketches and studies. There are also 
several portraits of the artist, and a large num- 
ber of pictures by his .contemporaries, which 
are referred to in the text by way of showing 
the widespread influence of the true Pre- 
Baphaelite motive, as Holman-Hunt interpreted 

^*- Edith K^ellogg Dunton. 

A New Histort or Education.* 

It can hardly be said that we have too many 
histories of education, or that we yet have suit- 
able text-books on ike subject. The subject 
itself is comparatively new, and awaits satisfac- 
tory treatment both for general reading and for 
the classroom. Professor Monroe's new book 
gives great promise, at first glance, of being a 
nearer approach to the desired text-book than 
any previous one : it is, as the author notes in 
the preface, several times as large as most of 
those now in use, and all will agree that these 
latter are quite too scanty ; it is published by a 
firm whose imprint is a guarantee of at least 

*A Tbzt-Book in m Histoby of Education. By Paul 
Monroe. New York: The MacmillAn Co. 

some marked excellence ; and its external make- 
up is all that could be asked. A general survey 
reveals at once two great virtues : a broad and 
yet sane and definite conception of the subject, 
and a rich body of matenal, in general well 
chosen. The writer has hit a happy mean 
between the narrow ideal of a ^^ history of pedar 
gogy " on the one hand, and such a general and 
subjective view as that of Thomas Davidson in 
his little '^History of Education " on the other. 
The discussion everywhere recognizes the fact 
that education is an integral part of the whole 
development of humanity in history, and yet 
does not forget that it is dealing with education 
and not with the whole progress of thought 
and life. 

There are, however, some omissions and some 
faults in proportion. We are surprised to 
find an extensive treatment of such a remote 
topic as Chinese education, and not a word upon 
the more relevant subject of Hebrew education ; 
with the educational theories and practice of the 
Chinese our history has had no contact or inter- 
action, while with the Hebrew there are many 
points of relation. Again, it would seem that 
to give the Middle Ages 126 pages and the 
Renaissance and Reformation only 90 is con- 
ceding too much to mere length of time instead 
of taking into account real historical significance. 
Vittorino da Feltre, John Sturm, and Melanch- 
thon are disposed of in an average of two pages 
each, — surely a scant recognition of their place 
in the work of actual education. 

The chapter-headings contain some question- 
able terms. Oriental education is set down as 
" recapitulation "; is it not rather simply repe- 
tition or reproduction of type? Indeed, it is 
hard to see why the sub-title of primitive edu- 
cation, ^^ non-progressive adjustment," does not 
fit Oriental education quite as well. Grreek edu- 
cation is called '^ education as progressive adjust- 
ment "; but did not Grreece distinctly fail to 
adjust her education to new conditions and so 
succumb to national decay ? Plato's pedagog- 
ical vision had no realization in actual Greek 
education, and we can by no means assert that 
its realization would have proved to be a pro- 
gressive adjustment. Locke serves as repre- 
sentative of the disciplinary conception of edu- 
cation, but in the process seems to us to suffer 
a certain narrowing and distortion, only par- 
tially corrected by admissions that he also rep- 
resents realism and ncUuralism. 

Closer examination reveals much that is 
excellent. We may mention particularly the 
treatment of Realism, which is broad and illu- 




minating in the highest degree. In the pages 
on Bousseau and in the entire treatment of 
Herbart the author succeeds in giving in con- 
densed form and dear outline the essential con- 
tributions made by the two men to educational 
doctrine. Indeed, the whole book gives proof 
of the broadest and richest acquaintance with 
the field ; the great mass of material is in general 
handled in such a way as to show that ample 
knowledge of the subject which is the requisite 
of the scholar and the teacher. 

Thus the selection of material and the general 
treatment deserve high conunendation. They 
are such as go to the make-up of the ideal text- 
book of the subject ; and this fact makes it the 
more to be r^;retted that the book suffers from 
some serious faults, which greatly lessen its 
value both for the general reader and for the 
student. All these faults seem to be the result 
of one thing, — haste. It is as though the au- 
thor had with all due pains and care gathered 
his material and framed his plan, and then, 
urged by some sudden impulse, thrown the 
book together and rushed it through the press. 
The power and equipment which parts of the 
work show, to say nothing of other work of the 
same author, forbid us to think that the book 
might not have been of far higher excellence in 
its final form. As it is, there are flaws and 
errors on almost every page which sadly mar 
the quality of the book. 

The leaJst important of these defects are petty 
errors, not exactly typographical, for they could 
by no means be charged to the printer, but 
rather such points as might easily be due to 
incompetent proof-reading ; as for example mis- 
spelled words, especially proper names, — " Vit- 
terino da Feltra" (pp. 898, 899), "Scotus 
Erigina " (p. 278), " Furstenschulen " (p. 889) ; 
"ephoebi" for "epheboi" (p. 76); and such 
slips of the pen as die statement that Alexander 
of Hales was the author of the ^^ Summa 
Theologiae" (p. 805), while on a preceding 
page it is correi^y ascribed to Thomas Aquinas. 
With such minor errors may be classed tie fre- 
quent omission of important references. Long 
citations on pages 866 and 525 are not even ac- 
companied by the name of the work from which 
they are taken ; Aristotle's " Poetics " is simply 
referred to as " another work " (p. 155). Defi- 
nite citation of chapter or page is the exception. 
It should not be forgotten lliat a text-book of this 
sort should be framed for the hand of the teacher 
as well as that of the student, and the critical 
and literary apparatus provide accordingly. 

We are not a little surprised to find the 

words ^^ Ye shall know the truth, and the truth 
shall make you free " ascribed to an '^ Apostle " 
(p. 140) ; does our national ignorance of the 
Bible affect even university professors? On page 
75 the terms " Iren " and " Melliren " are con- 
fused, although both have been defined on a 
preceding page in a quotation from Plutarch. 

But these points are insignificant compared 
with other and more serious errors. We are 
told that Rato, in the '' Bepublic," '' rejects all 
the Homeric poems" (p. 186), and ^^ would 
eliminate the use of the poets altc^ther " (p. 95). 
The reviewer can find no such declarations 
in the " Republic," but finds on the contrary 
that Flato says distinctly, after rejecting the 
^^ pantomimic poet," ^^ we ourselves will make 
use of the more severe and unattractive poet '* 
(Rep. 898 A. B.). Is it not seriously incorrect 
to charge the Grreeks with an ^^ Oriental attitude 
toward womankind " (p. 95) ? The author as- 
sumes ^' the absence of all thought of the gods 
or of the future life as having to do with either 
motive for or outcome of conduct in this life." 
Surely a moment's thought would have brought 
to mind Minos and Rhadamanthus, and the 
tenth book of the ^^ Republic," and numberless 
distinct and emphatic expressions in Greek myth 
and epic and drama and philosophy, which 
would show the assumption to be utterly false ; 
indeed it is hard to see how such a phrase could 
have been coined even in the greatest haste and 
heedlessness. A similar misconception as to the 
religious life of the Grreeks is found on page 750, 
where their education is said to have excluded 
all recognition of supernatural or religious ele- 
ment. The very reading books of the Grreek 
boy, Homer and Hesoid, were full of just those 
elements ; and Plato's chief objection to parts 
of these poems is that their theology is untrue 
and that they are in consequence dangerous in 
the extreme. Moreover the whole life of the 
Greek, boy and man, was hedged about by the 
religious and supernatural element; in school 
and out, the child was constantly under its in- 
fluence. Was it not largely the break-down in 
the religious element which brought about the 
educational crisis in the days of Aristophanes 
and Socrates, and the subsequent decay of 
Greek life? 

We are told that Francis Bacon "wrote 
nothing directly on education " (p. 468); as a 
matter of fact there are several considerable 
passages upon education in the " Advancement 
of Learning." 

On page 782 we find the statement, concern- 
ing France, that " religious instruction was given 



[Feb. 16, 

in all the schools." The past tense makes the 
sentence quite indefinite, but it is nevertheless 
misleading, in view of the fact that religious 
instruction was abolished in the government 
schools about 1882, and a moral and civic in- 
struction put in its place. The account of the 
situation in England, though apparently brought 
down to 1903, ignores the Act of 1902, prob- 
ably by far the most important educational 
measure in the history of English schools up to 
the present time. Since that Act went into force 
it is no longer true that '*■ these two systems of 
State or board schools and Church or voluntary 
schools remain side by side '* (p. 734). 

On the question of religious education the 
book is peculiarly unfortunate. We are told 
on page 59 that ^^ our schools to-day must elimi- 
nate the religious element "; is this not simply 
repeating a common misappi-ehension, that be- 
cause the public school must be unsectarian it 
must also be non religious ? At least the state- 
ment involves the prejudgment of a great ques- 
tion, and can only be defended by an exceed- 
ingly narrow definition of the phrase ^^ religious 
element." It is quite in accordance with this 
that we find Bousseau's famous ^^ Confession of 
Faith of a Savoyard Vicar " dismissed with the 
words ^^ we can devote no attention to it here, 
since it is aside from our main interest" 
(p. 565). Nevertheless we are told that the 
question of religious education is a problem of 
very great importance (p. 760); and we cannot 
but wonder why it should be so completely 
excluded from the book. On the same page we 
read that ^^ Little or no attempt at solution is 
being made and little interest aroused." Is there 
then no Catholic Church in America, bending 
every energy to this very task? And if the 
Catholic activities ^xe out of the range of the 
author's attention, he might at least have men- 
tioned the Religious Education Association, 
organized in 1902, and numbering in 1904 
about 2000 members, very many of whom are 
educational leaders. 

It is surprising to find Plato's doctrine of 
the education of women held up as the type 
toward which the twentieth century is striving 
(pp. 140, 141). "The diflferences lie in the 
difference of character, not in the difference of 
sex — a man and a woman — hence should have 
the same education." Is it not rather true that 
modem doctrine admits fully the differences of 
sex, and the consequent differences of educa- 
tion ? Even co-education is very far from mean- 
ing identical training, to say nothing of identical 
function in life, — a part of Plato's chimerical 

scheme for the training of women which Pro- 
fessor Monroe would seem by implication also 
to approve. 

The style of the book must be dealt with 
briefly. Evidences that the author is no incom- 
petent writer are abundant; many chapters, 
especially those already mentioned with com- 
mendation in the earlier part of this review, are 
clear and quite sufficiently polished ; but large 
portions of the work are marred in style appar- 
ently by the same haste that has played such 
havoc with the accuracy. Vagueness, obscurity, 
and ambiguity are frequent. There is often 
confusion in the summary of doctrine, as for 
example the treatment of Bousseau on pages 
663-560. The title of this section is " Three- 
fold Meaning of Nature in the Emile"; the 
three meanings are all there, but in such form 
that the student would have great difficulty in 
apprehending them ; in fact only one who kaew 
them in advance could well feel sure that he had 
detected them. The account of Comenius's 
school system (pp. 492 f ), which might be made 
so perfectly clear, is seriously clouded by lack 
of clear progress and careful use of terms. 

There are many minor defects of form, of 
which a few specimens may be given. ^^ Locke 
is the founder of the naturalistic movement in 
education, for in many respects, as he freely 
acknowledges, Bousseau is indebted to him" 
(p. 522). Who freely acknowledges? Gram- 
mar and fact seem here to be at odds. There 
is a frequent unfortunate use of the phrase 
^' as with," — thus, ^^ Locke, as with Bousseau, 
ostensibly supplanted authority by reason" 
(p. 523). Not infrequently sentences are found 
which are not rhetorically coherent, as for exam- 
ple: ^^As the most important of all English 
writers on the subject of education, or at least 
as ranking with Ascham and Spencer, the main 
thoughts of Locke's treatise deserve presenta- 
tion " (pp. 513, 514). There are many of these 
blemishes, some obscure, some ambiguous, some 
merely awkward ; their frequency confirms the 
belief that great haste is the occasion of these 
faults also. 

It is cause for genuine regret that a piece of 
work so well begun and with such great possi- 
bilities should be thus disfigured and dainaged 
by a multitude of errors and blemishes, some 
indeed of importance, but most of them petty in 
themselves, and all avoidable by more care in 
writing, revising, and proof-reading. But with 
all its faults the book is probably tlie best thing 
available for college classes in the history of edu- 
cation. Vigilance on the part of the instructor 




ean do much to correct the eniors. We can only 
hope for an early second edition, rigorously 
revised, and in parts rewritten. 

Edward O. Sisson. 


Lowell and Lanier : the names chime pleas- 
antly, and with some significance, thus linked. 
At least two admirable studies recently pub- 
lished — among the most notable offerings of a 
year unusually rich in biographical literature — 
impress the reader with a definite feeling that 
this elder bard of New England, with his clear 
ideality of vision, and this later southern min- 
strel, with lus fine perception of the spiritual 
sense of life, are closely akin in the lyric brother- 
hood. We will not push the parallel. The 
differences and discrepancies are palpable in the 
achievement of the younger poet whose fancy 
had hardly b^^un its second flight ; Lanier's 
singing stopped in the poet's fortieth year, just 
ten years before the life of Lowell closed at the 
full age of seventy. 

Mr. Greenslet's study of Lowell is admirably 
made. The material at hand, including the 
recently-augmented edition of the poet's letters, 
must have been almost embarrassing in its ful- 
ness to one whose purpose was to present within 
the space of a single volume a comprehensive 
view of the life of Lowell and a consistent inter- 
pretation of his work. However that may be, 
the result is a compact record of this many- 
sided life and a really judicial discussion of the 
poet's place in literature — the first essentially 
critical biography of Lowell yet attempted. 

Our gleaning from the volume must be 
meagre. Mr. Greenslet's survey does not add 
materially to the vital facts of Lowell's life as 
already familiar. There was, to begin with, the 
auspicious environment of Elmwood — the 
stately colonial mansion set in a ^' bowery lone- 
liness " which drew the bluebirds and the orioles 
and the robins, — where the love of outdoor life 
was bred ; and indoors there were books,— ^ his 
deigyman-father's well-selected library, within 
and among which he browsed knowingly ; as a 
ehnd he was read to sleep from *•*' The Faerie 
Qneene," and rehearsed its adventurous episodes 
to his playmates. Then came the four years of 
the Harvard student, colored by a few whimsi- 
cal breaches of academic decorum, of which 

*jA]fB BussBLL LGfWBLL. His life Slid Work. By Ferris 
Greeoalet. nicutnited. Boston : Hooffhton. Mifflin A Co. 

SiSNBT Lanisb. By Edwin Mims. Illustrated. Boston: 
Hevhton. Mifflin & Co. 

more is said, perhaps, than of the fact that in 
his own independent way the youth was reading 
onmivorously in all the rich pastures (if one may 
in this connection so mix the metaphor) of the 
world's literature. For three years he nerve- 
lessly pursued the law. At last he began to 
find himself, and, in 1843, elected literature. 

Lowell's verse received its first potent impulse 
in his love for Maria White ; but definite inspi- 
ration came, with the development of his demo- 
cratic instincts and his ardent humanitarianism, 
in the early forties. Temperance reform, then 
wivnan suffrage, finally the anti-slavery move- 
ment, enlisted his fervent support. In that 
epoch of stormy debate he did not withhold his 
voice. The spirit which shaped some of his most 
characteristic work was already evoked. His 
ringing utterance was heard in poems like the 
^'Stanzas on Freedom," and the sonnet to 
Wendell Phillips, both of which belong to 1843. 
«^ The Present Crisis," that superb climax of 
lyric eloquence, came in 1845. The year 1848 
is designated by the bic^rapher as Lowell's 
annus mirabilis. It saw ti^e publication of the 
second series of the ^^ Poems " and the comple- 
tion of « The Fable for Critics," the " Biglow 
Papers," and the ** Vision of Sir Launfal "; 
these besides numerous articles and poems con- 
tributed to the magazines. 

For Lowell the satirist, Mr. Greenslet has 
unqualified pndse. 

« Little as he liked to be reminded of it in his later 
years, Lowell was the author of the < Biglow Papers/ 
and it is as the author of the * Biglow Papers ' that he 
is likely to be longest remembered. ... In variety, 
unction, quotability, ethical earnestness, humor, wit, 
fun, even in pure poetry and pathos, they stand quite 
by themselves in American literature. Criticism can- 
not touch them." 

Oftener than we are apt to remember, these 
years of Lowell's early manhood were invaded 
by sorrow. In 1847 the Lowells lost their little 
daughter Blanche, scarce a twelvemonth old ; 
three years later. Rose, their third child, died in 
infancy. The intimate personal expression of 
the poet's grief is given in the affecting lyrics : 
" She Came and Went," " The ChanSgeling," 
and "The First SnowfaU." In 1860 the 
poet's mother, — from whom he had inherited 
the strong mystical tendency so clearly felt in 
his serious work as a whole, — died; her in- 
tensely imaginative mind had become disordered 
in 1842, and for several years she had been an 
inmate of an asylum. The doud had rested 
heavily over the household, but bitterness was 
still in store. In 1852, while enjoying their first 
trip abroad, the Lowells were again bereaved 



[Feb. 16, 

in the death of Walter, their little son, as they 
were passing the winter in Home. Meanwhile 
Mrs. Lowell's health had been declining, and 
soon after the return home, in 1853, the poet 
buried the wife of his youth. His burden of 
grief is felt in " Palinode," '' After the Burial," 
and ^' The Dead House." '' Something broke 
my life in two," he said later, ^^and I cannot 
piece it together again." 

Of the history conveyed in the later chapters 
of this work we have not space to speak. The 
biographer has given a vivacious record of the 
multiform activity which so distinguishes this 
useful representative of letters, this cultured 
servant of democracy in public life. 

Mr. Greenslet's critical estimate of Lowell's 
work in verse and prose is conservative and 
altogether judicious. Of the three hundred 
poems included in the final edition of the works, 
less than fifty, he believes, ^' possess any vivid 
poetical life." Among the traits which give 
distinction to Lowell's best poetry, he empha- 
sizes : ^' the utter and fervent sincerity of the 
moods expressed in it "; '^ the amount of mind 
that lay hack of it" — he finds in Lowell more 
of the Shakespearian mind than in any other 
American poet; and ^^the consistent ideality 
which was both root and branch of his abound- 
ing intellectual life." These qualities, together 
with a keen, sensuous love of nature, Lowell 
had ; the indispensable gift of poetic style he 
had, also, — "but intermittently; it is shown 
multitudinously in lines and passages, rarely 
through entire poems." For the " Commemo- 
ration Ode " and the " Agassiz," the critic ex- 
presses natural and unqualified admiration ; it 
is, however, to the " Biglow Papers," vitalized 
by the fiuent and irrepressible wit of the satirist, 
that he recurs oftenest, and with a final word 
of highest praise. In speaking of Lowell's 
prose, " savory " is the apt word with which Mr. 
Greenslet describes his style. Li the best prose 
of the essayist, he finds a union of vitality and 
antiquarianism which imparts one of the chief 
charms to his diction. " Side by side with sub- 
tilely allusive phrases that thrill the ripe reader 
with gleaming memories of old and far-off au- 
thors will be found some breezy vocable of the 
street that strikes a sudden gust of fresh air 
across the page." It is as a critic of literature, 
Mr. Grreenslet thinks, that Lowell's fame will 
probably be most enduring, at least that his 
work as a critic of literature " will last in greater 
bulk than anything else of his." If his criticism 
is not always temperate, not always judicious, or 
minutely accurate in scholarship, "it is, none 

the less, richer in humor, metaphor, gusto, — in 
short, in genius, — than any other critical writ- 
ing that America has produced ; and it is not far 
surpassed in these qualities by anything in the 
language." With a glowing tribute to Lowell's 
potent influence in the cause of culture and of 
conscience while alive, his bic^rapher prophesies 
the enduring potency of this many-sided talent 
suffused throughout the works of " the first true 
American man of Letters." 

In the stormy battle years of 1861-6, when 
Lowell, already secure in the fame of his early 
verse, was flashing Northern sentiment into the 
sharp and stinging lines of the second " Biglow 
Papers," Sidney Lanier was fighting as a pri- 
vate soldier under the flag of the Confederacy. 
Bom in Macon, Georgia, in 1842, he had just 
completed his college course in Oglethorpe and 
had been called to a position as tutor in that 
institution, when the war broke. Lanier flung 
himself into the struggle with the same ardor 
that sent Paul Hamilton Hayne, Greorge W. 
Cable, Maurice Thompson, and the poet Timrod 
to the support of the Southern cause. Sidney 
Lanier and his brother, Clifford, — two slender 
gray-eyed youths, inseparable in their service of 
danger and hardship — extracted all the romance 
which their experience provided. In 1863, they 
were on scout duty along the James ; Lanier 
wrote later with enthusiasm of his army life : 

" We had a flute and a guitar, good horses, a beauti> 
ful country, splendid residences inhabited by friends 
who loved us, and plenty of hair-breadth escapes from 
the roving hands of Federals. Cliff and I never cease 
to talk of the beautiful women, the serenades, the 
moonlight dashes on the beach of fair Burwell's Bay 
and the spirited brushes of our little force with the 

Poor Lanier — it is almost all there — his whole 
brief story! the brushes with the enemy, the 
hair-breadth escapes, the music and the romance, 
the boyish enthusiasm, the pluck, the heroism — 
and complaint, never ! The pathos, also, in that 
brief life of achievement, which began when 
the war closed, — that note, too, was struck 
in these prophetic years. In '64 the brothers 
were transferred to Wilmington, and placed as 
signal officers upon the blockade-runners. Here 
Sidney Lanier was captured and for five months 
was confined in the Federal prison at Camp 
Lookout ; it well-nigh became his tomb. With 
emaciated frame and shattered physique the 
young soldier went home, like so many other 
youthful veterans, south and north, to f^ht for 
life in the coming years. With Lanier the 
struggle was for both life and livelihood. He 




was twenty-three years old, unsettled as to his 
fatme, and under the shadow of those ^' raven 
days " of the desolated and demoralized South. 
^^ Our hearths are gone out and our hearts are 
broken " — he plaintively sang ; yet he turned 
Ibe plaint into a song of cheer ; still he found 
the romance. In 1867 he was married to Miss 
Afaiy Day, of Macon, and the poeitis of his 
wooing-time and of his wedded life are ajs tender 
and sweet as the lyrics Lowell sang to Maria 
YThite. For five years Lanier tried to follow 
the law, and then, in 1878, he gave himself to 
art. He went to Baltimore, alone — except for 
Us flute. Lanier's flute is as famous as Lanier ; 
it is a part of his personality. Its mellow notes 
had cheered the soldier and his comrades by 
camp-fire and in prison; it had been softly 
played in many a surreptitious serenade ; but it 
was more widely known than this, for Lanier 
was a musician of remarkable power, and he was 
called by many the finest flute-player in America, 
if not in the world. Lanier's musical genius is 
almost the chief element in his story. So &r 
as he could trace his ancestry it disclosed this 
talent in its possession : in the Restoration period 
there were five Laniers in England who were 
musicians ; in Charles I.'s time Nicholas Lanier 
was painted by Van Dyke, and wrote music for 
ibe masques of Jonson and for the lyrics of Her- 
rick ; the father of this Nicholas was a musician 
m the household of Queen Elizabeth ; thus Sid- 
ney Lanier came naturally by his gift. In Balti- 
more, Lanier's flute seciu*ed him a position in 
the Peabody Orchestra, and furnished the means 
of living for several years. Theodore Thomas 
is said to have been on the point of making the 
artist first flute-player in his orchestra, when 
Lanier's health finally failed and he was com- 
pelled to give up the struggle. 

But Sidney Lanier foimd also in Baltimore 
his first opportunity to gratify what had been 
the ambition of the years since his college course 
— the opportunity to study literature and the 
scientific principles of verse. The unfulfilled 
dream of his youth had been a systematic course 
in the German universities ; this wajs not to be 
realized, but in the richly-equipped Peabody 
Library of Baltimore he found his university. 
Never wajs there a more assiduous student. 
Especially did he devote himself to the field of 
Old English poetry. Soon there were invita- 
tions to lecture, and in the city he came to have 
an established reputation as a fascinating lec- 
torer on English literature. In 1875 he first 
won recognition as a poet by the publication of 
" Com " in " Lippincott's Magazine "; and four 

months later his more successful poem ^< The 
Symphony" appeared in the same magazine. 
His new friendship with Bayard Taylor pro- 
duced the invitation to write the words for the 
Centennial Cantata. The first collection of his 
poems was published in 1877. 

Lanier's story is less familiar to the general 
reader than is tiiat of Lowell, and it is so com- 
pelling that we have been betrayed into these 
details. The real pathos of it may best be sug- 
gested by two quotations from his letters to his 
friend and fellow-poet, Hayne. Writing in the 
early seventies, he says : 

** I baye not put pen to paper in a literary vray in a 
long time. How I tiurst to do bo, — how I long to sing 
a thousand various song^ that oppress me unsung — is 
unexpressible. Yet the mere work that brings me 
bread gives me no time." 

Again, when the tale of his life was almost told, 
under date of November 19, 1880, he writes : 

« For six months past a ghastly fever has taken pos- 
session of me each day at about 12 m., and holding my 
head under the surface of indescribable distress for the 
next twenty hours, subsiding only enough each morning 
to let me get on my working harness, but never inter- 
mitting. ... I have myself been disposed to think it 
arose purely from the bitterness of having to spend my 
time in making academic lectures and boys' books 
[the series of "The Boy's King Arthur," "The Boy's' 
Froissart," etc.] — pot-boilers all — when a thousand 
songs are singing in my heart that will certainly kill 
me if I do not utter them soon." 

Yet the poet extracted the joy of life, as he 
toiled, singing, with his ^^ Tampa Bobins" — 

"If that I hate wild winter's spite — 
The gibbet trees, the world in white, 
The sky but gray wind o'er a grave — 
Why should I ache, the season's slave? 
1 11 sing from ^e top of the orange-tree 
Gramercyy wirUer^s tyranny." 

Thus, too, through the last suffering years of 
his ilhiess and weakness he went patiently, 
blithely ; singing the song of his " Stirrup-Cup '* 
— his bold challenge to Death : 

" David to thy distillage went, 
Keats, and Qotama excellent, 
Omar Khayyam, and Ghanoer bright, 
And Shakei!^»eare for a king-delight 

*^ Then, Time, let not a drop be spilt : 
Hand me the cup whene'er thou wilt ; 
'Tis ihj rich stirrup-cap to me ; 
1 11 drink it down right smilingly." 

In rapid succession he wrote three wonderful 
poems, each a nuisterpiece : ^^ The Revenge of 
Hamish," " How Love looked for Hell," and 
"The Marshes of Glynn." In 1879 the poet was 
appointed to a lectureship in the Johns Hopkins 
University. The fruit of this professional con- 
nection we have in two volumes, neither of 



[Feb. 16, 

which is characterized by scientific precision 
or minutely accurate scholarship ; nevertheless 
"The Science of English Verse" and "The 
English Novel " are recognized as indispensable 
to die student of English literature to-day. In 
the winter of 1880-1 Lanier gave up the pain- 
fid struggle ; withdrawing from the University, 
he went for relief to the pine lands in the 
mountains of North Carolina. Here, Septem- 
ber 7, 1881, he passed away. 

This is the mere outline of the heroic life, the 
story of which has now been told by Mr. Mims. 
The characteristics of this interesting volume 
are its picturesqueness, its simplicity, its fulness 
of detail and its dispassionate discussion of 
Lanier's claims to a permanent place among our 
American poets of fame. Not tibe least valuable 
of its features is the intelligent and sympathetic 
presentation of the South's condition at the 
close of the war. To the general student of 
American literature, this phase of the work is 
most illuminating in relation to the recent lit- 
erary development of the South, as well as in 
the narrower relation of its influence upon the 
intellectual growth of Sidney Lanier. Mr. 
Mims's work represents the first complete bio- 
•graphy of this southern poet. It is something 
of a distinction to have served as the first inter- 
preter of a character so fine and rare ; it is a 
great distinction to have performed the honor- 
able service so well. 

Lowell and Lanier : they met once, in 1875. 
Lanier was in Boston visiting Charlotte Cush- 
man, his very dear friend, then ill at the Parker 
House. Two delightful afternoons were spent 
with Longfellow and Lowell. Of this visit the 
latter afterward wrote : 

** He was not only a man of genius with a rare gift 
for the happy word, but had in him qualities that won 
afPection and commanded respect. I had the pleasure 
of seeing him but once, when he called on me < in more 
gladsome days,' at Elmwood, but the image of his shin- 
ing presence is among the friendliest in my memory." 

Lowell and Lanier : they were somewhat alike 
in their ideality, their sincerity, their intellectu- 
ality, in the deep spiritual vision which has 
glimpses of things beyond the knowledge of the 
world ; they were not unlike in their poetic tone. 
Lanier was hardly more than thirty-nine at his 
death ; wliat might he not have done had he 
been given ten years longer to live and sing ! 
Still he had written the poems which we have 
named ; he had written " The Song of the 
Chattahooche," the "Psalm of the West," 
" Sunrise " — and " The Marshes of Glynn." 


An Oxford History of England.* 

In Great Britain, as upon the continent and 
in our own country, the cooperative method of 
writing history is in favor. The " Cambridge 
Modem History " now in the midst of its course 
is, of English works, the most distinguished one 
of this character ; but several have already been 
carried through, and more are promised shortly. 
Among those which are just making their ap- 
pearance, none will be regarded by students with 
greater interest than the "Political History of 
England,'' which is to be published, in twelve 
volumes, under the editors^p of the Reverend 
William Hunt and Mr. Eeginald Lane Poole. 
These names assure for the series warm appve- 
ciation in the world of scholarship, for Dr. 
Hunt, now President of the Royal Historical 
Society, has recently been associated with the 
Dean of Winchester in editing the best history 
of the English Church that has yet appeared ; 
while Mr. Poole, who, since Grariiner's death, 
has been sole editor of the " English Historical 
Review," has himself done much in other ways 
for the growth of historical and cartographical 

If the names of the editors are likely to in- 
spire confidence, no less can be said of the au- 
lliors of the twelve volumes. Had another title 
been sought for the work, this might well have 
been "The Oxford English History"; for not 
only the editors, but all except two of the thir- 
teen authors (one of the volumes is written by 
two men) either are now or have been connected 
with Oxford University. The two exceptions 
are Mr. Thomas Hodgkin, who will write of 
England before the Norman Conquest, and Mr. 
George Burton Adams, Professor of History in 
Yale University, whose book carries the narra- 
tive from the Conquest to the end of the reign 
of John. 

This limitation to a few authors gives each the 
opportunity for treatment of an extended period, 
and results in solid volumes of nearly five hun- 
dred pages, instead of many individual chapters, 
as in the "Cambridge Modem History," or a 
large number of snmll treatises, as in ^^ The 
American Nation." There are no illustrations 
other than a few maps, carefully prepared for 
their historical significance. An especially 

* A PoLinoAL History of Bnolakd. Edited by Rev. WUliam 
Hunt, M.A., and Becinald L. Poole, M.A. Vol. II.. From the 
Norman Conquest to the Death of John (1006-1216), hj deorge 
Burton Adams. Vol. III.. Prom the Accession of Henrar m. 
to the Death of Edward III. (121ft-1877), hj T. F. Tout, M.A. 
Vol. X., From the Accession of Oeorsre III. to the Close of 
Pitt's First Administration (1760-1801), by William Hunt, MJL. 
New York: Longmans. Green & Ck>. 




praiseworthy feature is the thorough biblio- 
graphical apparatus appended to each volume. 

The editors have done their work silently. 
Thns far the volumes appear without individual 
prefaces, and one finds no ^' editors' introduc- 
tions " beyond a two-page statement of the pur- 
pose of the work as a whole. The process of 
«^ linking " is left to the reader, who, unassisted 
hj editorial finger-posts, may find the good 
things for himself. In this respect the three 
Yolumes which we have now to review seem to 
us to have suffered no loss. 

These volumes are the second, third, and 
tenth of the series ; and together they amount 
to more than thirteen hundred pages of text. It 
is evident that within the limits of a brief review, 
eritieism of detail must give place to general 
suggestions. In Professor Adams's book, we 
find the period 1066-1216 handled with the 
cahn judgment which the author's former writ- 
ings in this and kindred fields have led us to 
expect ; and we comment on this the more, by 
leason of the controversial tone which has per- 
vaded much that others have written upon the 
same topic. The reigns of the Norman and 
earlier Hantagenet kings present to the student 
many problems which even England's wealth of 
historical sources has not yet made perfectly 
dear. Much of the recent work has been rather 
destructively critical, and the reflection of this 
in Professor Adams's book leaves the reader 
with a certain feeling of n^ation. William, 
we are told, did not regard all the land of the 
English as rightly confiscate. That the manors 
of the feudal barons were scattered about in 
different parts of England must not be attrib- 
uted to a conscious intention thereby to weaken 
their power. The traditional view of the mak- 
ing of the New Forest is open to question. The 
oath at Salisbury, again, was not a very novel 
performance. These negative opinions might 
leave the student sorrowing for his departed 
faith, did not Professor Adams supply occasional 
passages upon the constitutional changes and 
social development of the period — such as the 
discussion of feudalism (pp. 14-23) or that of 
ecclesiastical affairs (pp. 38-50) — so sugges- 
tive and stimulating as to make one regret the 
great emphasis laid upon political history to the 
hurt of odier fields. Taken as a whole, the work 
of Professor Adams covers a difficult period of 
English history with a combination of unity and 
depth that neither Sir James Ramsay nor Miss 
Norgate has completely attained. 

With the struggle over the Charter and with 
the death of John, Professor Adams leaves the 

story. It is taken up by Professor Tout, to 
whom the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
are familiar ground. This volume carries the 
narrative down to 1377, and, like the preced- 
ing one, leaves England in an age of transition, 
— the age of Froissart, of Wyclif, and of 
Chaucer. During this long and eventful time, 
but four kings ruled in England, Henry III. 
and the three Eklwards, and son succeeded 
father. Two of them were great, though in very 
different ways, and with very different results 
for their land. But under all four the growth 
of England's sturdy national life went on. In 
this volume, as in that which preceded it, we 
cannot but regret the entire subordination of 
everything to politics, which we do not believe 
to make all of history. Here only a part of the 
fourth chapter and the entire last chapter are 
devoted to those deeper changes in town and 
country, in Church and University, in law and 
art, which after all is said are what to-day inter- 
est us in medisBval life. But with this limita- 
tion — and such it seems to be — we must not 
quarrel, for it is an intended characteristic of 
die whole series. 

From the middle ages to the reign of George 
III. constitutes a sudden and difficult leap, and 
perhaps this fact is sufficient to account for 
the feeling of relative disappointment that we 
get from reading the tenth volume, the work of 
the editor. Dr. Hunt, which extends over the 
years 1760-1801. It seems hard for modem 
English historians who write of the eighteenth 
century to suppress their own political senti- 
ments. If "Ms, Trevelyan, for example, has 
given us a Whiggish history of England, here is 
a good Tory antidote. Not that Dr. Hunt's work 
is unscientific or intentionally partisan, — on the 
contrary there is evidence that the writer has 
striven to be just throughout. His proclivities 
appear, however, in the descriptive adjectives 
and epithets applied to men and measures, — 
Home Tooke, for example, is always labelled, — 
as well as in the larger discussions and inter- 
pellations of events. The younger Pitt is very 
properly his hero, and King Greorge himself 
appears as a greater man than in most accounts 
of the reign. On the other hand, the Whigs in 
general, and Charles James Fox in particular, 
are h&ndled with an acerbity which contrasts 
amusingly with the over-sympathetic estimate 
of Mr. Trevelyan. 

For revolutions Dr. Hunt has no love. Speak- 
ing of the younger Pitt he says : 

« In later days [he] altogether abandoned a liberal 
policy, for he was called on to give England that which 



[Feb. 16, 

is infinitely more important than liberal measures, the 
preservation of its constitutional and social life from 
the danger of revolution " (p. 283). 

This may be regarded as typical of Dr. Hunt's 
attitude. What he says of the French Rev- 
olution would indicate that he took rather a 
narrow view of the real meaning of that mighty 
struggle. Ireland fares little better. But, while 
it would be of interest to examine Dr. Hunt's 
general acooimt of the close of the eighteenth 
century, we feel that it is more important to 
discuss briefly his attitude in respect to our own 
controversy with the mother-country. This 
attitude is strikingly like that of Chalmers, and 
is presented in a summary which the author 
gives on pages 141-142. 

"The spirit which underlay it can be traced with 
growing ^tinctness since 1690 ; it was a spirit of inde- 
pendence, puritan in religion and republican in politics, 
impatient of control, self-assertive, and disposed to 
opposition. It was irritated by restraints on industry 
and conunerce, and found opportunities for expression 
in a system which gave the colonies representative 
assemblies while it withheld rights of self-government. 
... It is to be remembered that England's colonial 
policy was then, as it is now, the most liberal in the 
world. American discontent existed before the reign 
of George III.; it was kept in check by the fear of 
French invasion. It was when that fear was removed 
that England began to enforce the restraints on com- 
merce. This chimge in policy fell most heavily on the 
New England provinces, where Whig tendencies were 
strongest, and speciaUy on Massachusetts. A small and 
violent party in the province fanned the flame of dis- 
content, and the attempts at taxation, which added to 
the grievances of the colonists, afforded a respectable 
cry to the fomenters of resistance. Their wish was 
aided by the apprehension aroused in the minds of their 
fellow countrymen, by the increase in the part played 
by the prerogative and by the predominance of the 
Tories in England. While men in other provinces, as 
Patrick Henry in Virginia, worked in sympathy with 
Samuel Adams and his associates, the revolution was at 
its outset engineered at Boston, and was immediately 
determined by the quarrel between Great Britain and 
Massachusetts. In tiie events which led to the Revo- 
lution the British government appears to have shown a 
shortsighted insistence on legal rights and a contemptu- 
ous disregard of the sentiments and opinions of the 
colonists ; the revolutionists generally a turbulent, inso- 
lent, and imreasonable temper." 

With the narrative of the bare events of the 
Revolution we have little fault to find, but Dr. 
Hunt's interpretation of these, and his grasp 
of colonial conditions, seem to us not entirely 
satisfying. Let us take for example his descrip- 
tion of the colonies foimd on page 54. 

« Though Puritanism as a religious force was well nigh 
extinct in the New England provinces, it affected the 
teipper of the people : they set a high value on speech 
making and fine words, and were litigious and obsti- 
nate; lawyers were plentiful among them and had much 

Dr. Hunt &ils to mention that the legal pro- 
fession, in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
and Virginia, was of longer training and of 
greater reputation : indeed his references to the 
middle and southern colonies is in general unsat- 
isfactory. Again the author goes on to say : 

« Their [the colonies'] constitutions differed in vari- 
ous points; in some the governor was appointed by the 
crown, in others by the proprietary. All alike enjoyed 
a large measure of personal and political freedom; the 
had tiie form and substance of the British Constitution: 
they had representative assemblies in which they taxed 
themselves for their domestic purposes, chose most of 
their own magistrates, and paid tiiem all; and it was 
seldom that their legislation was interfered with except 
with respect to conmierce." 

Such general statements are hassardous. In the 
proprietary provinces, in 1760, the governors, 
although nominated indeed by the proprietors, 
were subject to the approval and control of the 
crown. In Rhode Island and Connecticut, on 
the contrary, the governors were elected, and 
not appointed at all. As to the choosing of mag- 
istrates, the statement in the text would have, 
in the case of some colonies, e. g. Maryland, to 
imdergo serious limitation. If customs officers 
are to be included, not all magistrates were paid 
by the assemblies, and if the last clause be 
literally true, surely such important exceptions 
as the vetoes and prohibitory l^islation of En- 
gland as to paper money, land-banks, and tobacco 
currency should at least be mentioned. 

In this one respect like Mr. Lecky, Dr. Hunt 
emphasizes the commercial system as the chief 
source of colonial irritation. His account of that 
system, however, is somewhat loose. There was 
no Navigation Act of 1657 (p. 55). It should 
be expk^ed why hef^yre 1733 trade with the 
French West Indies was ^^contraband " (p. 66). 

We have ventured thus far into detail not 
because Dr. Hunt's conclusions are necessarily 
erroneous, but because it seems that they are 
rather dogmatic. Against minor errors of fact 
or of exaggeration we are glad to set the general 
accuracy of the narrative, and the very fair- 
minded judgment of Washington's career, and 
the calm acceptance of the justice of Andre's 
execution. Finally, with reference to Dr. Hunt'a 
general estimate of our rebellion, we feel that 
the chief deficiency again results from the 
concentration of attention upon the legal and 
political sides of the struggle. Revolutionary 
politics, in very truth, were not always savory : 
it is only on tiie deeper grounds of social and 
economic development that the real understand- 
ing will some day be reached. 

St. George L. Sioussat. 




Recent American Poetry.* 

The poetical work of Mr. Uoyd Mifflin is always 
serious and deserving of respectful attention. Dur- 
ing the last ten or twelve years it has been put forth 
in a series of smaU volumes that students of Ameri- 
can literature have learned to greet with welcome 
and appreciation. By reason of being so scattered, 
his work has failed of its full effect, and has made 
something less of an impression than it should. It 
is particularly in the sonnet that Mr. Mifflin has 
worked, and now that he has brought together no 
less than three hundred and fifty of his sonnets into 
a single stately volume, it is possible to get a clearer 
and more comprehensive view of his total achieve- 
ment than has hitherto been vouchsafed. This book 
of sonnets is assuredly a worthy memorial of the 
poet's many yeai*s of endeavor. The sonnets are 
highly finished, and in the orthodox form, except 
for an intentional departure in one or two special 
cases, for which artistic justification is not lacking. 
Their range is wide, their diction is noble, and their 
idealism is of the fijier sort Their excellence, 
moreover, is so even that it is peculiarly difficult to 
make a representative selection. With much hesita- 
tion, we reproduce " The Victor," which is at least as 
fine as any, although no finer than a score of others. 

*' I am the Shadow, — I whose brooding wings 

Are gray with eons. I depopulate 

The world ; and all yon peopled stars await 

My rarenons scythe. Thzongh ehamel dnat of kings 
I come, spnraing the scepters. Though the stings 

Of adders still are mine, I bear no hate. 

But am beneficent. Minion of Fate, 

I am the maosoleom of all things. 
Stem and implacable sovereign of the dead. 

But friend to him down-trampled in the strife, 

I, ahroaded, cryptic, through the darkness go 
Silent for ever : yet it hath been said 

I lift the portals leading nnto Life. . . . 

And Ihon, at last, — it may be thou shalt know.** 

It might be urged that the arresting thought, the 
memorable phrase, rarely occurs in Mr. Mifflin's 
work ; it might also be urged that he does not always 
escape the temptation of fluency, that his ornament 
is often purely rhetorical, and that he resorts too 

*Oqi£bctbd Sonnbts of Llotd MnrFLiN. Bevised by the 
aolhor. New York: Henry Frowde. 

Thb Pomfs OF Trumbull Sticknby. Boston: Hooghton, 

Ih thb Hbiobts. By Richard Watson Gilder. New York: 
The Gentary Co. 

Thb Yale of Tbmpb. By Madison J. Cawein. New York: 
£. P. Dntton A Co. 

Thb Gbbat Advbntubb. By Qeorge Cabot Lodge. Boston : 
Houghton. Mifflin A Co. 

Thb Yallkt of Dkbams. By H. Hayden Sands. Boston: 
Alfred Bartlett. 

Old Lamps and Nsw. and Other Verse. By Edward WiUard 
Watson, M.D. Philadelphia: H. W. Fisher & Co. 

Pbbdita« and Other Poems. By Charles J. Bayne. Atlanta : 
Cede Book Co. 

PQBMS. By Bohert Chenault Givler. Published by the author. 

A SocTHBBN FuoHT. By Frank Dempster Sherman and Clin- 
ton Soollard. Clinton, N. Y. : George William Browning. 

Nbw World Ltbxcb and Ballads. By Duncan Campbell 
Boott Toronto: Morang&Co. 

Thb Collbctbd Pobms of Wilfbbd Campbell. New York: 
Flendsg H. BeveU Co. 

much to conventional imagery. We do not press 
these points, hecause taken altogether they merely 
prove that Mr. Mifflin does not quite do what only 
the supreme masters of the sonnet have done. There 
can he no douht, in the presence of this collection, 
that he has given proof of a true poetic gift, and made 
a considerable contribution to American literature. 

The late Joseph Trumbull Stickney was bom in 
1874, was graduated from Harvard in 1895, and 
died in 1904. He won high university honors, at 
Cambridge and afterwards at the French University, 
and during the last year of his life was an instructor 
at Harvard. Most of his manhood and much of 
his childhood was spent abroad. These facts are 
gleaned from the Biographical Note with which his 
literary executors have prefaced the volume of his 
collected '^ Poems." The contents of this volume 
include a reprint of the <^ Dramatic Verges" pub- 
lished in 1902, some incomplete dramatic studies, 
a considerable collection of '^ Later Lyrics,'' besides 
sections of " Juvenilia " and " Fragments." They 
represent practically the whole poetical achievement 
of a man who was both a brilliant scholar and a 
promising poet, a poet whose work fairly justifies 
his being reckoned among *' the inheritors of unful- 
filled renown." Promise rather than fulfillment is 
the mark of this work as a whole, for it reveals 
Stickney as still groping for a distinctive manner 
rather than as having reached a definitive expression 
of his powers. Reviewing his first volume, we were 
compelled to speak of its '^jarring staccato," its 
^'far-fetched epithets," and '4ts endeavor to be im- 
pressive at the cost of clear thinking and verbal 
restraint" The " Later Lyrics " now first printed 
show us the process of fermentation still at work, 
but serve also to deepen our sense of the poet's pos- 
sibilities. Such a sonnet as this on '< Mt. Ida " is no 
mean performance, and may be taken as illustrating 
the highest level of his attainment. 

** I long desired to see, I now have seen. 
Yonder the heavenly everlasting bride 
Draws the white shadows to her yirgin aide, 
Ida, whom long ago God made his Qneen. 
Ihe daylight weakens to a fearful sheen; 
The mountains slumber seaward sanctified, 
And dondy shafts of bluish vapour hide 
The places where a sky and world have been. 
O Ida, snowy bride that God espoused 
Unto that day that never wholly ii, 
Whiten thou the horizon of my eyes, 
That when the momentary sea aroused 
Flows up in earthquake, still thou mayeet rise 
Sacred above the quivering Cyolades." 

This is the first of a group of three sonnets inscribed 
to the sacred mountain, and the other two move upon 
the same serene height of imaginative vision. 

Mr. Gilder's verse exhibits something of the heroic 
optimism of his own <* Singer of Joy." 

" He sang the rose, he praised its fragant breath ; 
(Alas, he saw the gnawing worm breath.) 
He sang of summer and ^ flowing grass ; 

(He knew that all the beauty quick would pass.) 
He said the world was good and dries were fair ; 
(He saw far, gathering clouds, and days of oaie.) 



[Feb. 16, 

Immortally he aang pure friendship's flame ; 

(Yet had he seen it shrivel to a name.) 

And, ah, he praised true love, with golden speech ; 

(What ihongh it was a star he could not reach.) 

ffis songs in every soul the hero woke ; 

(He in &e shadows waited the last stroke.) 

He was the singer of the joyous art ; 

(Down to the g^ve he hore a broken heart)" 

Mr. Gilder draws morals from nature no less than 
from hmnan life, as the following stanzas attest : 

*'The clouds upon the mountains rest; 
A gloom is on the autumn day ; 
But down the valley, in the west, 
The sudden sunlight breaks its way, — 
A light lies on the farther hills. 

^ Forget thy sorrow, heart of mine ! 

rniough shadows fall and fades the leaf, 
Somewhere is joy, though 'tis not thine ; 
The power that sent can heal thy grief ; 
And light lies on the farther hills. 

" Thou wouldst not with the world be one 

If ne'er thou knewest hurt and wrong ; 

Take comfort, thoug-h the darkened sun 

Never again bring gleam or song, — 

The light lies on the farther hills." 

The majority of Mr. Gilder's new poems are occa- 
sional, and few know as well as he how to find the 
fitting word or the felicitous phrase with which to 
celebrate a friend, or a cause, or a memory. His 
tributes to Joseph Jefferson and John Wesley are 
models of this kind of composition. 

" The Vale of Tempe " is, according to a list of 
titles printed at the back of the book, Mr. Cawein's 
sixteenth volume of verse. If he should live long 
enough, there may some time be a sixtieth. <^ All 
Art 's over long," he remarks in the motto supplied 
for the present collection, yet we cannot help feeling 
that literature is the richer for these new poems, 
albeit they strike notes long familiar to his readers. 
Of our present-day ministrants at nature's shrine, 
he is perhaps the most unceasing and ardent in his 
devotions, and inexhaustible is the store of poetic 
fancy that he consecrates to the object of his wor- 
ship. We quote the lyric called " Bevealment." 

'* A sense of sadness in the golden air, 
A pensiveness, that has no part in care, 

As if the Season, by some woodland pool. 
Braiding the early blossoms in her hair, 
Seeing her loveliness reflected there. 

Had sighed to find herself so beautiful. 

" A breatfaleesness, a feeling as of fear, 
Holy and dim as of a mystery near, 

As if tile World about us listening went. 
With lifted finger, and hand-h<9lowed ear, 
Hearkening a music that we cannot hear. 

Haunting the quickening earth and firmament. 

*' A prescience of the soul that has no name, 
Expectancy that is both wild and tame, 

As if the Earth, from out its azure ring 

Of heavens, looked to see, as white as flame, — 
As Perseus once to chained Andromeda came, — 

The swift, divine revealment of the Spring." 

The volume contains many other poems as exquisite 
as this ; indeed, the most surprising thing about Mr. 

Cawein's work is the even excellence which charac- 
terizes so great a quantity of matter. 

'' The Great Adventure " is a volume of sonnets 
by Mr. Greorge Cabot Lodge. His themes are the 
major triad of Life, Love, and Death. The third 
section is particularly dedicated to the memory of 
Trumbull Stickney, and includes the following son- 
net, which we quote, not as one of the best, but as 
the one which explains the title of the collection : 

"He said: *We are the Great Adventurers, 
This is the Great Adventure : thus to be 
Alive and, on the universal sea 
Of being, lone yet dauntless marineis. 

In the rapt outlook of astronomers 

To rise thro* constellated gyres of thought ; 
To fall with shattered pinions, overwrought 
With flight, like unrecorded Lucif ers : — 

Thus to receive identity, and thus 
Return at last to the dark element, — 
This is the Great Adventore ! ' All of us, 

Who saw his dead, deep-visioned eyes, could see. 
After the Great Adventure, immanent, 
Splendid and strange, the Great Discovery ! " 

We also quote the sonnet that comes next, as i]lu»- 
trative of the poet's occasional habit of experiment- 
ing in tetrameters. 

" Above his heart the rose is red. 

The rose above his head is white. 

The crocus glows with golden light. 

The Spring retums, and he is dead t 
We hark in vain to hear his tread, 

We reach to clasp his hand in vain ; 

Tho' life and love return again 

We can no more be comforted. 
With tearless eyes we keep steadfast 

His vigil we were sworn to keep : 

But, when he left us, and at last 
We saw him pass beyond the Door, 

And knew he could return no more, 

We wept aloud as children weep." 

High praise must be given to the thoughtful^and 
imaginative qualities of Mr. Lodge's verse ; he is a 
poet who is visibly growing with each new volume 
he puts forth, and who may be expected to go far. 

"The Valley of Dreams," by Mr. H. Hayden 
Sands, is a volume of lyrics possessing much medi- 
tative charm and a considerable degree of technical 
excellence. A representative poem is the following : 

"Why shed the bitter tears of Death 

For that which cannot be ; 
Why long to linger in the breath 

Of brief Mortality. 
A brighter Star shall light the Night^ 
A gladder ending crowns the Fight. 

** Should we lament the fading rose ? 

The rose riiall once more bloom, 
The «!»"^^*"g flower that npgrows 

Around To-morrow*s tomb. 
Though unperceived unto our eyes 
Fairer shall bloom to other skies. 

'* And when at last we two shall pass 

Into the great Unknown, 
And coming flowers through the grass 

Their deathless seed have sown. 
We, too, shall see a brighter day, 
Brighter than all long passed away.*' 




We note an occasional tendency to resort to eccen- 
tricities of diction, of which the following are illus- 

''With kisBes sweet she tended it, 
And ^neath its fragrant bocm, 
Within her wild hair bended it 
And sangeth to the moon." 

"" What a joyous life is yours I 

What a life of thoughtless hours I 
Winging on your pleasant tours, 

Through Midsummer's fragrant bowers." 

*' From her t r oo p oo all woven and spangled, 

With those drops the night mignonettes wear, 
I eanght from the odor which tangled. 

My heart as a rose in her hair, 
The attoUent Love that was there, — 
That Pain of all Pains that was there.*' 

The last example is rather cheap Poe, the second 
turns liberty to license in the matter of pronuncia- 
tion, and of the first we can do no better than repeat 
a memorable dictum, and say : '' This will never do." 
Nevertheless, Mr. Sands is no little of a poet, and 
we have read his verses with pleasure. Their form of 
pnUication is of a nature to delight the bookish sense. 
^^ Old Lamps and New " is a volume of lyrics and 
Bonnets by Dr. Edward Willard Watson. They are 
love songs for the most part, and the mingled joy and 
poignancy of belated love is their characteristic theme. 

^The kng gray shadows creep and closer fall. 
The oool night winds across the meadows call ; 
High in the pallid sky the wan, white moon 
Swims slowly in the mlenoe over all — 
Ah, Love, you weep that night must come so soon. 

"Ihe sweetness of thy love steals over me ; 
Life never gave me love till I loved thee. 
Now, at the eve ; I missed thee all the noon ; 
So short they seem, the hours that yet may be — 
Ah, Love, you weep that night must come so soon. 

'^My arms are dose around thee, and they press 
Unto my heart thy perfect loveliness ; 
Shall I scorn Fortune's dear belated boon ? 
Beeaose the hours are few is joy the less ? — 
Yet stall you weep that death must come so soon." 

A pretty fancy, but no particular depth of emo- 
tion, characterizes Mr. Bayne's volume of verse. 
^Afloat" is a pleasing example. 

" Ah I could we ever drift and dream 

Li these cool coverts of repose. 
The world, like yonder restless stream 

Which vainly sparkles as it flows. 
Would leave beneath thy sweet control 
The calmed Propontis of my soul. 

" Still, if in this enchanted sphere 

No longer we may drift and dream, 
Tis ours at least to wake and steer, 

Tis ours to leave the restless stream, 
And twine from roses of to-day 
A garland for some happier May." 

Sometimes, as in *< There are other eyes in Spain," 
we have society verse pure and simple. 

** There are other eyes in Spain,— 
Dark and damliug eyes, Crnoita, 

Roeebud lips which wait the rain 
Like the harvest for Demeter. 

Do not distance with disdain : 

Hiere are other eyes in Spain." 

Mr. Robert Chenault Givler is the author of a 
volume of *' Poems," printed upon buff paper, and 
bearing no evidence of its place of origin. The 
contents are given over to musings and raptures, 
silvery moonl^ht and gentle melancholy, abstract 
questionings and meditations upon nature, life, love, 
and eternity. We quote these striking lines upon 
the "Violoncello": 

''What hand first formed thee, ^md-harp of the soul? 
Not that of man ; this scroll, these curves and strings 
Are faded memories of immortal things 
Our spirits saw ere Time began to roll 
£Bs fretful stream 'twixt bo3i eternities. 

'* What sound is that, which floats upon the breeze 
Like a lost star searching the cave of night 
For hiding place, to sootibe its virgin light 
Li the soft sobbing of the forest wind ? 
The tremulous sound grows softer than the dew 
That slips between the leaves, and sweeter still 
Than sound of pebbles toyed by midnight rilL" 

These lines are undoubtedly poetry, and they rep- 
resent only a fair average of the author's gift of 

" A Southern Flight " is a small volume of ten- 
der and graceful lyrics, the joint production of two 
singers whose note is always clear and pure. Mr. 
Frank Dempster Sherman signs " At Dusk." 

^' The air is filled with scent of musk 

Blown from the garden's court of bloom, 
Where rests the rose within her room 
And dreams her fragrance in the dusk. 

** Above, attended by the stars, 

The full moon rises, round and white, — 
A boat in the blue Nile of night 
Drifting amid the nenuphars." 

" And now the whippoorwill who knows 
A lyric ecstasy <Uvine 
Begins his song. Ah I sweetheart mine, 
What shall love's answer be, my Rose ? " 

Mr. Clinton Scollard is the other poet, and he it is 
who thus sings " At Twilight": 

*^ A little shallow silver urn. 

High in the west the new moon hung ; 
Amid the palms a fountain flung 
Its snowy floss, and there, above. 
With its impassioiied unconcern, 

A hidden bird discoursed of love. 

*^ I felt your hand upon my arm 
Flutter as doth a thrush's wing, 
Then tighten. Sweet, how small a thing 
Draws kindred spirits heart to heart I 
More was that hour's elusive charm 
To us than eloquence or art" 

Mr. Duncan Campbell Scott's " New World Lyrics 
and Ballads " includes several pieces in somewhat 
ruder measures than are acceptable to a sensitive 
ear, but contains also a few poems as good as any 
that the author has previously published. We are 
particularly impressed with the truth and high spir- 
itual beauty of '< The House of the Broken-Hearted." 

" It is dark to the outward seeming, 
Wherever its walls may rise, 
Where the meadows are a-dreaming, 
Under the open skies, 



[Feb. 16, 

Where at ebb the great world lies, 

Dim as a sea uncharted, 
Round the house of sorrow, 

The house of the broken-hearted. 

" It is dark in the midst of the city, 

Where the world flows deep and strong, 
Where the coldest thing is pity, 

Where the heart wears out ere long, 

Where the plow-share of wrath and of wrong 

Trenches a rsgged furrow, 
Round the house of the broken-hearted, 
The house of sorrow. 

" But while the world goes unheeding 
The tenant that holds the lease, 
Or fancies him greying and pleading 
For the thing which it cfdls peace, 
There has come what shall never cease 

Tin there shall come no morrow 
To the house of the broken-hearted 
The house of sorrow. 

^ There is peace no pleasure can jeopard, 
It is so sure and deep, 
And there, in the guise of a shepherd, 
God doth him keep ; 
He leads His belor^d sheep 

To fold when the day is departed, 
In the house of sorrow, 

The house of the broken-hearted." 

If we might make further quotations, they should 
be of " A Nest of Hepaticas." 

" Passion of the coming of the spring ! 
When the light love has captured everything. 
When all the winter of the year's dry prose 
Is rhymed to rapture, rhythmed to the rose." 

Or of the " Night Hymns on Lake Nepigon ": 

*' Sing we the sacred ancient hymns of the churches, 
Ghuited first in old-world nooks of the desert. 
While in the wild, pellucid Nepigon reaches 
Hunted the savage. 

*' Now have the ages met in the Northern midnight, 
And on the londy, loon-haunted Nepigon reaches 
Rises the hymn of triumph and courage and comfort, 
Adeste Fideles." 

The Canadian poets certainly hold their own with 
our minstrels on this side of the border. As we 
opened the present review with the collected verse 
of one of our own most serious singers, so we will 
dose it with <<The Collected Poems of Wilfred 
Campbell," a poet whose inspiration is both strong 
and sustained. We set no particular store by the 
fact that an American Mtecenas has purchased an 
edition of this volume for distribution among the 
various libraries of his foundation. It is a fact useful 
for advertising purposes, just as President Roose- 
velt's recent laudation of ^'The Children of the 
Night '* was useful, but in neither case does the dis- 
tinction have any critical weight, for it might just 
as easily have fallen to some far less meritorious 
work. But Mr. Campbell's poetry, quite independ- 
ently of this sort of uncritical patronage, deserves 
serious consideration, and the volume of it, now 
brought together, is surprisingly large. It is classi- 
fied in eight divisions, of which the first, called 
<< Elemental and Human Verse," comes perhaps the 
nearest to exhibiting the predominant notes of the 

whole. In other words, nature and the soul of man 
are the lofty themes wbich inspire the poet through- 
out But the nature of Mr. Campbell's interpreta- 
tion is not the conventionalized and sophisticated 
affair of the bookish poet ; it is the universal mother 
conceived of in her elemental and passionate char- 
acters, sung of in strains of intimate sympathy and 
rapturous communion. And his conception of the 
soul of man is that of ''man the hoper, man the 
dreamer, the eternal child of delight and despair 
whose ideals are ever a lifetime ahead of his greatest 
accomplishments, who is the hero of nature and the 
darling of the ages. Because of this, true poetry 
will always be to him a lang^uage, speaking to him 
from the highest levels of his being, and a sort of 
translation from a more divine tongue emanating 
from the mystery and will of God." These words 
are taken from the dignified confession of poetical 
faith with which the collection is prefaced. Trans- 
lated into verse a few pages further on, the thought 
thus takes form : 

** Earth's dream of poetry will never die. 
It lingers while we linger, hase or true — 
A part of all this being. Life may change. 
Old oustoms wither, creeds become as nought, 
Like autumn husks in rainwinds ; men may HU 
All memory of the greatness of ^e past. 
Kingdoms may melt, republics wane and die, 
New dreams arise and shake this jaded world ; 
But that rare spirit of song^ will breathe and live 
While beauty, sorrow, greatness hold for men 
A kinship with the etranal ; until all 
That earth holds noble wastes and fades away." 

The greater part of the work now collected has 
made a previous appearance in other forms, and we 
have more than once paid tribute to its sincerity and 
beauty. Besides this lyrical work, Mr. Campbell 
has to his account eight poetical dramas, which he 
promises to collect for us into a companion volume. 
William Mobton Payne. 

Bbebfs on ^sw Books. 

A catUHbution ^he "PortfoUo" monographs, one 
to the study of of the most valuable series on artistic 
Dutch paintiny. gubjects in English, has recently, 
after several years' interregnum, given us matter for 
congratulation in the publication of Sir Walter Arm- 
strong's volume on *^The Peel Collection and the 
Dutch School of Painting " (Dutton). The purpose 
of the author, one of the most discriminating of art 
critics, is to refute that premature judgment of 
Ruskin which is quoted from the opening pages of 
his '< Modern Painters" to the effect that ''most 
pictures of the Dutch School, except always thoee 
of Rubens, Van Dyke, and Rembrandt, are ostentar 
tious exhibitions of the artist's power of speech, the 
dear and vigorous elocution of useless and senseless 
words." Sir Walter doubts if this be true, and 
shows convincingly that the great Dutch painters 
speak <Hhe same language as the great Italians of 
the sixteenth century or the g^at Athenians of 




twenty centuri^ before." Although the book nomi- 
mDy deals only with the pictures in the Peel Col- 
leedon, it is really a monograph on the whole Dateh 
School. In his treatment of Uie painters of still life, 
of landscape, and of portraits, the author makes 
dear who are the greatest masters in each group and 
gives his reasons for their rank. Among artists of 
die present day our critic will find ready sympathy 
for all that he says in regard to the stight impor- 
tance of subject as compared with the supreme 
importance of style, of artistic worth. The chief 
difference between the Dutch and Italian artists, so 
Sir Walter argues, lies in their choice of subject 
Hie landscapes and the models which these painters 
of &e North portray are inferior in beauty to those 
which naturally served as material for the artists of 
the South. Yet no art has ever been condemned 
for the humbleness of its subject-matter. Among 
the many interesting points in this book are the 
author's illustrations of the familiar idea that a work 
of art is the interpretation of nature through the 
temperament of the artist He makes another good 

I point in what he says about the focus of a painting, 
— the size and character of the brush-slatikes in 
rebtion to the size of the painting and to the dis- 
tance proper to a correct view. Since this is not a 

I history of painting, but a critical monograph, the 
anthftf is perfectly justiiied in omitting discussion of 
certain important painters, as Hals and Rembrandt, 
who are not represented in the Peel Collection. 
The volume is perhaps the best contribution to the 
critical study of Dutch painting since the publication 
of ^Les Mattres d' Autrefois" (1875). It vrill 

I enhance the appreciation of these great painters. It 
is something new in the literature of art Its criti- 
cism is fresh and stimulating. It is a book which 
every lover of the Dutch School should possess, in 
order to read and re-read. 

A praeueai ^^ ^^ Introduction to the ^' Letters 
beueverintue of Labor and LoYe," by the late 
Golden Rule. ^ay^^p j^^^g ^f Toledo, Mr. Brand 

Whitloek has said, better than can the reviewer, 
those things the reviewer would wish to say. And 
after a careful reading of these letters, written by 
^Golden Rule " Jones to his working-men, one feels 
that they must iq>peal to every fair-minded reader, 
u they do to Mr. Whitlocl^ as the simple and 
spontaneous expression of the beliefs' of a spiritual- 
minded yet singularly practical man, with a gen- 
erous and abiding futh in his fellow-men. The 
predominant idea of the book is that of liberty. 
There is scarcely a letter in which the vn>iter does 
not recur to the thought of greater liberty and 
equality among men. The story of Mayor Jones's 
life is well known, — how he rose, as the result of 
an mvention of his ovim, from the position of a 
homble worker in the oil-fields to a place of wealth 
and authority ; how he educated himself in no mean 
manner ; how he put in practice the beliefs that he 
fmnulated; how his life so won upon the people 
that he was elected to office i^;ain and again, over 

the heads of party candidates ; and how in his death 
he was mourned as many greater men are not It 
was this living out and living up to his beliefs that 
won such results ; he was no mere theorist, and hav- 
ing decided for himself what was the cause of much 
of the unhappiness in the world, he did his utmost 
to overcome this unhappiness by what he considered 
just and fair treatment of the working-man. These 
letters show plainly what were his principles of 
action : in one particularly ( *' Politics," written the 
next day after election, in 1900), he states his polit- 
ical belief in no uncertain terms. 

" I am for a social and political order that will be tme in 
every detail to the idea of Equality, that all men are created 
equal. I am for a social system that will grant to every 
baby bom on the planet equality of opportunity with every 
other baby. I am against a system that destroys a few by 
making them inordinately rich, while it destroys many by 
making them inordinately poor. I am for peace, for har- 
mony, for heaven ; I am against war and hate and hell. I am 
against government by force an3rwhere, and for government 
by consent everywhere. . . . My only hope, and all of my 
hope, is in the patriotism of the people, the love of man for 
man ; I have no hope in any kind of partyism.^' 

A man who believed these things so strongly, who 
acted them out in his daily life to the best of his 
power and opportunity, who refused a nomination 
to Congress because he would not be bound by any 
party expectations or party ties ; and who did his 
best to spread his ideas because he was convinced 
they were right, would always be sure of a f ollowing^ 
As the most forcible and significant utterances of 
such a man, these letters should find a ready wel- 
come not only among his admirers but also among 
all who are interested in the deeper problems of 
society. ( Bobbs-Merrill Co. ) 

A monumental "There are few to whom this book 
edUion of vrill seem worth while," writes Pro- 

Gei»-(/e Herbert, f^g^j, Qeorge Herbert Palmer in the 
preface to his three-volume edition of the English 
works of George Herbert (Houghton, Miffiin & 
Co.). ^'It embodies long labor, spent on a minor 
poet, and will probably never be read entire by any- 
one. But that is a reason for its existence. Lavish- 
ness is its aim. The book is a box of spikenard, 
poured in unappeasable love over one who has 
attended my life.'' The result of this great labor of 
love is probably the most minute and exhaustive 
edition of an English minor poet that has ever been 
published. Nearly one-half of the first volume w 
filled by a series of Introductory Essays dealing 
with matters essential to a general understanding of 
Herbert's poetry ; such as the great events of his 
time, his life and character, the type of his religious 
verse, his style and technique. Most important of ' 
all IB the essay explaining and justif3ring the man- 
ner in which Professor Palmer has arranged and 
grouped the poems. Chronology and subject^natter 
resolve them into twelve significant g^ups, to each 
of which special prefaces are furnished. Professor 
Palmer's essays are terse, direct, and pithy, felicitous 
in their combination of tireless scholarly research 
and infectious enthusiasm. The notes to the poems 



[Feb. 16, 

are voluminous, but a simple classification makes 
selection among them easy. They include explana- 
tions of the text, cross-references to similar passages 
in Herbert or his contemporaries, and the most illu- 
minating comments and illustrations that have been 
proposed by previous editors. The illustrations 
*' attempt to exhibit whatever portions of Herbert's 
visible world have survived the centuries." They 
show his homes, the churches with which he was con- 
nected, his portraits, — including what was probably 
the original of them all, not hitherto published, — and 
many interesting facsimiles of his manuscripts and 
printed works. The prose writings are included partly 
for their intrinsic interest, but more for the light they 
throw upon the man and the poems, upon which it 
is Professor Palmer's great wish to concentrate 
attention. Type, paper, and binding are of the finest 
quality, so that no pains have been spared to make 
the new edition as notable in mechanical features 
as it is rich in scholarship and in inspiration. It 
will be long before the edition is superseded as a 
final effort to reconstruct the personality and inter- 
pret the vital message of George Herbert. 

Bxp^en^e. u,m ^ ^18. Kate V. St Ma«p'8 "A Self- 
a seif-mpporHnQ supporting Home " ( Macmillan ), we 
country home, ^^ ^^^^ ^ YmoXl for the mere nature- 
lover, and certainly not one for or by the theoretical 
farmer, but one in which the author has endeavored 
to set down such results of her experiences as will 
help others who wish to make an attempt as earnest 
if not as extended as her own. She was moved to 
try to make a dream come true, and by means of 
advertising she obtained a ixrm of twelve acres, not 
far from the city, containing a number of old build- 
ings and a small orchard. Her endeavor was to 
make this rented place support itself ; and beginning 
with six setting hens, she gradually added ducks, 
guinea-hens, and rabbits, until the place became a 
veritable stock-farm, while at the same time the gar- 
den supplied the table, and the family savings soon 
purchased a cow. After the first year and a half 
she found herself able to bank the sum previously 
spent in living expenses. The chief thing is that, 
instead of experiencing discomfort and privations, 
the family lived in greater comfort and happiness 
than before. As might be expected, the book in 
which such experiences and triumphs are unfolded 
is quite different from the ordinary garden books, 
although it contains seasonable advice about the 
vegetable and fruit garden, the mushroom bed,' the 
care and feeding of poultry, ducks, geese, guinea- 
hens, rabbits, the cow, pigeons, the family horse, 
' bees, turke3rs, pheasants, choice cats, and pigs. The 
author's directions are simple and untechnical, and 
generally clear, for she has borne in mind her own 
unfortunate experiences in consulting expert refer- 
ence-books. There are also many suggestions and 
time-saving and labor-saving devices that only a 
woman would think of ; so that, while the volume 
contains information useful for any amateur, it is 
preeminently of value to the woman who wishes to 

undertake a small farm or to make an individual 
income by means of one or more of the pursuits 
described. Its arrangement is good, grouping under 
each month the work and preparations especially 
suited to the period, and summing up the author's 
ten-years' experience in the way most likely to be 
helpful to the reader. She writes with that tem- 
pered enthusiasm that is apt to be convincing; and 
although she takes her subject seriously, she allows 
herself occasional touches of humor. There are 
many illustrations from photographs, and a detailed 
table of contents, but no index. 

More of The Messrs. Putnam's Sons, who 

-^ra^'^^' last FaU brought out a two-volume 
in Engiuh, selection from Sainte-Beuve's work 

entitled '< Portraits of the Seventeenth Century /* 
have done a further service to English readers by 
publishing in translation two uniform volumes of 
his << Portraits of the Eighteenth Century." Miss 
Katharine Wormeley, whose supple and finished ren- 
dering of Sainte-Beuve's delightfully spontaneous 
style commended itself to readers of the other series, 
has translated the '^ Portraits " contained in the first 
of the new volumes, and Mr. Greorge Burnham Ives 
has done very acceptable work in the second. Ab 
before, the studies have been chosen with a view to 
representing the best of both the historic and the 
literary criticism of Sainte-Beuve. There have 
been slight omissions of passives lacking in present 
interest, and where several essays upon one person 
exist they have been combined, omitting repeti- 
tions. The volumes are illustrated with portraits, 
and handsomely bound in buckram. M. Eldmond 
Scherer's appreciation of Sainte-Beuve, written in 
October, 1869, at the time of the latter's death, 
forms an illuminating introduction to the first vol- 
ume. At a time when criticism has become a business 
rather than a vocation, it is worth while to recall 
M. Scherer's account of Sainte-Beuve's aims and 
methods, — of the slow but sure development of his 
critical bent, — and we must inevitably wonder, with 
him, whether << the royalty of letters is not fated to 
pass away like the other royalties," or whether out of 
the " general mediocrity " of English criticism there 
will ever arise another Sainte-Beuve. Meanwhile 
for delicacy, good taste, profundity of research, and 
brilliancy of finish, his work remains unique, and 
well deserves the tribute of adequate translation and 
sumptuous publication now being rendered it 

A -KT «. I ^ One cannot read such a book as Dr. 
phyieian of James Jackson Putnam s Memou* 
the old school, of Dp, James Jackson (Houghton^ 
Mifflin & Co.) without more than a passing regret 
for the days of the old-fashioned family physician. 
How curious now-a^ays to read that Stephen Hig- 
ginson engaged the young Dr. Jackson '^to make 
daily visits to his wife and children, sick or well," — 
a plan which the present generation recognizes as 
Chinese rather than American. But Dr. Jackson 
was a man worthy of such responsibility, and soon 




^made himself a trusted eoonsellor of the house- 
hold in all matters, a part which he was destined 
to play eventually for many families of the town." 
No wonder that the ^' town " of Boston flourished, 
▼hen sueh eminent talent guided the everyday 
affairs of its citizens! How gracious a character 
this office of counsellor-at-large developed in Dr. 
Jackson himself the present Memoir most readahly 
sets forth. Dr. Holmes — his cousin of a younger 
generation — not only describes him in the two 
poems «A Portrait" and "The Morning Visit," 
but says of him, " I have seen many noted British 
and French and American practitioners, but I never 
saw the man so altogether admirable at the bedside 
of the sick as Dr. James Jackson." As able in 
administration and in teaching as in practice, Dr. 
Jackson was one of the founders of the Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital, and the first to occupy 
tiie chair of cHnical medicine in the Harvard Med- 
ical SehooL Dr. Putnam's Memoir is in many 
respects an ideal biography, not only because it 
presents a most attractive character satisfactorily, 
hat because it makes the background of people and 
places, from which that character emerged, just 
dear enough. About one third of the volume is de- 
voted to Dr. Jackson's ancestors and brothers, a pro- 
portion not too large in view of the important part 
they played in the early history of Massachusetts. 

Dr. Washington Gladden's latest book 
"The New Idoktry" (McQure, Phil- 
lips & Co. ) is " a volume of discussions 
in protest against the commercializing of government, 
of education, and of religion ; against the g^wing 
tendency in Church and State to worship power and 
forget the interests of justice and freedom ; against 
the dethronement of God and the enthronement 
of Mammon." The author's ideas are elaborated 
nnder such headings as "Tainted Money," "Shall 
Ill-gotten Grains be Sought for Christian Purposes ? " 
""Standard Oil and the Christian Missions," "The 
Ethics of Luxurious Expenditure," etc. Those who 
know Dr. Gladden's way of dealing with great ques- 
tions of social morality will not expect, on finishing 
this book, to be left in any doubt as to his meaning 
or his position, so lucid and trenchant is the style, 
so fearless and uncompromising the spirit of the 
man. His present message, however needed, is not 
a new one. For many years past, from his pulpit 
and church-tower study in the city of Columbus, his 
ringing words have sped through the land, and have 
fought a good fight. The second paper, " Tainted 
Money," as he quietly reminds his readers, was pub- 
lished in " The Outlook " in November, 1895. The 
one on '< Rights and Duties" was a Conunencement 
address delivered at the University of Michigan in 
1902. Another, on <^The New Century and the 
New Nation," bears date of 1900. Most of them 
his parishioners have, sooner or later, heard as ser- 
mons; and they can testify to the profound impres- 
sion made by these utterances, when moulded into 
oral form by a rich, persuasive voice, and weighted 

The tdolatry 
of wfoUh 
itt America. 

and driven home by the compulsion of thorough 
conviction. On February 11 Dr. Gladden was sev- 
enty years young ; but through many years or few he 
will not cease to bear spoken and written witness to 
the truth as he sees it and lives it. 

Authoritative ^^- ^^^<* Ffrangcon Davies's trea- 
chaptert an tise on << The Singing of the Future " 
the vocal art. f^j^^ La^^ Co.) is a direct and 
serious appeal to the English-speaking singer. The 
author argues that voice and the singing instinct — 
regarded from the physical point of view — are 
comparatively scarce; but that they are plentiful 
enough, if men gave greater heed to their psychic 
powers, to supply us with a larger number of laisting 
and suggestive types of singers than we now possess. 
The singing instinct is more general, and musical 
ability more latently plentiful, than many of us 
imagine, — as witness the behavior of an audience 
under the influence of a Reeves or a Joachim. And 
the germ being there, the step between appreciation 
and performance is not insurmountable. Given a 
fairly keen sense of pitch and rhythm, — in other 
words, modest musical intuition and capacity for 
work, — and singing becomes a mere matter of 
practical development, under the guidance of lin- 
guistic and imaginative thought The strongest 
recommendation which Mr. Davies makes as the ideal 
of the singer is to strive for mastery over all types of 
human expression, with verisimilitude as the guiding 
principle. This implies that voice culture cannot be 
regarded as something apart from general culture ; 
and the singer who wovdd satisfy the highest demands 
of his profession should not confine hiiB study within 
the bounds of the art to which he is primarily devoted. 
The ardst should not beguile his audience with lovely 
and sensuous tone merely because the power happens 
to be within his natural gifts, — he should not over- 
awe with physical prowess to the detriment of lin- 
guistic purity. One notices the touch of sincerity 
in Mr. Davies^s work, and his chapters on *^ Tone," 
** Breathing," and " Style " may be profitably read 
by musicians as well as singers. 

Romance and ^he person of sensibiUty who could 
hutorv of an remain unmoved by the picturesque 
Italian valley, charm, the historic association, the 
artistic treasures, and the religious history of the 
Casentino, would doubtless be hard to find. But 
harder stiU to discover is the pen that could do 
justice to that poetic valley. Miss Ella Noyes, in 
her book called "The Casentino and its Story" 
(Dutton) is not lacking in the enthusiasm that all 
but the insensate must feel — an enthusiasm that 
has led her to make most careful exploration, patient 
investigation, and loving exposition of the scenes and 
memories of the favored region. Unfortunately, this 
enthusiasm, and the luxury of indulging a very lively 
historic imagination, have betrayed the author into 
generalizations and theories that a scientific analysis 
of history will not always justify ; and her descrip- 
tions of scenery have an exuberance that detracts 



[Feb. 16, 

somewhat from their descriptive value. To cover in 
a volume of 323 pages one of the most picturesque 
valleys of Italy, which is at the same time a great 
religious centre both past and present, the scene of a 
part of the exile of Italy's greatest poet as well as 
the former home of some of the most important 
families in Tuscan Middle Age history, is no light 
task. Perhaps we should not be surprised that the 
charcoal-burners, who are among the chief charms 
of the modern Casentino, are dismissed with only 
casual mention in two places in the text In view 
of the difficulty of portraying the Casentino ade- 
quately in words, one is grateful to find the pen so 
artistically supplemented by the brush. Miss Dora 
Noyes's illustrations, twenty-five in color and twenty- 
four line, really are illustrations, for they give an 
accurate idea of the country ; but they are also much 
more than mere illustrations, for they have poetic 
feeling and imagination, and they add materially to 
the charm of the volume. 

Shall the earth ^ &^^^ ^^ ^ ^«^ written in 
be kept ttiii regard to man's duty toward the 
habitable f future State and the citizens thereof. 

The rights of the child, the rights of the commu- 
nity, the rights of art, have all been discussed, with 
reference not only to the needs of the present gen- 
eration but of those to come. The factor that is 
least considered is the earth itself, and our obliga- 
tions toward a proper husbanding of its resources. 
Nothing in law or economics can have a more impor- 
tant bearing on the welfare of posterity than mate- 
rial conditions, the soil, the sea, the mines, from 
which are drawn in various ways most of the power 
and subsistence necessary to the life of man. Yet 
the duty that one generation owes to another in the 
matter of the proper fertilization of agricultural 
lands, the preservation of forests, economical meth- 
ods of mining, careful regard for the life-habits of 
fishes and game, is seldom urged. This duty is the 
theme of Professor Nathaniel Shaler's latest book, 
which he calls «Man and the Earth" (Fox, Duf- 
field & Co.). It is impossible to support theories as 
to future conditions of land and sea by statistics, 
because of the varying processes governing these 
conditions. But IVofessor Shaler, with his wide 
knowledge of natural sciences, is in the best possible 
position to draw conclusions from existing states. 
As a result, he has written an interesting litde book, 
which will repay reading, and which, it is to be 
hoped, will result in directing attention to the vital 
subject of which it treats. 

Th£ history of 
our tmalleH 

The history of our smallest common- 
wealth has been a stormy one, owing 
largely to the peculiar ideas of its 
founders and the circumstances of its founding. 
Rhode Island was the refuge of those New England 
men and women who were so extreme in their views 
and positions that they were driven out of the other 
colonies. It was largely a collection of idealists, 
cranks, and enthusiasts ; and the policy of the com- 

monwealth that grew out of the combination was 
necessarily individualistic. From the days of Roger 
Williams down to recent times, separatism has been 
a marked characteristic of the little state. The 
result of this has been a history full of internal strife 
and of opposition to national tendencies. There was 
much that was selfish and mean in these struggles, 
so that the state was a thorn in the side of the states- 
men who were building up the nation. But Rhode 
Island history has also its glories, the greatest being 
its consistent policy of religious toleration when the 
world was intolerant. This history has been written 
anew by Mr. Irving E. Richman for the '< American 
Commonwealths " series (Houghton, Mifflin & Co. ). 
While the book is loaded with names unimportant to 
the general reader, still the main points of the his- 
tory are clearly brought out, and the volume is a 
compact and useful summary. 

"H Libro D'Oro of those whose 
itau^sai^ Names are Written in the Lamb's 

Book of Life " Lb the curious title of 
a curious piece of translation from the Italian, done 
by Mrs. Francis Alexander. It consists of a mass 
of miracle stories and sacred legends written by the 
fathers of the Church and published in Italy in 
the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. 
The collection is made up from four sources : " Selec- 
tions from the Lives of the Holy Fathers, together 
with the Spiritual Field," dated Venice, 1623; 
^< Selections from the Lives of the Saints and Beati 
of Tuscany," Florence, 1627 ; " Selections from the 
Wonders of God in His Saints," Bologna, 1593 ; 
and •* Flowers of Sanctity," Venice, 1726. The 
extracts generally take the form of brief narratives, 
each having a title of its own. As a whole, the 
book will undoubtedly appeal to a limited and defi- 
nite class of readers, but the legends are picturesque 
enough to make a casual dipping into the treasures 
of the book decidedly pleasurable. The English 
rendering of the text is simple and graceful. Messrs. 
Littie, Brown, & Co. publish the book in attractive 
outward form. 


« The Life of Christ," by Dr. Alexander Stewart, is 
a new volume in the « Temple Series of Bible Hand- 
books," published by the Messrs. Lippincott. 

A monograph « On the Limits of Descriptive Writ- 
ing apropos of Lessing's Laooodn," by Professor Frank 
Egbert Bryant, is a recent pamphlet publication of the 
Ann Arbor Press. 

In the «< Englische Textbibliothek (Heidelberg r 
Winter), we have an edition of Longfellow's " Evan- 
geline," edited by Dr. Ernst Sieper. The editorial appa- 
ratus is very full, and includes a valuable ** Greschichte 
der Englischen Hexameters." 

Four new volumes in the « English Classics" of 
Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. are the following r 
Irving's « Sketch Book," edited by Professor Brander 
Matthews and Mr. Armour Caldwell ; Mrs. Gaakell's 
« Craiiford," edited by Professor Franklin T. Baker ; 




Franklin's "Autobiography," edited by Professor 
William fi. Cairns ; and " Select Poems of Robert 
Browning," edited by Mr. Percival Chubb. 

«*The Place of Magic in the Intellectual History of 
Europe," by Dr. Lynn Thomdike, is an interesting 
monograph in the historical series of Columbia Uni- 
versity publications. 

" Milton's Ode on the Morning of Christ's Nativity," 
with an introduction by Dr. Glen Levin Swiggett, is a 
very pretty booklet published in a limited edition at 
the University Press of Sewanee, Tennessee. 

*< A Check List of Mammals of the North American 
Continent, the West Indies, and the Neighboring Seas," 
prepared by Dr. Daniel Giraud Elliot, is a recent publi- 
cation of the Field Columbian Museum. It is a work 
of over seven hundred pages, recording upwards of 
thirteen hundred species. 

" Studies in Moro History, Law, and Religion," by 
Mr. Najeeb M. Saleeby, is a pamphlet publication c^ 
the United States Ethnological Survey printed at Ma^ 
nila. Another number of this series contains «The 
Naboloi Dialect," by Mr. Otto Scheerer, and «The 
Bataks of Palawan," by Mr. Edward Y. MUler. 

** Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United 
States from Johnson to Roosevelt," edited by Mr. John 
Vance Cheney, is published by Messrs. R. R. Donnelley 
& Sons, Chicago, as the third volume of their « Lake- 
side Classics." The preceding volume, it will be re- 
membered, reprinted the inaugural addresses from 
Washington to Lincoln. 

Two new volumes in the Astronomical Series of 
University of Pennsylvania publications give us the 
results of two years' observation with the Zenith Tele- 
jicope of the Flower Observatory, and the measure of 
1066 double and multiple stars. For the first-named 
series of observations Mr. Charles L. Doolittle is respon- 
sible; for the other, Mr. Eric Doolittle. 

Of the three papers included in the October ** Uni- 
versity Studies " of the University of Nebraska, the one 
that is of most interest to our readers is that in which 
Professor C. W. Wallace prints and discusses certain 
" Xewly-Discovered Shakespeare Documents." The 
documents are three in number, and of a legal character. 
They were found by Professor Wallace in the archives 
of the Public Record Office. 

Tennyson's " In Memoriam," published in sometliing 
like ** Golden Treasury " garb by the Macmillan Co., is 
an edition « annotated by the author." This means, in 
the words of the present Lord Tennyson, that the 
'< notes were left by my father partly in his own hand- 
writing, and partly dictated to me." Since there are 
some twenty-five pages of them, they are a valuable 
addition to our apparatus for the study of the poem, 
and will serve to decide many a disputed point. A 
lengthy introduction by the poet's son is also included, 
embodying the opinions of several of Tennyson's most 
famous contemporaries, and giving a fairly clear state- 
ment of bis religious attitude. It will be evident from 
onr description that this is a very precious little book. 

" The Musician's Library," published by the Oliver 
Ditson Co., g^ws apace. It now numbers a score of 
volumes, about equally divided between compositions 
for voice and for piano. The latest of these volumes 
aw two containing « Songs and Airs by George Frideric 
Hftndel," edited by Mr. Ebenezer Prout. The first 
volume contains pieces for high voice, and the second 
pieces for low voice. The introductory matter is the 

same for both volumes, and consists of a carefully- 
written critical and biographical study, besides a chrono- 
logical index. There are eighty selections in all, forty 
for each volume. Six are from « Messiah," and five 
each from <' Samson " and " Judas Maccabeas." Vocal- 
ists will be most grateful for the operatic arias, which 
are far less accessible than the numbers representing 
the oratorios. 

A most interesting and important publishing enter- 
prise is announced by Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co. in 
conjunction with Messrs. Dent of London. This is a 
series of reprints, imder the general title of " Every- 
man's Library," of the great books in every department 
of literature, carefully edited, handsomely printed 
and bound, and sold at the low price of fifty cents a 
volume. Mr. Ernest Rhys is general editor of the 
series, and critical introductions to the various volumes 
will be supplied by such writers as Augustine Birrell, 
Andrew Lang, Lord Avebury, A. C. Swinburne, G. K. 
Chesterton, Herbert Paul, Theodore Watts-Dunton, 
Richard Gamett, Hilaire Belloc, and George Saints- 
bury. That the mechanical form of the volumes will 
be the best that modem methods of printing, paper- 
making, and binding can produce is assured by Mr. 
Dent's connection with the plan. The series is to be 
published in quarterly instalments of about fifty vol- 
umes each, the first of which will appear next month. 
We trust this undertaking will meet the wide popular 
success that it is sure to deserve. 

LiisT OF New Books. 

[The following litt^ containing 67 titles, includes books 
received by Thx Dial since its last issue.] 

Mary Claeen of Soots : Her Environment and Tracedy. By 

T. F. Henderson. In 2 vols., illns. in photogravure, etc. 

large 8vo. ffilt tops. Charles Scribner's Sons. |B. net. 
The Ufe of aneen Henrietta Marl*. By I. A. Taylor. 

Second edition: in 2 vols., illos. in photogravure, etc.. large 

8vo, gilt tops. E. P. Dutton A Co. 17.50 net. 
Beaoaxtea : His Life and Times. By Elixabeth 8. Haldane. 

lUus. in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, gilt top, pp. 39B. £. P. 

Dutton & Co. $4.60 net. 
Days of the Past : A Medley of Memories. By Alexander 

Innee Shand. Large 8vo, gilt top. pp. 819. E. P. Dutton & 

Co. $8. net. 
Soaaell Wheeler Bavenport : Father of Rowing at Yale, 

Maker of Guns and Armor Plate. With photogravure 

portrait, large 8vo. gilt top. pp. 79. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

$1. 26 net. 
Chopin : As Revealed by Extracts from his Diary. By Count 

Stanilas Tamowski: trans, from the Polish by Natalie 

Janotha: edited by J. T. Tanqueray. Illns., 16mo. pp. 69. 

Charles Scribner's Sons. $1. net. 


A History of the Inqulaition of Spain. By Henry Charles 
Lea. LL.D. Vol. I., large 8vo. gilt top. pp. 820. Macmillan 
Co. 12.60 net. 

Ancient Beoorda of Bgypt : Historical Documents from the 
Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest. Collected, edited, 
and translated, with oommentary. by James Henry Breasted, 
Ph.D. Vol. I.. The First to the Seventeenth Dynasties. Large 
8vo, uncut, pp. 844. University of Chicago Press, 

The Snaaian Court in the Eighteenth Century. By Fitz- 
gerald Molloy. In 2 vols., illus. in photogravure, etc. large 
8vo. gilt tops. Charles Scribner's Sous. |B. net. 

England under the Normana and Anffevlna, 1086-1272. 
By H. W. C. Davis. Large 8vo, gUt top, uncut, pp. 677. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. $8. net. 

A History of the United Statea. By Elroy McKendree 
Avery. Vol. II.. illus. in color, etc, large 8vo. gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 468. Burrows Bros. Co. 



[Feb. 16, 

AmeirioMi PoUtioal HLitory, 1788-1878. By Alexander John- 
ston : edited and supplemented by James Albert Woodbnm. 
Part II., 1820-76. 8vo, pp. 698. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2. net. 

GBNBBAIj litbbatxtbe. 
The I>6Tttlopm«zit of the Feellnff for Nature in the Middle 

Ages and Modem Times. By Alfred Biese. 12mo, pp. 876. 

E. P. Dntton & Go. $2. net. 
The Boildiziff of the City Beantiftd. By Joaquin Miller. 

With photosravure frontispiece, 16mo, gilt top. uncut, pp. 248. 

Trenton: Albert Brandt. $1.60 net. 
The Miracles of Our Lady Saint Mary. Brought out of 

divers tongues and newly set forth in BngUsh by Evelyn 

Underbill. With photogravure frontispiece, 8vo, uncut, 

pp. 806. E. P. Dutton & Co. |2. net. 
Hirmn Treasnree. By Oraoe Morrison Everett. 12mo, gilt top, 

pp. 188. Jennings A Graham; • $1.28. 

Complete Works of Abraham T<lTiooln. Edited by John G. 

Nicolay and John Hay. New and enlarged edition. Vols. 

I. and II., with photogravure frontispieces, 8vo, gUt tops, 

uncut. New York: Francis D. Tandy Co. (Bold only in sets 

of 12 vols., by subscription.) 
The Poetical Works of Ijord Byron. Edited, with a Memoir, 

by Ernest Hartley Coleridge. With photogravure portrait, 

12mo, pp. 1048. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.60 net. 
The Faerie Claeene. By Edmund Spenser. In 2 vols., with 

photogravure frontispieces. 24mo, gilt tops. " Caxton Thin 

Paper Series." Charles Scribner's Sons. Leather. $2.60 net. 
In Memoriam. By Alfred Lord Tennyson. Annotated by the 

author. 16mo, uncut, pp. 265. Macmillan Co. $1. net. 
" Ground Arms I" (*' Die Waffen Nieder ! ") : A Romance of 

European War. By Baroness Bertha von Suttner; trans. 

from the (German by Alice Asbury Abbott. Sixth edition ; 

with portrait. 12mo, pp. 818. A. C. McClurg A Co. $1.26. 
Axel and Valborg: An Historical Tragedy in Five Acts. 

Trans, from the Danish and German of Adam Oehlen- 

schljiger by Frederick Strange KoUe. 12mo, gilt top. uncut, 

pp.120. Grafton Press. 
Wordsworth's Onide to the I«kes. Fifth Edition (1886). 

Edited by Ernest de SeUnoourt. Hlus., 16mo, gilt top, pp. 208. 

Oxford University Press. 90 cts. net. 

The Qreat BeftisaL By Maxwell Gray. 12mo, pp. 488. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.60. 
The Btemal Spring. By Neith Boyce. Illus., 12mo, uncut, 

pp. 408. Fox, Duf&eld A Co. $1.60. 
The Quickening. By Francis Lynde. Illus., 12mo, pp. 407. 

Bobbs-Merrill Co. $1.60. 
The Ijake. By George Moore. 12mo, pp. 808. D. Appleton A 

Co. $1.60. 
The One Who Saw. By Headon Hill. Illus., 12mo, pp. 879. 

New York : B. W. Dodge A Co. $1.60. 
Micky. By Clin L. Lyman. 12mo. pp. 241. BichaidG. Badger. 


The FlnaUty of the Christian Bellglon. By George Burman 

Foster. La«ge 8vo, pp. 618. University of Chicago Press. 

$4. net. 
The History of Barly Christian literature: The Writings 

of the New Testament. By Baron Hermann von Soden, D.D. ; 

trans, by Rev. J. R. Wilkinson, M.A. ; edited by Rev. W. D. 

Morrison, LL.D. 12mo, pp. 476. "Crown Theological 

Library." G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.60. 
The Seligion of Christ in the Twentieth Century. i2mo, 

pp. 197. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1JS0. 
The Oospel in the (Gospels. By William Porcher Du Bose, 

M.A. 12mo, pp. 288. Longmans. Green A Co. $1.60. 
Sermon Brlelk. By Henry Ward Beecher ; transcribed from the 

author's manuscript notes of unpublished discourses, and 

edited by John R. Howard and Truman J. Ellinwood. 8vo, 

pp. 268. Pilgrim Press. 
The Beligion of Noma, and Other Essays on the Religion of 

Ancient Rome. By Jesse Benedict Carter. 12mo, uncut, 

pp.188. Macmillan Co. $1. net. 
The Boolesiastioal Edicts of the Theodosian Code. By 

William K. Boyd, Ph.D. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 122. " Colum- 
bia University Publications." Macmillan Co. Paper. 
The Child in the Church. Edited by Horatio N. Ogden, A.M. 

16mo, pp. 66. Jennings A Graham. 26 cts. net. 

The Best Address Bver Made : An Exposition of the Flf> 
teenth Chapter of Luke. By Rev. Rhys R. Lloyd, M.A. 
24mo, pp. 47. Chicago: Hays-Cushman Co. 26 cts. 


Btohings of Charles Meryon. Text by Hugh Stokes. Xllus., 
4to. **The Master Etchers." Charles Scribner's Sons. 
$2.60 net. 

Old Fewter. By Malcolm Bell. Hlus., 8vo, gilt top, pp. 186. 
" Newnee' Library of the Applied Arts." Charles Scribner's 
Sons. •2JS0net 

Henry Moore. B.A. By Frank Madeaa. Hlus. in photo- 
gravure, etc, 12mo. gUt top, uncut, pp. 216. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. $1.26 net. 

The Fre-Baphaelite Brotherhood. Text by J. Ernest 
Phythian. Illus. in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, pp. 76. 
" Newnes' Art Library." Frederick Wame & Co. $1.25. 

The Beeper Sonroes of the Beauty and Expression of 
Music By Joseph Goddard. 16mo. pp. 119. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. $1.26 net. 

James McNeill Whistler. By H. W. Singer. Hlus.. 18mo. 
gUt top, pp. 88. " T<angham Monographs." Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. Leather, $1. net. 

Hans Holbein the Younger : A Critical Monograph. By 
Ford Madox Hueffer. Hlus., 24mo, gilt top, pp. 178. "Popular 
Library of Art." E. P. Dutton & Co. 

Who's Who in Amerioa, 1906-7. Edited by John W. Leonard. 

8vo, pp. 2080. Chicago : A. N. Marquis A Co. $8.60. 
Who's Who. 1906: An Annual Biographical Dictionary. 

16mo, pp. 1878. Macmillan Co. $2. net. 

First Solenoe Book : Physics and Chemistry. By Lothrop D. 

Higgins, Ph.B. Illus., 16mo, pp. 287. Ginn & Co. 66 cto. 
The Choral Song Book. Edited and arranged by William M. 

Lawrence and Frederick H. Pease 8vo, pp. 225. Rand. 

McNally&Co. 60 cts. 
Berry's Writing Books. In 4 parts, illus. in color, etc, 

oblong 12mo. Chicago : B. D. Berry A Co. 

Congress of Arts and Solenoe, Universal Exposition, St. 

Louis, 1904. Edited by Howard J. Rogers, A.M. Vol. I., large 

8vo, pp. 627. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. ^.60 net. 
The Central Tlan-Shan Mountains. 1902-8. By Dr. Gottfried 

Merxbacher. Illus., large 8vo. gilt top, uncut, pp. 286. E. P. 

Dutton & Co. $8JS0net. 
The Age of the Earth, and Other Geological Studies. By 

W. J. Sollas. Illus., large 8vo, gUt top, uncut, pp. 828. E. P. 

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1906.] THE DIAL 189 



The Finality of the Christian Religion george b. foster 

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140 THE DIAL [Mawh 1,1906. 

Macmillan Publications and Announcements 

Mr. Eden Phillpotts* new nova The Portreeve 

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Ne. 47S. 

MARCH 1, 1906. 

Vol, XL. 





LsteIXseiiaB0n8oftlieWarof 1812. F. H, Costello, 


F, BicJcneU 144 


fVanl; W, Blackmar 146 


HaU, Jr, 148 


WUford Gamer 150 


TIONS FOR THE OLD. T, D, A. CockereU 151 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 153 
Merejkowaki's Peter and Alezu. — Sienkiewicz's 
On the Iteld of fflory. — Gaaioiowaki's Napoleon's 
Low Stcny. — Crockett's The Scarlet Ribbiuid. — 
Oppenheim's A Maker of History. — Legge's The 
Ford.~Mr. sod Mrs. WiUiamson's My Friend the 
Chanffenr.— Maxwell's ViTian.— *" Maxwell Gray's '* 
llie Gieat RefnaaL— Tarku^rton's The Conquest 
of Canaan — Kiefaolaon's The House of a Tlioiuand 
Candles.— Hough's Heart's Desire. — Dix's The 
Fair Maad of Gray stones.— Ellis's Barbara Wins- 
low, RebeL — Glaqgow'a The Wheel of life. 


** Lone mother of dead empires." — The foremost 
l^igiyi* thinker from Bacon to Hume. — Literary 
Gennany in the early 19th century. — T<onisiana as 
an American commonwealth. — A good popular in- 
troduction to the art of Giotto. — Faglish life and 
ways in Jane Austen's time. — More of Mr. Birrell's 
eanys. — Improring the workingman's surround- 
ings. — A dictionary of famous Americaas. — Some 
American women of a by-gone day. 


NOTES 161 




. Mr. Richard Bagot, an English novelist of 
conscientious industry and creditable perform- 
ance, has made ihe February ^* Nineteenth Cen- 
tury " the vehicle of certain reflections upon the 
present condition of literary criticism as it affects 
the writer of fiction. He finds that condition to 
be extremely unsatisfactory, and makes tenta- 
tive suggestion of a corrective for its obvious 
shortcomings. Since the conditions he describes 
obtain quite as noticeably on this side of the 
water as on the other, his article should prove 
equally interesting to both American and En- 
glish readers. 

He calls attention, to b^^ with, to the con- 
tradictory character of the reviewing of current 
fiction. It is quite common for a novel to run 
the whole gamut of criticism from highest praise 
to severest censure, when in all probability the 
book is just an ordinary ephemeral production, 
deserving of neither extreme, but simply calling 
for a few words of classification and illustrative 
comment. Sometimes, as in a case cited from 
his own recent experience, the novelist has the 
malicious satisfaction of finding both kinds of 
estimates in different issues of the same journal. 
Thus, even if he pins his faith to some particular 
organ of literary opinion, his confidence is liable 
to be shaken by the rudest of shocks. And in 
any case, ^* the perplexed novelist is liable to 
read in one leading organ that he has written 
a work which places him in the front rank of 
living writers of fiction, and in another that he 
is ignorant of the very rudiments of the art of 
novel-writing." It is a hard problem. The nov- 
elist himself may lay to his soul the flattering 
unction of the laudatory judgment, although he 
will hardly do so without some misgivings, but 
the reader in search of light will not know what 
U> think. 

Another very evident defect in the reviewing 
of fiction is that the criticism so often comes 
from persons having no familiarity with the 
subject-matter of the work criticised. ^* A novel 
dealing, we will say, with foreign life is reviewed 
perhaps by a critic who has no knowledge of 
the people and. the tK^untry in which the scene 



[March 1, 

of the book in question is laid. How, it may be 
asked, is such a critic to be a sound and reliable 
guide either to author or public ? " How, indaed! 
And to what confusion worse confounded are 
we led when a novelist describes soiiie phiEiQe of 
life with which he has himself no intimate ac- 
quaintance, and his work is then i^viewed by a 
critic whose knowledge of the subject is even 
more superficial ! The " society " novel offers the 
most obvious example of this condition of things. 
Some portrayal of smart life is described by the 
reviewers as a brilliant social satire or as a new 
" Vanity Fair," and the writers of such books 
" are supposed by the outside public to know 
intimately that society of which they write with 
such assurance." ^^ But how many critics are 
there," asks Mr. Bagot, " who can boldly tell the 
distinguished author that he, or she, has made 
well-bred people say, do, and think things en- 
tirely foreign to their nature and caste tradi- 

That such defects as have above been indi- 
cated, and many others as glaring, characteiize 
most current criticism of fiction, is a fact too 
apparent to need demonstration. And the rea- 
sons are equally apparent. To make a truly 
intelligent estimate of even a novel requires 
ability of a sort so rare and valuable a« to be at 
the command of very few newspapers or other 
periodicals, it also demands an amount of space 
that cannot possibly be devoted to any single 
book of the class that numbers its thousands 
yearly. The problem set the average reviewer 
of the average novel is simply this : What is 
the most profitable employment I may make of 
the two hours and the two hundred words which 
are all I can give to this book ? A personal im- 
pression, a bit of description or classification, an 
indication of some salient feature, and a word or 
two about the workmanship are all that may be 
attempted under the narrow conditions imposed. 
Reviewing done subject to those limitations will 
have weight in proportion to the ability and 
knowledge of the reviewer — and the brief para- 
graph may often be surprisingly weighty — but 
of course it will be anything but adequate to the 
claims of any book that really calls for serious 

Mr. Bagot, taking lus cue from French prac- 
tices, from the positive fact of French official 
criticism and the negative fact that the French 
press does not, as a rule, attempt to review the 
whole output of current fiction, ventures a sug- 
gestion which, while it offers great difficulties 
on the practical side, is at least interesting and 
worthy of consideration. ^^ What if the entire 

press," he asks, ^^ should agree to ignore all 
works of fiction sent in for review which did not 
bring with them to the editorial offices a guar- 
anty that they had duly passed an initial stage 
of ezaminatian, and had been declared worthy of 
the notice of the journalistic critic? And what 
if the circulating libraries declinec^ to subscribe / 
to any but works of fiction thus hallmarked? ', 
It might, I think, reasonably be supposed ihat 
some such purifying process as this would tend 
considerably to reduce the flood of undestraUe 
matter ; that it would diminish the work of the 
reviewer ; and that the art of the novelist and 
the taste and literary discernment of the novel- 
reading public would gradually be raised." 
Having made this suggestion, Mr. Bagot pro* 
ceeds to enlarge upon the benefits, to both 
authors and readers, that might follow in the 
train of its adoption. He develops the argu- 
ment with caution, but with a very evident 
prepossession in favor of some such method 
as a means of stemming the flood of worthless 
fiction and of giving the novelist himself a 
kind of counsel of which he ofti^n stands in 
dire need. 

We can imagine the outciy of the amateur 
novelist, and of the professional sensation- 
monger, at any such suggestion of a ^^ trust " in 
literary criticism. And the question of qiiis 
custodiet custodes could be very effectively 
raised by Buch a proposal. Originality, and 
even genius, anight possibly for a time be supr 
pressed by the operation of such a plan, but we 
cannot believe that in the long run it would 
not work more good than harm. The difficulty, 
of course, would lie in the constitution of the 
tribunal organized for this judicial sifting of 
the tares from the wheat. To accept the re- 
sponsibilities of a Rhadamanthus in tibis matter 
would be to accept a thankless task, and one 
certain to entail much discomfort upon tBe in- 
cumbent. The rage of the rejected woul^ ^ 
anything but celestial, and would be declared 
in a manner both personal and pointed. Mr. 
Bagot appreciates die difficulty of the prohLem, 
and it is with no little diffidence that he pro- 
poses lus press-constituted academy. But the 
experiment is not beyond the range of possibil- 
ity, and the libraiy profession is already looking 
for some way of trying it. Certainly the long- 
suffering public, now misled by so many blind 
guides, deserves to have its interests protected 
by the critical g^d more effectively than they 
are at present protected, and no suggesti<>n 
aiming at so praiseworthy an end should fail of* 
being examined with due deliberation. . < 





(To the Editor of Thb Dial.) 

In reading the review of Captain Mahan's «Sea 
Power and l3ie War of 1812," in a recent number of 
The Dial, I notice what seems to me the omission of 
an important fact, and one that is none too prominently 
brought out in the book itself. There is, however, some 
discussion of it in the book, and it seems to me that it 
should have bad a place in the review. It is the fact 
' of the chief cause that led Great Britain to make such 
favorable terms with us in ending the war. 

That our land forces, in spite of the almost marvellous 
incapacity of the commanding generals and the blunder- 
ing and short-sightedness of the Washington government 
(snd of Jefferson previously), finally did some fairly good 
work, is true ; and certainly our navy, considering how it 
was neglected at the start, was splendidly efficient. But 
when all of this is considered there is still not enough to 
acconnt for the result — for the readiness with which 
Great Britain made peace. It wiU of course be borne in 
mind that her great defeat at New Orleans — the defeat 
that ruined her most promising plan — was not known 
when she so readily entered into the arrangements for 
peace. Then what was the cause? It was not the 
problem of Napoleon, — he was defeated; and though 
England's expenses for the recent wars were heavy, her 
opportunity was good for getting a large part of it back 
from us. Russia, our friend, was certainly not in shape 
to go to war with the first sea power in the world to 
help us. There was just as certainly no other power to 
attempt it, even had there been another as friendly. 

But if Great Britain could hope to recoup herself 
from our lands and goods, was she in military shape to 
go on ? She was at the height of her military power. 
Wellington's veterans were out of the Peninsula, other 
forces had been organized, and there was sufficient money 
in the war-chest for immediate purposes. And on the 
aea Great Britain stood as she had never stood before, 
and probably never will stand again. She numbered 
her war-craft by the hundreds, and after the French 
ahadow had been lifted she had more than two hundred 
vessels to send to our coasts. We had four large 
frigates, and not a ship larger, and had mustered just 
aevenieen fighting vessels at the beginning of the war. 
Before the negotiations at Ghent the larger number of 
oor stronger vessels were taken or blockaded in port. 
Of our four large frigates, the ** Constitution" alone kept 
the seas. True, as Captain Mahan points out, and your 
leyiewer does not, before our little navy was so nearly 
crashed it had struck heavy financial blows at the enemy. 
This, indeed, with the possible exception of the victory 
on Lake Champlain, was its most formidable and telling 
work. It was the work that Great Britain most seriously 
felt. Her vulnerable point was not her body, but her 
pocket. Porter, in the little « Essex," before he was 
captured, did more to harm the enemy and to help our 
eaose than all our brilliant single-ship actions put to- 
gether. He practicaUy destroyed the British whaling 
interests in the Pacific. 

And now we are prepared to answer the question: — 
What led Great Britain to consent to peace-terms so 
favorable to us ? The answer is: it was the work of our 
privateers. Even Captain Mahan, who naturally has 
s relatively high regard for the regular service, and is 
not inclined to place a great value upon an irreg^ilar 

one, in part admits this. He says: "From September 
30, 1813, ... to the corresponding date in 1814, there 
were captured by American cruisers 639 vessels, chiefly 
merchantmen; a number that bad increased to over 
a thousand when the war ended the following winter." 
He further goes on to estimate that fully 424 of these 
prizes were taken in foreign seas. He says, however, that 
we had lost more vessels relatively by capture than the 
enemy; but he then goes on to say: " Her cruisers [i. e., 
the U. S. cruisers] were causing exaggerated anxiety 
concerning the intercourse between Great Britain and 
Ireland, which, though certainly molested, was not 
Seriously interrupted." It will be observed that he does 
not minimize the effect that even an exaggerated fear 
might have in influencing the course of the enemy so 
alarmed. By the word " cruisers " is of course to be 
understood chiefly privateers. The small number of 
vessels in our regular navy has already been spoken of. 
But it has been said that all sorts of food-stuffs went 
up greatly in price in this coimtry after the additional 
British war-ships came over, so that we were in fully as 
great straits as English subjects in this regard, and 
that therefore Great Britain had still an advantage. 
We only need to look at this statement for a moment to 
see where the truth lies. We had a great and prolific 
territory from which to obtain all necessary foods; Eng- 
land had to import a great deal of what she used, and 
the wages and other incomes of those who must pur- 
chase were very low. At that time the whole of England, 
if divided equally amongst the people, would have given 
but a very few acres to each person — probably not more 
than five or six ; yet several great noblemen owned as 
many as ten to twenty thousand acres each, and a con- 
siderable part of this was not under cultivation. In this 
country we had hardly settled or cultivated beyond our 
mere borders, and there was land by the million acres to 
be had almost for nothing. 

But let us glance for a moment at some actual figures 
of prices in England about this time. I quote from 
** The American Merchant Marine," though the figures 
have been published elsewhere. The work mentioned 
says : " In Jime 1813 the British people were paying the 
famine prices of i|58 a barrel for flour, $38 for beef, 
and $36 for pork, while lumber cost $72 per thousand. 
It was this economic distress, more than our brilliant 
victories in a dozen naval duels, that brought Great 
Britain at last to terms." Here we have the story. 

Then shall we not still feel pride in our work in the 
War of 1812 ? We fought for our rights, we fought 
hard, and we won in the only way that we could have 
won. And be it remembered that these privateers 
whose work was so effective were not semi-pirates, like 
some that had been sent to sea by other countries: they 
sailed under reg^ular letters of marque; they were ex- 
pected to observe all the rules of civilized warfare, and 
did observe them; and, finally, they often met and over^ 
came vessels supposedly larger and stronger than them- 
selves, including some regular naval vessels. 

There is somewhat of a tendency (perhaps the result 
in part of reaction) to belittle our work in the War of 
1812. It is aided, doubtless, by some books now in use 
in our schools and colleges that give wholly the British 
side of the contest; the writer is prepared to quote 
chapter and verse in support of this statement. Let us 
not allow the pendulum to swing too far the other way; 
let us try to keep within the limits of truth. 


Bangor, Maine, February 21, 1906. 



[March 1, 

^\lt ^tia §00hd« 

The Real, and the Ideal Whitman.* 

It 18 fourteen years since Walt Whitman died, 
and no full and formal biography of him has yet 
appeared, unless we regard as such IVIr. Henry 
Bryan Binns's recently-issued work, which mod- 
estly disclaims all pretensions to being either a 
definitive biography or a critical study. The 
author, an Englishman, rightly looks to America 
to produce the final and complete life of this 
eminently American poet. Mr. Horace Traubel's 
memoirs of Whitman, " With Walt Whitman 
in Camden," extend over a period of less than 
four months, and obviously make no claim to 
anything like biographical completeness. They 
give us, in a good-sized octavo volume, rough 
notes of talks with Whitman, as thrown on paper 
from day to day, together with many letters of 
the period, or of an earlier time, addressed to 
Whitman. The whole book, unstudied and 
unpolished, conveys a realistic impression of the 
poet and the man, such as only a devoted Bos- 
well is able to give. 

Mr. Traubel is well styled by Mr. Binn^ 
"the old poet's spiritual son." Knowing and 
loving Whitman longer than he could distinctly 
remember, it was he who held Whitman's hand 
in his own when the old man drew his last breath 
in the little house in Mickle Street, Camden. 
He was named in the poet's will as one of his 
literary executors ; he was active in organizing 
the Walt Whitman Fellowship, of which he is 
secretary ; and it is probably his pen and voice, 
more than any other man's, that have kept 
Whitman's memory green during the last four- 
teen years. Coming from such a source, and 
written almost in the poet's very presence, Mr. 
Traubel's book appeals vividly to lovers of 
Whitman, and even the indifferent or scornful 
will find matter of quaint and curious interest 
in its pages. 

A book like Mr. Traubel's is not of the kind 
that lends itself readily to criticism. It is very 
part of the poet himself, and to criticise it would 
be to criticise Whitman, which is not the 
reviewer's purpose. A few illustrative passages 
will be given in all their unstudied informality, 
and then the reader will be left to seek a more 
intimate acquaintance with the book, or not, as 
he may feel inclined. Much of the talk and 

* With Walt Whitman in Camden ( March 28, — July 14, 1888). 
By Horace Traubel. Illustrated. Boston: Small. Maynard & Go. 

A LiPB OF WAi;r Wrttman. By Henry Bryan Binns. Illus- 
trated. New York : E. P. Dutton & Co. 

many of the letters revert, almost of necessity^ 
to the old theme of the Whitmanism of Whit- 
man, and, in particular, to the ^^ priapism," as 
Emerson once rather harshly called it, of certain 
passages in his poems. To the fa.milia.r defense, 
and the only defense, — the alleged harmlessness 
of all things to those who are themselves inno- 
cent, — most of us must sorrowfully shake our 
heads and acknowledge our inability to make 
adequate reply. In halting and contrite accents 
we can only confess that such a state of blame- 
lessness is more than we can attain unto; or, 
rather, it is a paradisaic condition from which 
we have long ago fallen. Sin, no more than 
disease, will be vanquished by denying its exist- 
ence. Not that Whitman makes any such denial 
in words ; it is his whole attitude that impresses 
one as a sort of bold-faced refusal to see aught 
but glad sunshine and smiling fields where 
others take anxious note of threatening thunder- 
clouds on the distant horizon and detect treach- 
erous quagmires beneath the fair appearance of 
flowery verdure. The very first page of Mr. Trau- 
bel's book shows us Whitman's determination to 
find in nature only what he sets out to find. 

«W. handed me a leaf from The Christian Union 
contaimng an article by Hunger on Personal Purity, in 
which this is said : * Do not suffer yourself to be caught 
by the Walt Whitman fallacy that all nature and all 
processes of nature are sacred and may therefore be 
tfdked about. Walt Whitman is not a true poet in this 
respect, or he would have scanned nature more accu- 
rately. Nature is silent and shy where he is loud and 
bold.' 'Now,* W. quietly remarked, <Munger is all 
right, but he is also all wrong. If Munger had written 
Leaves of Grass that's what nature would have written 
through Munger. But nature was writing through 
Walt Whitman. And that is where nature got herself 
into trouble.' And after a quiet little laugh he pushed 
his forefinger among some papers on the table and 
pulled out a black-ribbed envelope which he reached 
to me. . . ." 

Much of the conversation reported is trivial 
to all but ardent Whitmanites. Others are at 
liberty to skip, and will do so — whole pages at 
a time. It is not of great importance to most 
of us to be told that Whitman said, ^^ Repeat 
that, Horace," or '* Go over that again, Horace," 
or " I don't quite catch on," or " How 's that ? " 
Needlessly faithful is the reporter in reproducing 
Whitman's little profanities and vulgarities ; 
after a few samples the reader might well take 
the rest for granted. Putting all this down in 
cold clear type has the effect of showing us 
Whitman in a false perspective. The printed 
page seems in some way to emphasize unduly 
what in the rapid give and take of informal ta& 
falls more or less involuntarily and parentheti- 




cally from the lips. Yet for those to whom 
"the real Walt Whitman " cannot be too real, 
this excess of unattractive detail may be no 
excess at all. 

A Whitman pronouncement on Matthew 
Arnold ought to be rather rich reading; for 
two poets more unlike each other could hardly 
be imagined. Here is a part of a conversation 
between master and disciple soon after Arnold's 

<< Whitman adcU as to Arnold: <He will not be 
missed. There is no gap, as with the going of men 
like Carlyle, Emerson, Tennyson. Mj Arnold piece 
did not appear in Tuesday's Herald. I wonder if the 
editor was a little in doubt about it? It appeared 
to-day, however. The Herald has a higher opinion of 
Arnold than I have. I discussed Arnold in effect — 
throughout in such words — as one of the dudes of liter- 
ature. Does not Leaves of Grass provide a place even 
for Arnold ? Certainly, certainly: Leaves of Grass has 
room for everybody: if it did not make room for all it 
would not make room for one.' " 

Readers will note in the foregoing — for ex- 
ample, " throughout " for " though not " — Mr. 
Traubel's self-acknowledged carelessness as an 
editor ; but we gladly fall in with lus humor 
and pass the matter by as of small importance. 
A lack of sympathy equal to that between 
Whitman and Ajmold might have been looked 
for between Whitman and John Addington Sy- 
monds. Yet the latter was an early and ardent 
admirer of the American poet. Tlie subjoined 
passages are from a letter written by Symonds 
in 1872 in reply to one from Whitman. 

^ Your letter gave me the keenest pleasure I have 
felt for a long time. I had not exactly expected to 
bear from you. Yet I felt that if you liked my poem 
you would write. So I was beginning to dread that I 
had struck some quite wrong chord — that perhaps I 
had seemed to you to have arrogantly confounded your 
own fine thought and pure feeling with the baser metal 
of my own nature. What you say has reassured me 
and has solaced me nearly as much as if I had seen the 
£ace and touched the hand of you — my Master t . . . 
I have pored for continuous hours over the pages of 
Calamus (as I used to pore over the pages of Flato), 
longing to hear you speak, burning for a revelation of 
your more developed meaning, panting to ask — is this 
what you would indicate ? — ^ are then the free men of 
your land really so pure and loving and noble and gen- 
erous and sincere ? Most of all did I desire to hear 
from your own lips — or from your pen — some story 
of athletic friendship from which to learn the truth. 
Yet I dared not address you or dreamed that the 
thou^t of a student could abide the inevitable shafts 
of your searching intuition. Shall I ever be permitted 
to question you and learn from you ? " 

Finally, a few lines showing the warmth 
of affection existing between "Walt" and 
"Horace" may serve to close this review of 
Mr. Traubel's volume. 

«W. was very affectionate iu his manner to-night. 
< Come here, Horace/ he said. I went over. He took 
my hand. < I feel somehow as if you had consecrated 
yourself to me. That entails something on my part: I 
feel somehow as if I was consecrated to you. Well — 
we will work out the rest of my life-job together: it 
won't be for long: anyway, well work it out together, 
for short or long, eh ? ' He took my face between his 
hands and drew me to him and kissed me. Nothings 
more was then said. 1 went back to my chair and we 
sat in silence for some time." 

Of Mr. Binns's more formal treatment of the 
same theme much might be said, and most of it 
commendatory. A little too obvious, perhaps, 
is the author's effort to establish friendly rela- 
tions with his American readers and to give him- 
self an air of familiarity with American history 
and American ways. The very dedication of his 
book, ^^ To my mother, and to her mother, the 
Republic," is an advance bid for our good- 
will. All the carefully-studied accompaniment 
of political and historical matter that runs 
through the book is somewhat suggestive of 
cram, and is not at all necessary to the complete- 
ness of the biography. It irks the reader to 
have the Wilmot Rroviso thrust on his notice, 
or the split in the Democratic party narrated 
as a contributing cause of Lincohi's election. 
Whitman's anti-slavery attitude and his warm 
patriotism can be understood without these 
excursions into American history. The pride 
of recently-acquired learning — or, we might 
say, the uneasiness of ill-digested erudition — 
seems to betray itself in this parade of irrelevant 

Mr. Binns ascribes much of Whitman's best 
development, and his attainment to the ^^ power 
of self-abandonment," to the influence of that 
unknown Southern woman with whom the poet 
had intimate relations for a few months in his 
early manhood. The whole affair is, and prob- 
ably always will be, shrouded in mystery ; but 
the ascription of any such benign and fructify- 
ing influence to an illicit connection of this sort 
is what one might have expected rather from a 
writer on the other side of the Channel than 
from an Englishman. The experience, whatever 
its exact nature, the author thinks to have been 
instrumental in breaking down some barrier. 
" Strong before in his self-control," writes Mr. 
Binns, " he is stronger still now that he has won 
the power of self-abandonment. Unconsciously 
he had always been holding himself back ; at 
last he has let himself go. And to let oneself 
go is to discover oneself. Some men can never 
face that discovery; they are not ready for 



[March 1, 

emancipation. Whitman was." All this invites 
discussion, psychological and ethical. In some 
sort it brings up once more the old conflict be- 
tween Hellenism and Hebraism^ or, as Mr. Hugh 
Black styles it, between culture and restraint.. 
The danger seems to lie in our failing to distin- 
guish between the masterful facility that comes 
of perfect self-control and the coimterfeit ease 
that is the cheap and tinsel product of unre- 

The author loves Whitman whole-heartedly,, 
and the picture he presents is sympathetically 
drawn. Both in biographical detail and in criti- 
cal comment the book is an excellent piece of 
work, pe^rhaps the fullest and best study of the 
poet's life an4 writings that has yet appeared. 
It is written hi a pleasing and scholarly style, 
and every page bears marks of painstaking re- 
search. Two passages only can find space here 
for quotation. The first shall be an amusing 
and characteristic anecdote, which is probably 
new to most readers. 

«It is related that once in a Brooklyn church he 
failed to remove his soft broad-brimmed hat, and entered 
the building with his head thus covered, looking for all 
the world like some Quaker of the olden time. The 
offending article was roughly knocked off by the verger. 
Walt picked it up, twisted it into a sort of scourge, 
seized the astonished official by the collar — he always 
detested officials — trounced liim with it, clapped it on 
his head again, and so, abruptly and coolly, left the 

This may recall a line from the " Leaves," — "I 
have hated tyrants, argued not concerning God, 
had patience and indulgence toward the people, 
taken off my hat to nothing known or unknown." 
The second selection is of a critical, interpreta- 
tive sort, comparing Whitman as a prophet (by 
no means as a man of letters) with Carlyle. 

« With Whitman, Carlyle recognised the imderlying 
moral purpose of the universe, and the organic unity or 
solidarity of mankind; but being himself a Calvinistic 
Jacobin of irritable nerves, these convictions filled him, 
not with a joyful wonder and faith, but with contempt 
and despair. He never saw humanity as the body of a 
Divine and Godlike soul; and though he was continu- 
ally calling men to duty and repentance, he did so from 
inward necessity rather than with any anticipation of 
success. For he felt himself to be a Voice crying in the 
wilderness. Whitman worshipped the hero as truly as 
did Carlyle; but then he saw the heroic in the heart of 
our conunon humanity, where Carlyle missed it; hence 
his appeal was one of confidence, not despair.*' 

The two books, the American's and the En- 
glishman's, may well be read together, the former 
filling in with minute and realistic detail the 
more largely-sketched and more highly-idealized 
portrait presented by the latter. 

Percy F. Bicknell. 

Main Currents in SocioiiOGicAi. 
\^ T heory .* 

To get the force of Professor Small's book 
on "jGeneral Sociology" it is necessary to con- 
sider that originally it was an outline or syl- 
labus of a course of lectures delivered to the 
graduate students of the University of Chicago. 
Such a course of study, with modem University 
methods, usually leaves a large room for sup- 
plementary work. Hence, while we are not 
willing to admit the frank acknowledgment of 
the author that ^' in form it is rough, fragment- 
ary, and unsystematic," the book is somewhat 
improportional frpm the standpoint of a scien- 
tific treatise. However, as the author admits, 
it is not a treatise, but a critical analysis of the 
development and present status of sociology. 
It is a conspectus of sociology or a comparative 
study of sociological thought. Its purpose is to 
show what sociology is and what it is not, and 
while it does not build a scientific system of 
sociology it indicates broad lines of construction 
or synthesis of the same. The book is critical 
rather than constructive. While the author 
does not attempt to construct a system of sociol- 
ogy, he indirectly points out the way for others 
and indicates upon what f oimdation they mtist 
build. In reference to the various phases of 
development of sociology by different individ- 
uals. Professor Small has shown that the dif- 
ferences of sociologists are more apparent than 
real on accoimt of the various points of view 
and various methods of attack, and that they 
are all working on the same sociology with con- 
verging lines of thought. Through the great 
mass of contributions to the science, pseudo and 
real, he finds a constant line of development 
from the earliest authors to the present time. 
With this object in view he has brought out 
the knowledge necessaiy for the foundation of 
sociol(^ in the various attempts that have been 
made to construct a science. It is a masterly 
array of material and forces and, in most parts, 
an arraignment of these before the critic's bar 
of justice. " Our thesis," says the author, "is 
that the central line in the path of methodo- 
logical progress, from Spencer to Ratzenhofer, 
is marked by gradual shiftings of effort from 
analogical representation of social structures to 
real analysis of social processes." In other 
words, the stress is now being laid on function 
where formerly it was laid upon structure. 

In the first chapter, on " The Subject Matter 

* GBNBaAL Sociology. An Exposition of the Main Develop- 
ment of Sociolofncal Theory from Spencer to Ratzenhofer. By 
Albion W. Small. University of Chicago Press. 




of Sociology," the author asserts that it is a 
process of human association, and then he 
proceeds to show that sociology attempts to 
interpret the whole process of human associa- 
tion. He asserts that facts of human associa- 
tion are not sufficient data for a science, but 
that " the whence, the how, the why, and the 
wUther, of processes are essential to sociology." 
The relations, meaning, and valuations of facts 
other than the facts themselves represent the 
subject matter of sociology as well as of other 
sciences. It is the passing of knowledge over 
into power that makes a real science. It is the 
advancement of the knowledge of what occurred 
to a knowledge of the meaning of what occurred. 
In addition to the establishment of the science 
of processes, the sociologist should formulate a 
programme for the promotion of more and more 
ra^onal social processes. 

In the following chapter, under the title of 
"Definition of Sociology," Professor Small gives 
the ordinary definitions, each of which bases the 
science on the association of men. He says that 
sociology is a unified view of human life and a 
body of guiding principles for the conduct of 
life. He shows through analysis how this ap- 
pears, and adds that '^ sociology is an attempt 
so to visualize and so to interpret the whole of 
human experience that will reveal the last dis- 
coverable grounds upon which to base con- 
clusions about the rational conduct of Ufe," 
and finally closes the chapter with the more ac- 
curate and inclusive definition : " Sociology is 
the science of the social process." Here again 
he emphasizes the study of the activities of 
sociology. Of all the phases of society function 
is the resl essence of sociology. 

In Chapter III. Professor Small presents the 
''Impulse of Sociology," in which he points out 
briefly its reasons to be one of the sciences. 
It is an attempt to show that the driving power 
of society arises in a philanthropic effort to 
make the world better, and that sociology is the 
scientific reg^ulating power. This is followed 
in subsequent chapters by an historical survey 
of sociology. This survey, as the anther points 
out, is necessarily meagre. However, sufficient 
is given for the support of his main thesis. 

Over one-half of the main body of the book 
is taken up with a remarkable comparative 
analysis of Spencer, Schaeffle, and Ratzenhofer. 
It would be impossible for the reviewer to follow 
this extended and masterly analysis. The object 
is to show that Spencer considered society as 
oompoeed of differently arranged parts in which 
be emphasized stra<^ture ; that Schaeffle, while 

accepting this, goes a step further and represents 
society composed of parts working together to 
achieve results, that he emphasized function or 
action of society; and Ratzenhofer considers 
society as a process of adjustment by conflict and 
subsequently by cooperation between associated 
individuals. Professor Small is very keen in 
analysis, and while his analytical researches in 
the past have been of great service to students 
of the science, the value of the comparative study 
bf these three great founders of sociology cannot 
be overestimated as a service to students. It is 
a demonstration of the main line of evolution 
of sociology. » 

While the incompleteness of Spencer's method 
is made appasrent, as a foundation of sociology 
his system is as essential as the foundation of a 
building to its superstructure. Where form and 
structure are made the essential framework of 
the system Spencer implies that they are brought 
about by social activities. However, Spencer 
represents the first step in the analysis of human 
association. Schaeffle, by emphasizing function 
and seeking the ultimate causes of structure, has 
taken the second step. But Professor Small 
points out the limitations of each by saying that 
Spencer '^ tended to seek the meaning of social 
structure in structure ; so Schaeffle's limits are 
indicated by his tendency to see the meaning of 
social function in function rather than in casual 
and consequent conditions in the persons func- 
tioning." That is, structure and function are 
ends in themselves, which is contrary to Pro- 
fessor Small's interpretation of sociology. Fol- 
lowing the analysis o^ these two authors, he asks 
these four questions : " First, what are the 
essentials of human association ? Second, how 
do these ess^tials change their manifestations 
from time to time ? Third, by virtue of what 
influences do these variations occur? Fourth, 
what social aims are reasonable in view of these 
conclusions from experience ? " And he uses the 
analysis of Ratzenhofer to show how these ques- 
tions may be answered. The analysis of social 
prblsesses after Ratzenhofer is the most exact of 
any system yet presented. It includes the es- 
sential features of Ratzenhofer's ^^Sociologische 
£rkenntnis " and also his " Wesen und Zweck 
der Politik." Ratzenhofer clearly represents 
the three steps in the development of sociology, 
and points out how structure occurs through 
function. He shows the causes of social activity, 
and in this demonstrates clearly the needs of 
social analysis. 

The remainder of the work, while still review- 
ing the opinions of other sociologists, is more of 



[March 1, 

a constructive nature than the first part. A dis- 
cussion of the psychical, ethical, and technical 
makes up the outline of the remainder of the 
book. The most noticeable feature of this part 
of sociology, which is more nearly Professor 
Small's view of the science, represents its real- 
istic nature. Society is a real thing made up of 
the elements of everyday practice, and in its 
study we should follow human interests and 
human society wherever they lead. First must 
be considered the interests of the individual 
and his relation to the complete society. This 
should be followed by the relations of groups 
to one another and general social structure and 

As a book on general sociology this is a valu- 
able contribution to the literature on the subject. 
While the interpretation of human experience is 
sufficiently emphasized, sufficient stress is not 
laid upon the evolution of human society as a 
means of arriving at a correct estimate of the 
present structure and activities. The processes 
through which society is made are alternate dif- 
ferentiation and integration. While it is true 
that Professor Small says we cannot explain 
society as it is by comparing it with a society of 
savages, the course of evolution through differ- 
entiation and integration gives a basis of under- 
standing which cannot be obtained in any better 
way. The scientist orients his subject by remov- 
ing complex or interfering forces. His point of 
departure must be a simple element or condi- 
tion. Social evolution gives the student this 
point of departure. 

Perhaps some fault might be found with the 
book on account of the voluminous nature of the 
discussion and the unevenness of its make-up. 
But the vigor of the author and his familiarity 
with the content and method of sociological writ- 
ings, his numerous illustrations, as well as his 
masterly analysis, make up for any lack of con- 
densation of material. It is not a book for be- 
ginners but for students of maturity of mind 
and acquired sociological knowledge. To such 
it will prove of great value, and in general is an 
impetus to the development of the science of 
sociology. It helps the student to realize the 
great advancement sociology has made in recent 
years, and what a stupenduous task is before 
scholars before it is reduced to scientific pro- 
portions. As Professor Small has pointed out 
what sociology id, and what it is noty and indi- 
cated what it shovld &6, we trust he will go on 
in his studies and write a treatise on the subject. 

Frank W. Blackmar. 


Perhaps it is wrong to call this ripe comment 
on Shakespeare by the name of Table-Talk. 
There is certainly nothing desultory, idle, ram- 
bling about it. Bnt other names do not suggest 
the quality of it. If we say " lectures " we think 
of some celebrity addressing a cultivated audi- 
ence gathered for a littie titillation of literary 
recollection, or perhaps some learned professor 
giving the results of private studies while stu- 
dents toiled behind with note-books. If we say 
^^ studies '^ we think of conunentaries and dis- 
sertations, sources and texts. If we say " essays " 
we may mean anything from the most eccentric 
fancies about Shakespeare to an exhibition of 
universal scholarship. Here is nothing of all 
this. In this book we have a man who has read 
Shakespeare long and deeply and who now talks 
to us of typical plays. It is not talk at the 
dinner-table, precisely, for he has his book in 
hand, and at times will read half a page or a 
couple of lines. What name can we give it ? In 
its intention it is something like a great actor's 
presentation of his conception of Shakespeare's 

As may have been already suggested, this book 
is more or less like Hazlitt's "Characters of 
Shakespere's Plays "; more, at least, than most 
of the recent well-known books of criticism. Mr. 
Dowden studied the growth of Shakespeare's 
conceptions and their realization in dramatic 
form. Mr. Moulton studied the special dramatic 
art of some lyrical plays. Mr. Barrett Wendell 
was taken up with the artistic temperament of 
Shakespeare, and sought to make us see that in 
all his work. Mr. Mabie gave a general accoimt 
of the man against a background of Elizabethan 
life. Mr. Brandes gathered together the scholar- 
ship of the time and formed his own theories 
and conclusions. Mr. Sidney Lee got at every- 
thing that would give substantiation to any fact 
in Shakespeare's life. Mr. Stopford Brooke does 
none of these things, save here and there. He 
nms through each play, giving some general 
comment, interpreting each character, following 
out the dramatic development, presenting the 
prevailing ideas. He gives us not a study of 
the plays or a study of Shakespeare based upon 
the plays, but a picture of his own mind as he 
reviews the plays. That is what Hazlitt did, 
though in making the comparison, it is scant 
justice to Mr. Stopford Brooke to say that he 
seems to have thought over his subject with a 

*On Tbk Plays op Shaubspbasb. 
KewYork: HeniT Holt & Co. 

By StOEiford Brooke. 




view to this particular book, much more carefully 
than Hazlitt could ever have thought over his 

The thing about Hazlitt that most impressed 
that devoted lover of Shakespeare, John Keats, 
was his ^^ depth of taste." Keats probably 
meant by that expression that exactly the right 
thing impressed Hazlitt about each character or 
pby of Shakespeare. That does not impress me 
80 much in Hazlitt's book as the fact that what- 
ever did impress him, impressed him so strongly. 
The book is almost as interesting in the view it 
gives of Hazlitt as in its view of Shakespeare. 
Read for instance the beginning of the essay on 
*^ Hamlet ": what a remarkable production to be 
set down almost extempore. Hazlitt's power of 
thought in his power of expression was so remark- 
able that one of the chief interests in his criti- 
cism is that it gives one such an idea of what 
art may be to an individual. That is, in fact, 
Hazlitt's strong point as a critic : not his taste, as 
Eeats thought, or his power as a ^' speculator " 
as Blackwood said, although both of those things 
are apparent in his book on Shakespeare. He 
is himself so wonderfully impressed by literature, 
m this case by Shakespeare, that one gets up 
from a reading of his work with almost a new 
conception of literature as an element in life. 

Such is not Mr. Stopford Brooke's especial 
power. I am much more impressed by his ^^ depth 
of taste " than by Hazlitt's. Like Hazlitt he 
commonly speaks of the events of the plays, of 
the characters, as though they were events or 
characters in real life. He analyzes motives, 
explains utterance, calls attention to beauties of 
speech or thought.* But where his mind leaves 
the plays, it reverts to Shakespeare and his pur- 
poses. Hazlitt's mind reverted to himself as 
to the reader in general : Mr. Stopford Brooke 
thinks of the writer. I shall admit, in passing, 
a greater interest in Hazlitt's method. We nat- 
ondly talk of a play or a book as though it were 
a piece of real life; there is often much to 
explain or describe. But where the critic goes 
beyond that, I like better to have him give us 
an idea of the effect of it all upon himself, than 
to have him tell us of the art of the dramatist. 
Literature is really of importance to us only as 
it affects us : otherwise it is history or science. 
These things are each excellent, but they are not 
rightly foll owed by literary methods. If a man 

*Thcre is. of oonne. a dancer here. Consider the iM^res 
written (thooch not in this book) on Hamlet's madness. There 
is really no soch question : the only possible question is. Did 
SliakeQ>eare conceive of him as madt which is a very dliTerent 
thing, and to be decided on grounds very dilferent from those 
often aUeged. 

will show us what a vital factor Shakespeare is 
or has been in his thinking and being, he will 
be talking of something of which he knows. If 
he tell us of how Shakespeare created these plays 
and characters that may be so vital a force to us, 
he may be talking of something he knows, but 
it is more likely that it is something he only 
guesses about. And whether he know or guess, 
the matter is of historic or scientific importance, 
not of poetic. But it is to be said that the 
main point of Mr. Stopford Brooke's book is not 
here. He is content, as a rule, to interpret the 
play, the character, the passage in hand, and it 
is only here and there that he goes back to the 

As to the kind of conmient, we have gener- 
ally to begin with, a few words about the play. 
^^ Midsummer Night's Dream" represents the 
temper of Shakespeare's soul in earlier years ; 
" The Merchant of Venice " is made up out of 
such and such materials in earlier literature. 
Then generally comes an interpretation of the 
action, then comment on the character. Or some- 
times instead of these last being carefully taken 
up, we have a discussion of two or three topics 
of chief interest, as with ^^ G>riolanus " where 
the author deals with ^^ (1) Shakespeare's treat- 
ment of the political question in Rome ; (2) the 
character and fate of Coriolanus; (3) Corio- 
lanus and his mother." What is said on these 
matters is generally, in its intention, perfectly 
simple. It may be well to quote a passage. 

<< Opposed to him in character, but his friend, is 
Mercutio; wit's scintilating star, thrilling with life to 
his finger-tips, not caring for women save as the toys 
of an hour, ready to tackle, on the instant, any woman, 
young or old; brave, audacious, g^ing swiftly to his 
point, keeping no thought within him but flinging it at 
once into his speech ; < he will speak more in a minute than 
he wiU stand to in a month '; quick in choler, ready to 
attempt the moon and pull the sun down, loose of 
speech, mocking old and young out of the racing of his 
blood — the gay ruffles of Italy, such as Shakespere 
often met in London, such as many of the Italian novels 
enclose and paint."* 

Some impatient scholars may possibly put 
this aside, with an inquiry for something new 
in the book, something beside a re-statement of 
the material of the play. A number of little 
matters, more or less new, may be noted, as for 
instance: that Shakespeare had a feeling of true 
sympathy for the common people (pp. 7, 223); 
that in ^^ Romeo and Juliet" he was thinking 
of ^^the long suffering justice who punishes 
quarrels which injure the state" (p. 36, cf. 

* It should be added that this is only the ffist of aevenJ 
pancraphs on Mercutio. 



[March 1, 

pp. 64-68); that Mercutio was not too brilliant 
for Shakespeare to keep alive (p. 44); that 
Shylock was a hot-blooded, passionate, resolute, 
dignified man of sixty (p. 152); that Jacques 
is not a cynic, or even bitter (p. 172); that 
Prosper© is the last of the great mediaeval en- 
chanters (p. 286); and naturally many more 
such views. 

But it is not to be said that the value of the 
book depends upon its new discoveries or its 
new views, or on the new standpoint or the new 
spirit in which the critic regards the plays. In 
just this fact itself lies its great value. Here is 
a critic who turns on no new light, who oifers 
no new theory, who proclaims no discovery, 
who presents no new conception. What, then, 
does he add to Shakespearean scholarship or 
Shakespearean criticism. Perhaps Mr. Stopford 
Brooke would be satisfied if he were generally 
esteemed to have added nothing at all. For it 
is clear that what he wants is not to make more 
criticism or more scholarship, but to make his 
readers see that there is more in Shakespeare 
than they supposed. He puts aside critical 
apparatus and scholarly theory, and is content 
simply with the plays. Perhaps he wrote this 
book not in a great library, not even in a well- 
provided study, but — it may be — out-doors 
with nothing but the plays and pencil and 
paper. He certainly might have done so. 

The professional critic or Shakespearean 
scholar is a little at sea with such treatment. 
He has not much to say : there is not much 
to discuss or raise a dust about. Of course 
you can disagree anywhere. I open at random 
and pretty soon read " Orlando and Rosalind ! 
could anyone desire to have more charming, 
more simshiny companions than these two en- 
chanting persons ? To live with them is to live 
with moral beauty, but it is not a beauty which 
the pharisaic moralist will like at all." I sup- 
pose I may be something of a pharisaic moralist 
myself, for I never had any such feeling about 
Bosalind and Orlando as Mr. Stopford Brooke 
has ; so I might dissent from that dictum as 
from many others in the book. 

But agreement or disagreement in particulars 
is. not the point. To make us see more in 
Shakespeare, that is the writer's desire. A bold 
undertaking, one will say, after a century of 
devoted Shakespearean study, scholarship, crit- 
icism, appreciation. But in all that century 
there have been few books so single-minded as 

Edward E. Hale, Jr. 

Alabama in Wak-Time and After.* 

For a long time the South was large^ a 
neglected field to the historical student. Re- 
cent years, however, have seen a marked devel- 
opment of interest in the study of the history 
of this part of the country, as is evidenced by 
the increased activity of historical societies and 
the establishment of state departments for the 
preservation and publication of historical rec- 
ords in several southern states. In several 
northern universities distinct courses in south- 
ern history are now being given, and in other 
respects it is beginning to receive the attention 
which has long been bestowed upon the history 
of the northern states. Recently a number of 
excellent monographs on particular periods of 
southern history have appeared ; and it is prob- 
ably no exaggeration to say that the history of 
no other state has been so well written up as has 
the early period of South Carolina. 

In " Civil War and Reconstruction in Ala- 
bama," a volume of over 800 pages, by Pro- 
fessor Walter L. Fleming, we have the most 
comprehensive and valuable work of the kind 
that has yet been written. It shows evidence 
of intimate knowledge based on wide research, 
is fair and judicial yet sympathetic in tone, and 
is altogether a most interesting picture of life 
in a southern state during and immediately fol- 
lowing the Civil War. As a proper background 
for the study of the Civil War and Reconstruc- 
tion period, the author has described the society 
and institutions that were destroyed by the war. 
The population of the state, its industries, the 
development of secession sentiment, the disrup- 
tion of the religious denominations, the eman- 
cipation sentiment in northern Alabama, are 
some of the topics discussed. Then follows the 
stoiy of secession, the preparation for the com- 
ing struggle, military operations on Alabama 
soil, the problems of conscription and exemp- 
tion, and the peace movement. In northern 
Alabama, a region unconnected with the rest of 
the state by railroads and geographically a part 
of Tennessee, the people were largely opposed 
to the war ; and this locality became a nest of 
" tories," deserters, and " mossbacks " from all 
over the South, and they caused the State and 
Confederate authorities no little trouble. Be- 
sides their opposition to the war, they com- 
mitted outrages on both Confederate and Union 
sympathizers and terrorized the country gener- 

* Civil War and Bboonstbuction in AiiABAMA. By Walter 
L. Fleming, Ph.D. New York: The MHcmillan Co. 




ally. For a time there was talk among them 
of seceding from Alabama, and, together with 
the comities of East Tennessee, forming a new 
state with the name of Nick-arJaek. 

Particularly instructive and fascinating is 
Professor Fleming's account of social and eco- 
nomic conditions during the war : new industries 
created by the necessities of the war, blockade 
running and trading through the lines, the con- 
duct of the slaves, educational activity, the 
struggles of the newspapers to keep going, life 
on the farm, the hardslups and destitution of 
the families left behind, etc. The condition of 
the state at the close of the war, with its deserted 
and neglected &trms, paralysis of business, 
wrecked railroads, poverty-stricken people, law- 
lessness and disorder, with demoralized negroes 
roaming about the country testing their new 
freedom and refusing to work, — these make a 
picture which no one can now study without 
profound sympathy. The reorganization of the 
state in accordance with the Johnson plan of 
Reconstruction, the overthrow of this plan by 
Congress, the military regime, and the activity 
of the Freedmen's Bureau, are described witili 
detail. The author's judgment with regard to 
the Freedmen's Bureau is that it did little good 
and in many cases did much harm. The sub- 
ordinate agents in Alabama, he says, were mostly 
broken-down men who had failed at other under- 
takings, preachers with strong prejudices, and 
the ^^ dr^ of a mustered-out army." The insti- 
tution in Alabama, he declares, was entirely 
unnecessary. G>tton was worth fifty cents a 
pound, and the extraordinary demand for labor 
guaranteed good treatment for the laborers. 
Whatever suffering the blacks endured was 
mainly due to their congregation in the towns 
and to their own shif tlessness. Through a gen- 
erous distribution of government rations they 
soon came to entertain the belief that it was the 
duty of ^^ Uncle Sam " to support them whether 
they worked or not. Finally, unscrupulous and 
dedgning officials took advantage of their posi- 
tion to make a political machine of the Bureau, 
and instances were not lacking where they de- 
frauded the credulous blacks by selling them 
pamted sticks which, they were told, entitled them 
to forty acres of land of their own selection. 

An interesting feature of Mr. Fleming's work 
b veoL elaborate account of the various orders 
and leagues which played an important part in 
the life of the state during the Seconstruction 
period. The most notable of these were the 
Union League, organized among the negroes by 
northern white men, and which became a potent 

political machine, and the Ku Klux Klan, organ- 
ized among the southern whites for maintaining 
order, but which eventually degenerated into an 
organization of persecution and murder. Inter- 
esting and unique is the author's description of 
the effects of the Reconstruction policy upon 
the educational and religious life of the people. 
The State University was ^^ radicalized " and 
practically broken up, and in many cases negro 
churches were disrupted by differences of politi- 
cal opinion among the members. 

Alabama was more fortunate than some of her 
southern sisters, — notably Mississippi, Louisi- 
ana, and South Carolina, — in escaping from the 
worst evils of negro and " Carpet-bag " rule ; but 
even as it was, no true American can read the 
story without a sense of shame and humiliation. 
There was not an honest white man living in 
the state during Reconstruction, says Professor 
Fleming, nor a man, woman, or child, descended 
from such a person, who did not then suffer, 
or does not still suffer, from the direct results 
of " Carpet-bag " financiering. 

Jam£S Wilford Garner. 

Precepts for the Young, and 
Reflections for the Ojld.* 

President King's new book could be described 
as an inspiring guide to rational living, or a col- 
lection of amiable platitudes, according to the 
point of view. It should be read especially by 
the young, for even the moderately old have not 
only heard the story before but, alas ! they are 
little able to profit by it, if they have neglected 
its teachings hitherto. Listen to this : 

« Our intellectual as well as our moral day of grace 
is limited. It is of no use to rebel at the facts, it is 
folly unspeakable to ignore them. We are becoming 
bundles of habits. With every young person one must, 
therefore, continually urge: Are you willing to retain 
just the personal habits you have now? You cannot 
too quickly change them if you wish to make thorough 
work. From your early morning toilet, through the 
care of your clothing and the order of your room, table 
manners, breathing, tone of voice, manner of talking, 
pronunciation, gesture, motion, address, study, to your 
very way of sleeping at night — all your habits are 
setting IDce plaster of Paris. Do you wish them to set 
as they are? " (p. 62). 

Excellent and pertinent advice this — for the 
young : but what about the poor old dogs who 

* Rational Livxno. Some Practical Inferences from Modem 
Psjchology. By Henry Churchill Kinff. New York : The Mac- 
i rtiiia-fi Go. 

LiFB AND Rkuoion. An Aftermath from the Writinci of the 
B,ight Honorahle Pzofeaaor F. Max Muller. [Edited] by his wife. 
New York: Doableday, Page A Co. 



[March 1^ 

have learned about all the tricks they will ever 
know ? T%€y know, too well, their own frailties 
and inabilities; it is with them no longer a 
question of what they may become, but of what 
they can do with such wits and strength as they 
possess, in this wicked world. 

*< Clear and definite thinking, moreover, moves di- 
rectly and unhesitatingly toward its goal, and for that 
very reason seems to be a distinct help to decisive action. 
For all purposeful action involves the use of definite 
means to definite ends. Definiteness in thinking, thus, 
seems to be directly connected with decision in action, 
and vagueness of thinking with indecision and weak- 
ness " (p. 121). 

Yes, indeed, poor old brain of mine ! You and 
Iflhave found that out these many years ago, 
but have found, also, that it is not always easy 
to see in a fog. Circumstances are sometimes 
too much, do what we will. But for the young, 
could there be more admirable counsel ? Think 
straight and hard, and rely upon your own wits ! 
Resolve to become, and you will become, to a 
considerable extent! The day is young, and 
the possibilities are great I (How fortunate it 
is, that a new generation walks upon the stage 
every little while ! ) 

All things considered, we must believe that 
President King's book will carry a real and 
valuable message to those for whom it was in- 
tended ; and if it seems to some barren of new 
thought, and not especially distinguished in 
style, these impressions should not be held to 
condemn it ; for they represent, as it were, only 
the back view of the edifice. 

^^ Life and Religion " is a volimie of extracts 
from the writings of the late Professor Max 
Miiller, selected and arranged by his wife. It 
is not a controversial work, and should not be 
treated as such; rather, it is as though the 
veteran humanist and philologist invited the 
reader to sit with him by the fireside, and there 
confided to him the thoughts and aspirations 
which had guided his path during a long and 
successfid life. Who would refuse such an 
invitation ? Who would listen with other than 
deferential, if not reverential, attention ? Pos- 
sibly, on grounds of philosophy or science, or 
from the standpoint of our own religion, some 
of the professor's ideas may be wrong; but 
what of that ? His star served well to make his 
wagon go, and that to good purpose, and is 
entitled to our regard, if only for its past per- 
formance. This very thought, indeed, is one of 
those most cherished by Max Miiller himself, 
in relation to other peoples. Himself a true 

Christian, he had become too intimate with the 
thoughts of other peoples, past and present, not 
to regard their aspirations with sympathy and 
appreciation. ^^ True Christianity, I mean the 
religion of Christ, seems to me to become more 
and more exalted the more we know and the 
more we appreciate the treasures of truth hidden 
in the despised religions of the world " (p. 24). 

The first impression of the book is perhaps a 
little disappointing ; because, from its necessa- 
rily disjointed nature one does not instantly 
perceive the uniting thread. If a man is heard 
making statements about the Himalaya Moun- 
tains, or the Arctic regions, we are likely to 
give him scant attention, until some remark or 
expression betrays the fact that he has been 
there himself. So it is with Max Miiller : many 
of his paragraphs sound much like the empty 
professions of those who have learned such things 
by rote ; but one does not read far without find- 
ing that the author speaks whereof he knows. 

^' Everyone carries a grave of lost hope in his 
soul, but he covers it over with cold marble, or 
with green boughs. On sad days one likes 
to go alone to this Grod's acre of the soul, and 
weep there, but only in order to return full of 
comfort and hope to those who are left to us " 
(p. 205). Ah yes ! good friend. 

No doubt the most significant message of the 
book is contained in its interpretation of Chris- 
tianity. Max Miiller believed himself to be a 
Christian in the fullest sense, and to me it seems 
that he was wholly justified. Yet the orthodox, 
so-called, will be horrified to read : 

« 'WTien we think of the exalted character of Christ's 
teaching, may we not ask ourselves once more, What 
would He have said if He had seen the fabulous stories 
of His birth and childhood, or if He had thought that 
His Divine character would ever be made to depend on 
the historical truth of the Evangeha In/antice t " (p. 27). 

" If Jesus was not God, was He, they ask, a mere 
man ? A mere man ? Is there anything among the 
works of God, anything next to God, more wonderf ul, 
more awful, more holy than man ? Much rather should 
we ask. Was then Jesus a mere God ? . . , A God is 
less than man. True Christianity does not degrade the 
Godhead, it exalts manhood, by bringing it back near 
to God "Q). 34). 

« Then it is said. Is not Christ Grod ? Yes, He is, but 
in His own sense, not in the Jewish nor in the Greek 
sense, nor in the sense which so many Christians attach 
to that article of their faith. Christ's teaching is that 
we are God, that there is in us something divine — that 
we are nothing if we are not that. . . . Let us bestow > 
all praise and glory on Christ as the best son of God. 
. . . Christ never oJls Himself the Father, He speaks 
of His Father with love, but always with humility and 
reverence " (p. 21). 





Recent Fiction.* 

The grandiose trilogy of " Christ and Antichrist," 
415 conceived in the teeming fancy of Mr. Dmitri 
Merejkowski, is now completed with the publication 
of ** Peter and Alexis." This work is possibly richer 
in material than either of its predecessors, but its 
construction is so hopelessly chaotic as to preclude 
any serious claim to consideration as a work of art. 
THiat we have is a formless aggregation of curious 
facts and pedantries illustratiye of St Petersburg in 
tiie early eighteenth century, of the barbarism of a 
people reluctantly turned toward civilization by the 
masterful Tsar, and of strange mediaeval supersti- 
tions mingled with wild religious vagaries. The figure 
of Peter is dominant throughout, but it is a figure 
of traits so contradictory that it assumes no definite 
oatiine in our imagination. As far as it may be 
exhibited by a single quotation, it appears in this 
passage : ^^ At six in the morning he began to dress. 
Pulling on his stockings he noticed a hole ; he sat 
down, got a needle and a ball of wool, and began 
darning. Ruminating about a road to India in the 
footsteps of Alexander of Macedonia, he darned his 
stockings." Contrasted with the fiery and brutal 
energy of Peter, we have the futility and degeneracy 
of his weakling son, a maudlin character utterly 
unequal to the responsibilities laid upon him. The 
action culminates with the terrific scene of torture 
in which the life of Alexis is sacrificed to his father's 
insensate rage. We say action, but of a truth 
there is little action of any connected sort in the 
work viewed as a whole ; the treatment is episodical 
and disjointed throughout The author's immense 
display of learning and his untamed vigor of de- 
scription are made devoid of artistic effect by the 
almost total absence of restraint and correlation. 
The result is absolutely bewildering. As in the pre- 
ceding sections of this trilogy, the antithesis is plain 

* Prbb ax-d Aubxxs. The Bomanoe of Peter the Great. By 
Dmitri Mereikowski New York : G. P. Putnam's Soxu. 

On THB FiBLD OF Globy. An Historical Novel of the Time of 
KiBff John Sobieski. By Henryk Sienkiewicz. Translated by 
Jeremiah Curtln. Boeton : Little. Brown, A Co. 

Napolbok's Love Stoby. A Historical Romance. By Wadaw 
OttiorowBkL Translated by the Connt de Soissons. New York: 
E. P. Dntton & Co. 

Tbb Chebby BiBBAifD. By 8. B. Crockett. New York: A. 8. 
Barnes & Co. 

A Makbb of Histoby. By £. Phillips Oppenheim. Boston: 
little. Brown, A Co. 

Thb Fobd. By Arthur £. J. Legge. New York : John Lane Co. 

My Fbibnd the Chauffeub. By C. N. and A. M. Williamson. 
New York : McClure, Phillips A Co. 

VnriBH. By W. B. Maxwell. New York: D. Appleton A Co. 

The Qbbat Bbfusal. By Maxwell Gray. New York: D. 
Appleton A Co. 

The Conquest of Canaan. By Booth Tarkinirton. New 
York: Harper & Brothers. 

The House of a Thousaitd Caitduis. By Meredith Nichol- 
son. Indianapolis: The Bobba-MerriU Co. 

Heabt's Dbsibb. By Emerson Houirh. New York: The Mao- 

The Faib Maid of Obaystokes. By Benlah Marie Dix. New 
York: The Macmillan Co. 

Babbaba WiNSLOw, Rebel. By Elizabeth Ellis. New York: 

The Whbbl of Life. By Ellen Glasgow. New York: Don- 

enough. Peter is the emhodiment of Antichrist in 
the eyes of the horror-stricken orthodoxy which he 
so recklessly defies. So in << The Death of the Gods " 
Julian was Antichrist to the primitiye churchy and 
in " The Forerunner " Leonardo da Vinci was Anti- 
christ to the medi«BTal church. But is it the author's 
wish to enlist our sympathies on Peter's side as he 
enlisted them on the side of the apostate and the 
artist ? If this he the case, he has failed as signally 
as he succeeded in the earlier volumes. Viewing 
the trilogy as a whole, we must say that " The Fore- 
runner " is immeasurably finer than either of the 
other parts. Not merely is it wrought of metal more 
attractive, but in the manner of its workmanship it 
also excels. 

"On the Field of Glory," by Mr. Henryk Sien- 
kiewicz, breaks a silence of several years, during 
which the distinguished Polish romancer has been 
resting upon his well-earned laurels. It is a book 
of about the dimensions of ^^The Knights of the 
Cross," and deals with the period of John Sobieski 
and the anxious years of the impending Turkish 
invasion. We confess to some disappointment upon 
finding that the great victory of Sobieski is only 
foreshadowed in this narrative, instead of being 
presented to us with the magnificent descriptive 
power that the author knows how to apply to such 
situations ; but perhaps he is keeping that theme in 
reserve for a supreme effort. It is surely manifest 
destiny that he, and no other, should deal with it 
The title of the present romance is thus a misnomer, 
for the book ends before any of its characters have 
reached "the field of glory," although they spend 
much of their time in talking about it In other 
words, although the story has this background of 
patriotic expectancy, it is in reality a story of private 
interest, a love-story of freshness and charm, a story 
of strange manners and exciting adventures. 

Some of the younger Polish critics, it seems, have 
been charging the Sienkiewicz school of fiction with 
sterility, whereupon the leader of that school has 
pointed to certain of his colleagues by way of refu- 
tation, and particularly to Mr. Grasiorowski, whose 
quality we may now appraise in " Napoleon's Love 
Story," just translated into English. The author 
is a young man, and this romance is chiefly remark- 
able for its length, caused by a remorseless spinning 
out of dialogue and elaboration of descriptive detail, 
but it may, nevertheless, be read (or skimmed over) 
with a fair degree of satisfaction. Its theme is 
the episode of Napoleon's visit to Warsaw in 1807, 
and his resulting romantic attachment to Madame 
Walewska. The character of the heroine is depicted 
for us with much subtlety, while her imperial lover is 
the same familiar figure with which we have become 
acquainted in other works of romantic invention. 

Mr. Crockett is a most indefatigable producer of 
novels. His latest, " The Cherry Ribband," is of a 
piece with its predecessors ; at least with those of its 
predecessors which find the author upon his native 
heath — or in his native kail-yard or among his 
native moss-hags, — and deals with the troublous times 



[March 1, 

of the Covenant. It has an abundance of stirring 
adventure, of duelling, fighting, and romance. The 
strong figure of Claverhouse appears upon the scene 
from time to time, but plays no very conspicuous 
part in the action. Mr. Crockett is as good as ever 
in his characterization of eccentric Scotch types. 
The book deserves well of the reader, albeit it is 
little more than a replica of earlier ones. 

The Dogger Bank incident has been ingeniously 
utilized by Mr. E. Phillips Oppenheim for his latest 
fictive invention, " A Maker of History." It seems 
that this was, after all, a deliberate attempt to force 
England into war with Russia. A secret treaty had 
been concluded between the Tsar and the Kaiser 
whereby the invasion of England was imminent. But 
it so happened that a young Englishman, an innocent 
tourist, was a witness of the meeting between the 
two monarchs, which was brought about by the con- 
junction of two imperial trains, at a secluded point 
of the railway. Not only was the young English- 
man there in hiding, but he became possessed of a 
page of the treaty itself, which was blown out of the 
window of the carriage in which the momentous 
agreement was drawn up. As he could not read 
German, he knew nothing of its significance, but 
simply tucked it into his pocket. Afterwards he went 
to Paris, talked innocently but indiscreetly about his 
adventure, and was promptly kidnapped. His sister 
went in search of him, and was also kidnapped. No 
harm was done them, but they remained in the 
custody of the French Secret Service in order that 
the German Secret Service might not get hold of 
them. Next comes an English baronet, who sees 
a photograph of the girl, falls in love with it, and 
assumes the rdle of amateur detective. All the par- 
ties concerned have adventures of the most surpris- 
ing description, until the need for secrecy no longer 
exists, because the French government has check- 
mated Russia and Germany in their sinister game. 
Those who know Mr. Oppenheim's methods as a 
novelist will hardly need to be informed that this 
stirring story is told with neatness and despatch. 

"The Ford," by Mr. Arthur E. J. Legge, is a 
quiet story of English life, illustrating the relations 
between two families — one of aristocratic and an- 
cient lineage, the other the social outcome of that 
well-known product, Harrold's Household Soap. The 
parvenu becomes the neighbor of the lord, and a 
ford across the stream which flows by their estates 
provides a convenient subject of dispute. It is a 
Montague and Capulet affair, but turns out happily 
in a way, although the most sympathetic character 
in the novel is drowned while crossing the ford, and 
we shall never feel quite sure that the heroine ought 
not to have married him instead of the scion of the 
enemy's stock. The book is simple and genuine, and 
its style has the touch of poetic distinction to be 
expected of a writer who has also won the laurels of 
a singer of songs. 

The trick of making an interesting novel out of 
the incidents that midce up the life of a party of 
tourists is not as simple as it seems. Since the efforts 

of William Black in this direction, we can think of 
no others who have been quite as successful as Mr. 
and Mrs. Williaipson. And the fact that their trav- 
ellers have for a vehicle the modem motor-car instead 
of the antiquated phaeton gives to their narratives 
the needed touch of timeliness. " My Friend the 
Chauffeur" tells how an English baronet and an 
Irish peer (in prospect) personally conduct a party 
of three female Americans through northern Italy 
and into Dalmatia, harassed all the time by the atten- 
tions of an Austrian prince, who is the vOlain of the 
piece. (We wonder why it is that Austrian princes 
make such satisfactory villains.) The climax is 
reached in Montenegro, when the villain lures the 
heroine into a deserted house, and would force her 
consent to a marriage. The marriage that really 
comes off is a different sort of affair, in which the 
impoverished scion of the Irish nobility figures as 
the 1/eading man. A second marriage in prospect as 
the book closes is that of the baronet with the enfant 
terrible of the tale, who it seems is not a child at 
all, but a maiden of seventeen, masquerading in short 
clothes and long braids to oblige her mother, relict 
of Simon P. Kidder, of Denver, U. S. A. This mother 
has sentimental leanings toward the prince, despite 
whose villainy she turns a willing ear to his protes- 
tations. A peculiar feature of the story is that it is 
told, in turn, by each of the five persons making ap 
the party in the motor-car. The attendant prince 
alone has no chance to describe matters from his 
point of view, which is rather a pity. 

The name of " W. B. Maxwell " is non-committal 
as to sex, but " Vivien " is a woman's novel. It is, 
moreover, one of the best novels that we have read 
for a long time, by a writer of either sex. Its ele- 
ments are familiar enough — the neglected girl, the 
dreary years at a cheap boarding-school, the heart- 
breaking task of earning a living in a London shop, 
the consequent privation, misery, and illness, the 
inevitable persecution by the wealthy libertine, and 
the eventual rescue by the prince of her dreams. 
But despite the hackneyed nature of its plot, as thus 
revealed in skeleton, the work has both originality 
and distinction. The interest la so varied, the nar- 
rative so broadly humanized, the delineation of char- 
acter so true and fine, that our attention is com- 
pletely absorbed from first to last The spirits of 
tenderness and pity brood over it, and the recurrent 
note of f orgriveness, however seemingly dark the sin, 
adds a divine touch to the work. And a very serious 
work it is, although animated in its movement, a 
work that sounds the depths of the human mystery^ 
and confronts the reader with the darkest riddles of 
life. Having these qualities, it is matter for satis- 
faction that the story is told upon a generous scale 
— there are more than six hundred pages — and 
grives us comprehensive studies of character and situ- 
ation rather than the glimpses afforded by the im- 
pressionist Such a novel is like an oasis in the 
desert to the weary reviewer, and rewards him for 
much toiling through the arid wastes of popular 




A singolarly charming and appealing book \s 
^'The Great Refusal," by the novelist who calls 
herself "Maxwell Gray." It assumeSy to be sure, 
something too much of the character of a sociological 
tract in the closing chapters, and is based upon over- 
wrought sentiment rather than upon any practical 
form of idealism, but is nevertheless so fine in motive 
and so graceful in diction that criticism is measure- 
ably disarmed. The '^ great refusal " is made by the 
hero, who renounces wealth and position to become 
a common workingman, and eventually embarks in 
a socialistic venture having for its object the estab- 
lishment of a Utopian commonwealth in Africa. 
These are not his only sacrifices, for love also is 
cast aside, and it is not until the end of much suf- 
fering that his early passion is replaced by one fixed 
upon far surer foundations. The characterization is 
excellent, alike of the two women, the devoted hero, 
and his masterful father, whose money seems to 
the son too tainted for legitimate enjoyment Nor 
is the hero in any sense depicted for us as a prig 
or a weakling, but rather as a genial, athletic, and 
altogether wholesome specimen of the best English 
manhood. The style of the novel, also, is natural as 
to dialogue, and charmingly allusive as to description. 

^* The Conquest of Canaan " is a thoroughly read- 
able book, made so by its genial description of vil- 
kge types of character, and enough of a story to 
make the chapters hang together. Canaan is in 
Indiana, and it is conquered by the town ne'er^lo- 
weU, who seems to have in him all the makings of 
a Tagabond ; but who instead develops strength and 
determination. This transformation of an outcast 
into a leading citizen is sketched with considerable 
skill, and incidental humor is not lacking. A very 
pretty love story adds warmth and romantic color- 
ing to this the latest of Mr. Tarkington's pleasant 

^ The House of a Thousand Candles " is a house 
of mystery situated somewhere in the depths of 
Indiana. It has secret panels and subterranean pas- 
sages, and the departed owner is reputed to have 
concealed vast treasures somewhere within it This 
makes it an object of burglarious enterprise on the 
part of the surrounding population, and the coming 
of the new owner, to whom the house with all its 
contents has been left, is by no means a popular 
happening. This owner is a young man of roving 
disposition, to whom the property has been left 
nnder singular conditions, one of which is that he 
shall make it his residence, and not leave it for a 
full year. Since his life is attempted on the very first 
day of his arrival, the prospect is at least exciting. 
But he proves game, and sets about solving the mys- 
tery for himself. Presently, an interesting romance 
develops, the other person concerned being an in- 
mate of a neighboring school for girls. Startling 
episodes occur in swift succession, the machinations 
of all the villains are thwarted, the romance comes 
to a happy conclusion, and in the end we have the 
greatest surprise of all, which it would be heartless 
of US to reveal. 

Mr. Hough's '^ Heart's Desire '* is a book some- 
thing like Mr. Wister's "The Virginian," and quite 
as much or as little of a story. Heart's Desire is a 
remote mountain settlement of the southwest hav- 
ing for its population one doctor, two lawyers, a few 
cowboys and miners, and no women. Its entire cir- 
culating medium amounts to about three hundred 
dollars, which frequently changes hands, and now 
and then, by the fortunes of the game, is temporarily 
collected in the pockets of some one citizen. The 
story begins with the advent of the first woman, and 
in subsequent chapters are chronicled the beginnings 
of litigation, art, music, and other accessories of civ- 
ilization. Presently a corporation comes with a rail- 
road in its gift, and what continuity of interest the 
story has centres about the project The book has 
both sentiment and humor, both after the fashion 
long ago set by Bret Harte, and makes a brave pre- 
tence at showing that a free life under these primi- 
tive conditions is much better worth having than the 
trammelled existence of more settled conmiunities. 
The argument is sufficiently persuasive to compel 
temporary assent, and that is all the story needs for 
its sympathetic enjoyment There can be no doubt 
that it is enjoyable, and that Mr. Hough has sur- 
passed his best previous efforts for our entei*tainment 

Miss Beulah Dix is an accomplished artificer of 
historical romance, and has worked successfully in 
the material offered by seventeenth-«entury England 
and America, by puritans in Massachusetts, and by 
the conflict of roundhead with cavalier. It is to the 
latter phase of her activity that ^^ The Fair Maid of 
Graystones " belongs, and the book turns out to be 
a very pretty story indeed. Besieged Colchester has 
just fallen into the hands of the parliamentary army, 
and one of the consequences is that Jack Hethering- 
ton becomes a royalist prisoner. Then follows a sur- 
prising series of adventures for this engaging hero, 
brought about by the fact that he is taken for a cousin 
of the same name, and thereby becomes responsible 
for many villainies laid to the charge of that unwor- 
thy person. How he clears himself from this tangle 
it is the business of the novelist to unfold, and she 
does it without straining our sensibilities more than 
is strictly necessary for the purposes of a full-grown 
romance. The historical substratum of the tale is of 
the thinnest, and chiefly takes the form of a conven- 
tional reflection of the manners and speech of the time. 

"Barbara Winslow, Rebel," by Miss Elizabeth 
Ellis, is another historical romance with an English 
setting, its scene being laid just after the defeat of 
Monmouth at Sedgemoor. Here we have a fascina- 
ting heroine, arrested for harboring rebels, and a 
victim of Jeffrey and the Bloody Circuit. Sentenced 
to a brutal punishment, she is saved by one of the 
king's officers, who thereby becomes himself a rebel, 
and the two take flight together. They are clearly 
in love with one another to any eyes but their own, 
but the inevitable misunderstanding supervenes, 
holding them at aim's length through the requisite 
number of chapters. Barbara is a young woman of 
the pert and proud type so dear to the romantic 



[Maxell 1, 

heart, and her soldier lover has the complementary 
virtues that the situation requires. The story has 
heen told, essentially, a hundred times hefore in as 
many different guises, but it usually makes a pretty 
one, and in this case no complaint may be made of 
it for lack of interest or excitement. 

We are not altogether satisfied that Miss Glasgow 
should again have deserted her native heath (if a 
Virginia plantation may be thus designated) for 
the allurements of the metropolis and its so-called 
" society." As we said of " The House of Mirth," it 
is next to impossible to make a story of human interest 
out of the vapid and insolent life of the idle rich, and 
even the delicate art of Mrs. Wharton was balked in 
the effort. Now Miss Glasgow's art, although pos- 
sibly stronger, is less delicate, and by so much she 
has been even less successful than tiie writer with 
whose latest work "The Wheel of Life" is brought 
into inevitable comparison. We may say in behalf 
of the newer novel that it offers us at least one 
fine character in the person of its hero, who is in 
" society " but not of it, and another of strong but 
elusive charm in the person of the woman poet 
whose apparition haunts many of the pages. But 
as compared with "The Deliverance," for example, 
this work is an inferior production. 

William Morton Payne. 

Briefs ox I^ew Books. 

**Lone mother ^^^ peninsula to which the name of 
of dead Italy has been given for long ages 

empire:" presents some of the most compli- 

cated problems in historical geography of all the 
continent of Europe. Consolidated under the Roman 
rule in the early half of the third century, B. C, the 
peninsula was visited and pillaged by almost all of 
the barbarians in the early Christian .centuries. The 
Ostrogoths occupied it in the fifth century, A. D., 
until Justinian obtained possession and reestablished 
the Roman Empire there. It became an exarchate 
of the Byzantine Empire about the middle of the 
sixth century, and a few years later the Lombards 
wrested it from the Empire. By the Treaty of Verdun, 
in 843, it was separated from the Western Empire, 
and in the tenth century it was united to Germany in 
the empire then formed. The Papal State then es- 
tablished proved a bar to complete Italian nationality 
until very recent times, and from that time until the 
nineteenth century polyarchy existed in Italy. From 
the tenth to the thirteenth century, feudal principal- 
ities and republics were established ; and most of the 
republics were transformed into principalities before 
the end of the Middle Ages. In the fifteenth century, 
Milan, Florence, the Papal State, the oligarchic Rie- 
public of Venice, and the Kingdom of Naples, formed 
a pentarchy. The Normans conquered the southern 
part of the peninsula and established the Kingdom of 
the Two Sicilies. France and Spain at times had 
possessions in Italy, and a large portion was once 

incorporated into Austria. For three centuries the 
potentates of Europe were accustomed to ask^ " What 
action shall we take in Italy?" During the greater 
part of the eighteenth century, Italy was at the dis- 
posal of Europe, furnishing a country wherein conven- 
ient principalities were found for throneless princes. 
In twenty-one years, Sicily changed masters four 
times ; Parma, tiiree times in seventeen years. Napo- 
leon I. created a kingdom in Northern Italy. In 1816 
the peninsula was again divided among pnnces, and 
was dominated over by Austria. Not until 1860 
was the kingdom of Italy finally established by 
Victor Emmanuel, King of Piedmont Ten years 
later, the State of the Church disappeared from the 
map of Italy, and "United Italy" was perfected. 
During the polyarchy, Italy was the cradle of the 
Renaissance in art, in letters, in diplomatic institu- 
tions, in banking, and in conmierce. It would appear 
an extraordinarily ambitious undertaking to write 
the history of such a country and its people in a sin- 
gle volume ; yet Mrs. Augusta Hale Gifford, in her 
" Italy, her People and their Story *' (Lothrop Pub- 
lishing Company), has not only furnished a worthy 
companion volume to her deservedly popular "Ger- 
many, her People and their Story," but has suc- 
ceeded in giving a readable account of the people 
who have occupied the peninsula from Roman times 
down to the present day, throughout all the vicissi- 
tudes of their political goverment, — a people who 
have been distinguished in the fields of art, letters^ 
music, and government Very naturally, the first part 
of the work (about 400 pages ) is largely drawn from 
Gibbon's " Decline and Fall," and brings the history 
down to the time of Theodoric. A single chapter 
of the second part serves for the course of history 
from Theodoric to Charlemagne, more than five cen- 
turies. Nine chapters serve for the interesting but 
complicated history of the country to the Napoleonic 
era. From 1792 to the present time, the most 
interesting period, during which time the '^Italian 
Question" was continually before the world, the 
history is given with considerable attention to de- 
tails, and altogether the volume is of exceptional 
value both from its historical accuracy and its pop- 
ular style. — Mr. Hemy Dwight Sedgwick, in his 
" Short History of Italy" (Houghton, Mifflin & Co. ), 
has not undertaken such an ambitious task as Mrs. 
Gifford's. He takes up the history in the year 476 
and closes with the last year of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. He has a good sense of proportion, and good 
ideas of historical perspective ; he writes in a vivid 
style, and possesses a keen sense of humor which 
contributes not a little to the entertaining quality of 
his book. Altogether, his volume, by no means as 
small as its name might indicate, is entitled to a 
place in the front rank of " short histories." A 
chronological table of the Popes and Emperors, a 
genealogical table of the Medici, a skeleton table of 
the Kings of the Two Sicilies, and an admirably 
selected list of books for general reading, g^ive Mr. 
Sedgwick's volume permanent value as a book of 




The foremott In writinc: of a man whose thoroueh- 

Mnglish thinker . ^ . j v 

from Bacon gO^g egoism was tempered by none 

to Hume. too benevolent a spirit, and whose 

chief claim to influence upon contemporary English 
thought was his power to aroose opposition, it is per- 
haps not unnatnral that the biographer's tone should 
contain a note of defense. Sir Leslie Stephen, who 
has written a life of Thomas Hobbes for the " En- 
glish Men of Letters " series (Macmillan), evidently 
felt that his subject was in need of appreciation, 
and that the reading public ought to become better 
aoqoainted with ^'the most conspicuous English 
thinker in the whole period between Bacon and 
Home/' Hobbes belonged distinctly to the period 
in which he lived, and is indeed a product of it. Out 
of its spirit of scientific investigation grew his ma- 
terialism ; out of the disturbed political situation in 
England g^rew his famous theory of sovereignty as 
embodied in ''The Leviathan"; and out of these 
conditions, added to the struggle between Church and 
State, grew his somewhat strange conception of mo- 
rality. His present biographer tells us that he had 
''formed and begun to execute a remarkable plan. 
He intended, like a sound logician, to lay down the 
first principles of scientific inquiry, to apply them to 
what we should now call psychology, setting forth 
the laws of human nature, and finally to found upon 
this basis a science corresponding to modern soci- 
ology." His point of view is essentially scientific ; 
the method of Euclid impressed and influenced him 
greatly, as did also the fact that the one universal 
phenomenon is motion. Since he developed all hds 
conclusions from "undeniable first principles" (as 
he called them), we are tempted to look forward 
and arbitrarily class him with the later continental 
rationalists. His actual physical speculations, admits 
hb biographer, can have no interest except as speci- 
mens of early guessing, and his theology is practi- 
cally of no value. But his political theory is by no 
means so easily disposed of, and stands out, even 
to-day, coherent and logical. Sir Leslie Stephen has 
smnmarized it with care and precision, and has dis- 
cussed it with interest 

Literary Ger- With the publication of " Young Ger- 
^^^,.{^ many" ( Macmillan ) , the sixth volimie 

iMi century. of the ^ Main Currents in Nineteenth 
Century Literature," by Dr. Georg Brandes, the task 
of presenting that great critical work to English 
readers is completed. The task has been long- 
delayed, and its full accomplishment is a noteworthy 
event Although the average age of the six volumes 
is upwards of thirty years, their vitality has suffered 
litUe impairment witii the lapse of time, and we may 
read them to-day with almost the zest with which 
we made their acquaintance in the seventies. The 
period of this concluding volume of the work lies 
between the Congress of Vienna and the great rev- 
olutionary years of the mid-century. Heine is the 
central figure in this act of the literary drama, 
while among the lesser performers are B(}me, Hegel, 
Menzel, Lnmermann, Gutzkow, and Freiligrath. " It 

is a mighty panorama, this, which the study of the 
feelings and thoughts of Germany, first oppositionist, 
then revolutionary, between 1815 and 1848, unrolls 
to our view." And it grows ever in interest, up to 
the culminating scene of 1848, when ^' a long shud- 
der (of pain and at the same time of relief) passed 
through the whole of Grermany. It was as if a win- 
dow had been opened, and air had reached the lungs 
of Europe." This year of " great spiritual signifi- 
cance " is in literature " the red line of separation 
that divides our century and marks the beginning 
of a new era." It is difficult to keep within bounds 
our admiration for the energy, the insight, and the 
profound philosophical basis of this master-work of 
criticism. A single pregnant sentence may be quoted 
from the final chapter : " Between the years 1830 and 
1840 something has been happening quietly, deep 
down in men's nunds — Goethe's poetry and Goethe's 
philosophy of life, at first championed exclusively 
by enthusiastic women, have been steadily gaining 
influence over the cultivated, making them proof 
against theological impressions but receptive to all 
great human ideas. The cult of Goethe leads by 
degrees, even in the case of women, to the cult of 
political liberty and social reform." The impact 
of this work upon the alert minds to which it came 
in the seventies, both as an inspiration and as a 
trumpet-call to renewed spiritual endeavor, may best 
be illustrated by what Dr. Ibsen wrote the author 
just after the appearance of the first volume. '' I 
must turn to what has lately been constantly in my 
thoughts, and has even disturbed my sleep. I have 
read your Lectures. No more dangerous book could 
fall into the hands of a pregnant poet. It is one of 
those works which place a yawning gulf between 
yesterday and to-day. After I had been in Italy, 
I could not understand how I had been able to exist 
before I had been there. In twenty years, one will 
not be able to comprehend how spiritual existence 
at home was possible before these lectures. . . . Tour 
book is not a history of literature according to the 
old ideas, nor is it a history of civilization. I will 
not trouble to find a name for what it really is. It 
reminds me of the gold-fields of California when 
they were first discovered, which either made mil- 
lionaires of men or ruined them." 

LouUiana om " ^o^^^^na, a Record of Expansion " 
an American is the title of the latest issue in the 
eomvumweaUh. ixseful " American Commonwealths " 
series (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). The author, Mr. 
Albert Phelps, a native of New Orleans, has based 
his entire narrative upon a close study of the origi- 
nal sources of Louisiana history, and the result is a 
very good account of the position that Louisiana has 
occupied in the history of American settlement and 
the expansion of American institutions. It is worthy 
of note that throughout the work two important points 
are emphasized : the significance of the Mississippi 
Valley in the history of American development ; and 
the effect of negro slavery and its aftermath upon 
political and social problems. In developing the im- 



[March 1^ 

portance of Louisiana as the key to the Mississippi 
basin, Mr. Phelps gives a full and interesting descrip- 
tion of the French and the Spanish domination over 
the lower Mississippi Valley, the continual pressure 
of the Anglo-Americans against the southwestern 
frontier, and the final annexation and absorption of 
the territory into the Union. The absolute neces- 
sity, political, commercial, and geographical, of the 
possession of the Mississippi yalley to the states of 
the North is shown to have been one of the fatal 
causes of weakness to the Confederacy. On slavery 
and the problems growing out of it, especially as com- 
plicated by Louisiana conditions, the author writes 
with full knowledge and keen insight The institu- 
tion of negro slavery and its effects are traced from 
colonial times to the present day. Like others 
who have studied the race-question thoroughly, Mr. 
Phelps has come to the conclusion that there " never 
was a negro problem," but that the mulatto is the 
really important factor in the so-called race problem, 
the black negro seldom or never being troublesome 
unless made so temporarily by white or mulatto 
leaders. As to the future of the negro, the author 
thinks that it is by no means assured ; the negro finds 
it increasingly difficult to compete with the better 
equipped white man in the struggle for existence. 
A fact set forth in this account, not generally known, 
is that the Spanish rule over Louisiana was much 
better than that of France, and better than the early 
American administration in the territory. Seldom 
remembered, also, is the fact that in the American 
Revolution material assistance was given by Louisi- 
ana to the revolting colonies. Other phases of state 
history to which some attention is devoted are the 
gradual fusion of nationalities after the annexation, 
tiie Burr intrigue and the War of 1812, the troubles 
leading to secession, the Civil War period, the Butler 
rSgime in New Orleans, and the Reconstruction of 
the state from 1862 to 1876. The account of the 
Reconstruction, though brief, is the first satisfactory 
treatment of that tumultuous epoch in Louisiana 
history. Particularly useful is the examination and 
evaluation of the testimony taken by the various com- 
mittees of Congress that investigated conditions in 
that unhappy state between 1866 and 1876, during 
the reign of the mulatto and the ^^ carpet-bagger." 
The book closes with a short survey of present, con- 
ditions in the commonwealth. 

A good popular ^ ^^^^ <>^ ^^^^^ ^Y ^^^ ^asil de 
introductian to Selincourt, is a recent addition to that 
theartofuiouo, admirable series, "The Library of 
Art " ( imported by Scribner ) . Its author, in follow- 
ing the older traditional views, stands at variance 
with such modern critics as Perkins and Berenson. 
This fact is evident in his remarks on the Roman 
school of painters of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries and its relation to Giotto, as well as in his 
treatment of the chronology of the master's works. 
His arguments are not always the soundest, nor is his 
criticism as discriminating as it might be. Moreover, 
his treatment of the whole subject lacks thoroughness. 

The frescoes in the transept of the lower church at 
Assisi, which have been ascribed to Giotto by some of 
the best authorities, he puts aside as not genuine, with- 
out adequate discussion. He ignores not only the 
little panels in Munich, which have been seriously as- 
cribed to the great Florentine, but also the <^ Presen- 
tation " of Mrs. Grardner's collection in Boston, and 
the Giotto-like frescoes in San Antonio at Padua. 
Added to this he casts suspicion upon the genuine- 
ness of Giotto's altar-piece in the Louvre, without 
giving adequate reasons for such doubt. It would seem 
that the author lacks the trained eye and mind of the 
connoisseur, since he bases his conclusions upon the 
content of the pictures rather than upon that which 
forms the true basis of discriminating criticism — the 
details of technique and of style. Yet after all has 
been said, this is, within its limitations, a good book. 
Mr. De Selincourt very properly gives most space to 
his description of Giotto's panels in the sacristy of St 
Peters, and of his great frescoes at Assisi, at Flor- 
ence, and at Padua. His comments upon Ruskin's 
criticism of the Paduan frescoes are excellent He 
loves his subject, and his enthusiasm, which is prop- 
erly tempered, is just what is needed to inspire the 
reader with a desire to know more of the great Flor- 
entine and his art The prominence which the author 
gives to the subject-matter of the pictures, together 
with the literary flavor of much of his writing, makes 
his book an excellent popular introduction to the art 
of Giotto. So used, the text, accompanied as it is 
with many excellent illustrations, should prove of 
much value to beginners in the study of art, and may 
serve them better than would many a niore scientific 
but less enthusiastic work. 

Knoiuh life and Miss G. E. Mitton's Volume on " Jaiie 
way in Jane Austen and her Tmies (Putnam) 
Au9ten'9time, jg another attempt to piece out the 
very uneventful story of Miss Austen's life with 
an account of her eighteenth-«entury environment 
The few facts of her life have all been told many 
times before, and her friends and the places she 
visited have all been fully described. So Miss 
Mitton goes stiU further afield, making Jane Austen 
simply a good excuse for a rambling, discursive, 
but not uninteresting account of the manners and 
customs of her day. This survey, she argues, will 
be of especial value inasmuch as Miss Austen her- 
self, in her novels and her letters alike, makes so 
few references to the great events or the ephemeral 
interests that environed her. So Miss Mitton tells 
us how Jane travelled, and how she might have 
travelled if she had ventured on to the Continent, 
what she studied at school, how clergymen like her 
father were regarded, what people ate in those days 
and what they wore, how tiiey managed the serv- 
ant question, and how they escaped paying postage. 
Her contemporary authors get a chapter ; so does 
the British navy, apropos of her two brothers' con- 
nection with it. We are told how Jane and her 
heroines liked Bath, wliat adventures they had at 
Southampton, and what Jane saw and might have 




seen m her Tkito to LoiidoiL ** Society and Love* 
making'* is the title of a chapter describing the 
balls and ronts of the time, . telling of the exag- 
l^erated head-dresses of the ladies^, the gloves they 
aaved so carefully for the minuet, and the money 
they lost at cards. It ends with a circnmatantial 
aeoonnt of all Jane's love affairs, viewed in the light 
of the thecnies of love which her novels seem to 
enunciate. There are copious extracts from the 
novels and from Jane's letters, as well as from the 
standard biographies. But if the present work does 
not attain to, or claim, much orig^inality, it is a clever 
and readable compilation, with something about it 
of the sprightly freshness of Miss Austen's own work. 
Twenty illustrations reproduce portraits of the Aus- 
ten family and some of their fnends, and scenes of 
eontemporary life as some of the eighteenth century 
artists have depicted it. 


Mr. Augustine Birrell's latest volume, 
'<In the Name of the Bodleian" 
(Scribner), is characteristically full of 
quaint fancies, brilliant sallies of wit and humor, 
keenly-calculated judgments of men and things, and 
an erudition that pointedly avoids beaten highways to 
eoU its treasures from odd nooks and dusty comers. 
Mr. BirreU is a book-worm, but he rides his hobby 
BO gaily, with such a vivid appreciation of all the 
more human relations of life, that others besides 
book-worms find him suggestive and sympathetic. 
The tide-essay, a delightful account of the founda- 
tion and hisUny of the great Oxford library, has for 
its occasion the financial straits of that institution. 
The paper on '' First Editions " is a sensible and 
amnsiiig comment on the controversy between the 
cdleetor and the man who scoffs at him ; and '' Bos- 
well as Biographer^' is an analysis of Macaulay's 
and Carlyl^s respective estimates of '^ Bozzy," unin- 
spired by the publication of any more modem opin- 
ion. But generally the point of departure is a new 
book or a new edition. In '< Hannah More Once 
More " Mr. Birrell seizes the opportunity afforded 
Ipm by the publication of Marion Harland's biogra- 
phy to make an engaging apology for that other 
essay in which he rudely related how he buried Miss 
More's works, in nineteen calf-bound volumes, in his 
garden. A laudatory life of Tom Paine, by Mr. 
Moneure D. Conway, leads to a vigorous analysis 
of Paine's peculiar genius, and the republication of 
Matthew Arnold's '< Friendship's Garknd" to a 
trenebant description of ^< Our Great Middle Class." 
The subjects are of a more special interest, the treat- 
ment correspondingly slighter and more casual, than 
m the " Obiter Dicta "; but the new volume has its 
foil share of the fine flavor imparted by Mr. Birrell 
to everything he touches. 

imvrwino the ^*'- Budgett Moakin is the author of 
wrUninnan't a book on << Model Factories and Vil« 
^.ntmmjinflr*. i^ges " ( A. Wessels Co. ), which con- 
tuns an immense amount of information, both inter- 
esting and instructive, in regard to the progress made 

during the past century in miitters referring to thc^ 
welfare of the laborer and artisan. Even to those 
beet acquainted With ^he efforts that are beingf madd 
for better conditions of Jabor and of housing, much 
of Mr. Meakin's material will be entirely new, r^ 
markable, and enoooraging. Especially interesting 
is the well-supported statement that the merchants 
and mannfactiirerB who have led the movement iot 
industrial betterment have done so as business men 
and not as philanthropists, and the corollary that 
improved living and working opportunities have been 
the cause and not the result of increased business, 
success. Mi:. Meakin's book is divided into two parts^ 
the first section dealing largely with the elementary 
efforts made by nuinuf acturers whose buildings were' 
situated in the centres of cities toward ameliorating 
the conditions of light, air, sanitation, dining facili- 
ties, and recreation ; and with the efforts, more inher- 
ently successful, of those who had recognized the 
underlying principle that cheap land, away from the 
heart of the city, in a district tiiat might be suitably 
surrounded by tiie homes of the workingmen, was 
the essential for real improvement. The number ^Q|^, 
importance of the factories in America^ England, and 
on the Continent that have taken advantage of im- 
proved traffic facilities to avail themselves ff£ coimtry 
sites will be only less surprising than th^ photographs. , 
shown to illustrate the combined beauty and economy 
which is the result The second half of Mr. Meakin's, 
book deals with ^' Industrial Housing," and is prac- 
tically a supplement to the first part, since it illus- 
trates the success which manufacturers have had, in 
their various and varied schemes, toward surround- 
ing their workshops with ideal villages. The whole, 
book is strongly indicative of the trend toward 
cooperation that modern industry is taking. 

A dictionary '^^ ^* honest, as Hamlet remarks, is' 
of famout to be one man out of ten thousand. 

American: Xo be famous in the United States 
was of the same degree df rarity a few years ago, 
when the. first issue of << Who's Who in America" 
appeared. One out of five thousand is the present 
ratio, which should still be reasonably satbfactory, 
to the one. In other words, the eight thousand hi-, 
ographies of the first edition have become sixteen 
thousand in the fourth, now at hand from the house 
of Messrs. A. N. Marquis & Co. This volume, like- 
its predecessors, has been compiled and edited by 
Mr. John W. Leonard. A new feature is provided, 
by the inclusion of brief references to those men- 
tioned in the earlier issues, who have since died.' 
There are more than two thousand closely-printed 
pages in the present volume. We have exhausted' 
our vocabulary in testifying to the usefulness of this 
work in connection with the earlier editions, and will 
only repeat the simple statement that it is invaluable. . 
We particularly commend to the attention of judi>. 
cious readers tiie preface, which is a highly enter- 
taining essay. We may read therein, for exam}de, 
of the clannish indiyidual who submitted the names* 
of thirty-three of his relations as suitable for indu- 



[March 1^ 

tion, of the female '< grafter" who offered (for a 
eonsideradon) to secure recognition for unsuspected 
genius, and of the unpublished poet whose ^< blank 
(not to say blankety-blank) verse" about Lincoln 
was offered in evidence that the writer belonged 
among the inmiortalB. For these, and other delightful 
matters, we thank Mr. Leonard, aside from his ser- 
vices in providing the harassed editor with an indis- 
pensable book of reference. 

Some American ^ Collection of brief biographical 
women of a sketches, characterized by a real in- 

hy-oonedav, y^^^^ ^f subject-matter and a pleas- 
antly unconventional manner of treatment, is Mr. 
Seth Curtia Beach's '« Daughters of the Puritans " 
(American Unitarian Association ) . Catherine Maria 
Sedgwick, Mary Lowell Ware, Lydia Maria Child, 
Dorothea Lynde Dix, Margaret Fuller, Harriet 
Beecher Stowe, and Louisa M. Alcott are the par- 
ticular women about whom Mr. Beach has chosen to 
write. Of nearly every one of them an authoritative 
biography or memoir of some sort has been written, 
and one purpose of these essays is to call attention 
^rt^iire elaborate studies and to stimulate interest 
Ik them. €bat«i the interesting disclosures of these 
sketches, which are sIlHfiHMipersonality rather than 
more fonaal and studied biografd^iBtitaLfHtire 
d^lhii MTl;y lueteenth century which they inciden- 
tally convey. Life was very simple in those far-off 
days, and literature, too, was simple and unsophis- 
ticated ; but neither life nor literature ever lacked 
serious inspiration. Nearly every author was also a 
reformer, with a pet cause to write for and to work 
for in other ways. Probably few of Mr. Beach's 
readers will care to read a book about each of the 
seven women with whom he deals ; but there is not 
one in the list about whom good Americans should 
be willing to remain in complete ignorance. 


Mr. Ernest Newman's volume of « Musical Studies" 
(John Lane Co.) is made up largely of critical essays 
previously printed in the leading American musical and 
literary journals. The six chapters in the book are de- 
voted to ** Berlioz, Romantic and Classic," << Faust in 
Music," ** Programme Music," ** Herbert Spencer and 
the Origin of Music," ** Maeterlinck and Music," and 
« Richard Strauss and the Music of the Future." Mr. 
Newman's groupings of principles and motives are on a 
broad and comprehensive scale, and are free from the 
ambiguity that mars so many works on musical criticism. 

Professor Harald Hoffding's " The Problems of Phil- 
osophy " (Macmillan) is not an abridgment of the au- 
thor's philosophical theories, but rather a defence of the 
four problems that he holds to be the basis of philo- 
sophical thought, namely: The problem of the nature of 
consciousness (the psychological problem), the problem 
of the validity of knowledge (the logical problem), the 
problem of the nature of being (the cosmological prob- 
lem), and the problem of value (the moral and religious 
problem). While Professor Hoffding is one of the most 
thoughtful and learned scholars in his particular branch 

of knowledge, he is not, even in his *< History of Modern 
Philosophy," distinctly lucid and simple. And in this 
new volume, an abstract discussion of abstract prinei^ 
pies, his style carries him beyond the possibility of ac- 
companiment by the layman. But since the book is, in 
the nature of the case, intended for philosophers and 
teachers of philosophy, its usefulness will not be much 
impaired by its abstruseness. 

A little manual dealing with the life and art of Ra^ 
phael has been prepared for the use of art students by 
Mrs. Julia Cartwright Ady, and is issued as the fomv 
tfionih volume of the « Popular Library of Art " (Dai- 
ton). Mrs. Ady is accustomed to the preparation of far 
more elaborate studies than this, but she uses the smaller 
space at her conmmnd with much discrimination, writ- 
ing what is, within its limited compass, a singularly 
complete account of the character and development of 
Raphael's work. She is of course thoroughly familiar 
witii modem critical opinion, and as far as it goes her 
work is exact and scholarly. Fifty reproductions of the 
artist's work illustrate the volume. 

Mr. John Sampson has edited for the Oxford Univer- 
sity Press (Henry Frowde) "The Poetical Works of 
William Blake." This is " a new and verbatim text from 
the manuscript, engraved, and letter press originals,'^ 
and includes, by way of apparatus, both variorum read- 
ings and bibliographical material The text of Blake haa 
been so overlain with the emendations of (not always- 
judicious) editors that its restoration was highly desir- 
able, and this Mr. Sampson has scrupulously done for 
us. Punctuation is all that this editor has ventured to- 
add to Blake's originals, and this could hardly have been 
omitted. We cannot be too grateful for this beautiful 
and scholarly edition of the great mystic. 

Poetry, romance, art, architecture, history of wars 
between individuals, factions, and races, — all these play 
their part in Mrs. Janet Ross's « Florentine Palaces and 
their Stories " (Dutton). Mrs. Ross has every qoalifl-' 
cation for writing a book of this kind. Herself a resident 
of Florence for thirty-five years, and an associate of its 
best citizens, ftunilar with all their traditions and customs^ 
and moreover a diligent student of their archives, she 
has compiled a book which takes precedence of any other 
in the same field. The number of palaces described is 
seventy-six. A very complete index renders the mass of 
tradition available for ready reference, and the illustra- 
tions from drawings by Miss Adelaide Marchi help to 
make up an exceedingly attractive volume. 

Seven new volumes have recently been added to the 
well-known " Newnes' Art Library " (Wame). These 
are bound uniformly with the rest of the series, in boards- 
with cloth back, gilt lettered. Each volume contains a 
frontispiece in photogravure, about sixty full-page half- 
tone plates, and a brief textual comment. A number 
of the half-tones in the volume on Rossetti are made 
more effective by being mounted on rough grey mats. 
Mr. Ernest Radford furnishes the text for this volume, 
and Mr. Malcohn Bell writes of Utian, Mr. P. 6. 
Konody of Filippino Lippi, Mrs. Arthur Bell of Tinto- 
retto, Mr. Ars^ne Alexandre of Puvis de Chavaanes, 
Mr. Henry Miles of « The Later Work of Titian," and 
Mr. J. Ernest Phythian of « The Pre-Raphaelite Bro- 
therhood." These introductory sketches are largely bio- 
graphical, except the last-named, which is an exposition 
of the motives and relative positions of Madox Brown, 
Holman-Himt, MUlais, and Rossetti. Beginners in art 
study will especially appreciate this very attractive series. 





«Sennoxi BrieiB," by Henry Ward Beedier, ia pnb- 
luhed at the Hlgrim IVesa, New York. It oonsiats of 
tnoBeriptions from Beecher's manuscript notes made for 
sermons preached during the years 1864-6. 

Attention haTing been newly recalled to « Die Waf- 
fen Kieder," the historical romance of the Baroness yon 
Snttner, by the recent award of the Nobel peace prise, 
Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. now republish their trans- 
Istion of the work, as made by Mrs. Alice Asbury 
Abbott many years ago. This yersion is entitled *< Ground 
Anns," which is both idiomatic and exact. 

"Model English Prose/' compiled by Professor 
George R. Carpenter, and published by the MacmiUan 
Co., IB a yolume of selections for the use of secondary 
sehools. The selections are not only representatiye of 
their authors and periods, but are also extremely inter- 
esting on their own account, and it is seldom that we 
ue offered a school-book which so completely deseryes 
to be described as good reading. 

The English <« Who 's Who " for 1906, published by 
the Macmillan Co., calls for about the same sort of 
oomment as preyious issues. There are many new 
biographies, and the selection of American names is as 
esprieious as erer. Remoyal of many tables to the 
eompanion « Wbo 's Who Tear Book " has kept the work 
wiUdn practicable dimensions, although the biographies 
DOW fm nearly two thousand pages. 

EDoooraged fay the success which attended the publi- 
estioQ in the original of Xayier de Maistre's ** Voyage 
nftonr de ma Chambre " in the series of Riyerside Prms 
EditioDs, Messrs. Houghton, MifBin & Co. will shortly 
bring out Bemardin de Saint-Pierre's '' Paul et Yirginie " 
in the French text of the original first edition. The new 
edition will be set in type of the Didot style, imported 
from Paris, and is to be embellished with reproductions 
of the engrayings in the first French edition. These 
iUastrations are not facsimiles, but haye beenre&igrayed 
OB wood by M. Lamont Brown. The edition is limited 
to 280 numbered copies. 

An important publishing transfer recently effected was 
tbat whereby Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Co. took oyer the 
periodical and book business of the United Educational 
Company, formerly E. L. Kellogg & Co. and E. O. 
Vaile. The periodicals include the well-known << Teach^ 
er's Magazine," a practical assistant and representatiye 
of teachers in the primary, intermediate, and grammar 
gndes throughout the country, published monthly with 
ilbutrstions; <^The School Jounial," a weekly journal 
presenting new moyements in education with special 
reference to intermediate and secondary schools; '< Our 
Times," a weekly journal of current eyents, for general 
leaden, and also adapted for practical school use; and 
** Educational Foundation," a monthly magazine of peda- 
gogy. These periodicals, it will be seen, ooyer the en- 
tare work from the primary to the end of the secondary 
Mhools. The large and important list of pedagogicid 
books, teachers' helps, supplementary books, and school 
entertainments includes " The Teacher's Library," a se- 
ries of practical professional books for teachers, oontain- 
ittg oyer twenty yolumes; ''The Teacher's Month by 
Monlh Books," for primary grades; and the '<Annuid 
Sdiool Directories," fifteen in number, founded by 
£. 0. Vaile. It is understood that the plans of Messrs. 
Barnes & Co. include many important improyements 
and deyelopments of both the periodicals and the book 
Hst along approyed educational lines. 

Topics is IjEAdisq Pebiobicaxs. 

M arch, 19 06, 

ATJcQltoie, adentiflc. Oountess of Warwiok. No. American, 
Albright Gallery of BollUo. Frank Fowler. Bcribner, 
Antelope's Protaetion of Its Yoiuv. H. H. Gross. Century, 
Arab Bandits. A Niffht'o Ride with. C.W.Forlonff. Harper. 
Art in the Street. Sylyester Baxter. Century, 
Artists, Western. Society of. J. S. Dickenon. World To-day, 
Athletics* Amateur. OomineroiaUiinsr of. World To-day, 
Athletics, What Snffland Oan Teach Us in. Mev, of Jteviews. 
Automobiles for Everybody. H. B. Haines. World*t Work, 
Automobilist. Risrhts of the. JohnFarson. World To-day. 
Average Man, The, and his Money. World*t Work, 
Baker. Captain, of Jamaica. B. P. Lyle, Jr. World To-day, 
Birds that Nest in Colonies. W. L. Finley. World To-day, 
Boston. Henry James. North American^ 
British Free Trade. Alfred Mosely. Review of Reviews, 
British West Indies. Future of . W. P. liyingstone. No,Amer, 
Boocaneen I Have Known. Lloyd Buohsnan. Lippineott. 
Chain Gsnc— Shall it Go T G. H. Clarke. World To-day, 
Children's Court in American City Life. Review of Reviews. 
China and the Far East. H. P. Judson. World To-day, 
Chinese Boycott, Reason for. C. Chaille-Long. World To-day. 
Chinese Special Mission, The. J. W. Jenks. Rev, of Reviews. 
Colorado Glacier, A. Junius Henderson. Harper, 
Commercial Machiavellianism. Ida M. Tarbell. McClure. 
Consular Service, Proposed Beoisanlsation of the. No, Amer. 
Denmark, Late King of. Edwin BJorkman. Rev, of Reviews. 
Earth, Measuring the. Edward MarahaU. World To-day, 
Filipino Labor Supply. George H. Guy. Review of Reviews. 
Fletcheriam, Growth of. I. F. Maroosson. World's Work, 
France, Anatole. Bradford Torrey. Atlantic. 
Geneva, University of. Charles F. Thwinc. Harper, 
German Army, The. William G. FitiGerald. World^s Work. 
German Emperor, The. A. Maurice Low. Atlantic. 
Germany and U. S., Commercial Relations between. No, Amer, 
Girl's Industrial School of Indianapolis. World To-day, 
Hay. John. A Friendship with. J. B. Bishop. Century, 
Ibez-Shootinf in Baltisan. J. C. Grew. Harper, 
Immigration. Sane Regulation of. Review of Reviews, 
Ingelow, Jean, Recollections of. G. B. Stuart Ldppincott, 
Ireland. Deserted. Plummer F. Jones. World To-day, 
Jeffereon and " The Rivals." Francis Wilson. Bcribner, 
Kentuckr Cardinal, Ways of the. Jennie Brooks. Harper. 
Labor, Some Equivocal Rights of . George W.Alger. Atlantic, 
Le Braz, Anatole. Carroll Dunham. Review of Reviews, 
Liberal Policy, The. H. Campbell-Bannerman. World To-day, 
Life Insurance Corruption. "Q.P." World's Work, 
Lincoln Farm, The. Review of Reviews, 
Lincoln, Some Impressions of. E. S. Nadal. Bcribner. 
Looldng Backward. Clara Morris. McClure. 
Man and Beast. Samuel H. Brury. Atlantic, 
Mani Bible, The Long-Lost. M. Bloomfield. Harper. 
Money Stringency, Cause of the. A. B. Hepburn. No, American, 
Moros, Preparing Our, for Government. R.L.BulIard. Atlantic. 
Navy, Our. An Aminrifian Citizen. North American, 
New York Cnstom-House, The. Charles De Kay. Century. 
New York Revisited. Henry James. Harper. 
OraageOrowing in California. Bertha M. Smith. World's Work. 
Farii, Housing of Large Families in. Review of Reviews, 
Pittsburg and Brie Barge Canal. W. F. McClure. World To-day, 
Flays, Publication of . Brander Matthews. North American. 
Public Schools, A Lesson for the. Adele M.Shaw. World's Work. 
Railioad Freight Rates — A Sidelight. Review of Reviews, 
i^i^ft*^. The President and the. Cy Warman. World To-day. 
Red Man's Last RoU-Call. CM. Harvey. Atlantic, 
Religion, Significant Books of . George Hodges. Atlantic, 
Road. The Flowing. Henry Norman. Bcribner, 
Roumania, The Jews in. Carmen Sylva. Century, 
Round-up, A Day with the. N. C Wyeth. Bcribner. 
Rural Free Delivery, A Rural View of . North American, 
Sahara, Three Unarmed Men Cross the. Review of Reviews. 
Shakespeare and the Plastic Stage. JohnCorbin. Atlantic. 
Shipping Legislation, Pending. W. E. Humphrey. No. Amer. 
Shop-Girl, The. livy R. Cranston. World To-day. 
Sicily, the Garden of the Sun. William Sharp. Century . 
Soldiers, Pay of Our. Capt. E. Anderson. Review of Reviews. 
Steam Engine's New Rival. F. A. Wilder. World To-day. 
Steel Rail, Anatomy of a. H. C. Boynton, Harper. 
Team and the Tezans. M. G. Cunnilf. World's Work, 
Tuberoolosis among the Sionz Indians. Review of Reviews, 
Turgot, Statesmanship of. Andrew D. White. Atlantic, 
Walpole, Letters of . Gamaliel Bradford, Jr. Atlantic, 
War, Is the United States Prepared for T North A merican. 
Wealth, Love of, and PuUio Service. F.W.Taussig. Atlantic, 
Western Camps, In. Bishop E. Talbot Harper. 



[March 1, 

IjISt of Kew Books. 

[The following list, containing 47 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issueJ] 

In the Sixties and Seventies: ImpressionB of Literary 

People and Others. By Laura Hain Friswell. Large 8vo, 

gilt top, uncut pp. 381. Herbert B. Turner & Co. 13.50 net. 
Columbus the Dleooverer. By Frederick A. Ober. IUub., 

12mo, pp. 800. "Heroes of American History." Harper & 

Brothers. $1. net. 
The Gtooret of Hexoism : A Memoir of Henry Albert Harper. 

Illus.. 12mo, uncut, pp. 161. Fleming H. BeveU Co. H. net. 
Joaiah Waxren, the First American Anarchist : A Sociological 

Study. By William Bailie. With portraits, 16mo, uncut, 

pp. 186. Small, Maynard & Co. 


The Jeffersonian System, 1801-1811. By Edward Ghanning, 
Ph.D. With portrait and maps, 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 80O. 
"The American Nation." Harper & Brothers. 

JoQxnalB of the Continental Oongresa, 1774-1789. Bdited 
trom the original records in the Library of Congress by 
Worthington Chaunoey Ford. Vol. IV., Jan. 1-June 4, 1776. 
4to, uncut, pp. 416. Qovemment Printing Offloe. 

The Spirit of Bome : Leaves trom a Diary. By Vernon Lee. 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 205. John Lane Co. $1.60 net. 
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[March 1, 1906. 

Fox Duf field & Company's 
New and Forthcoming Books 

The Eternal Spring 

Author of " The Forerunner," " The Folly of Others." 
^^ A love story of unusual psychological power is set forth in 
Mrs. Hapgood's third book, ' The Eternal Spring.* The plot 
centres round three women and a man. ... It is unfair to dis- 
close it. Its merit lies in its psychological penetration, its clear- 
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^^ Its enduring charm lies in the author's instinctive taste and 
perception."— CA/Vfl'^^ Evening Post. 

" Refined, subtle, artistic — a clever piece of fiction, written in a 
style always sympathetic and graceful." — Neiv Tori Evening Sun, 

Illustrated by Blendon Campbell. $i.JO postpaid. 

The Way of an Indian 


Author of " Men with the Bark On," " Crooked Trails," etc. 

^^ One of the cleverest books Mr. Remington has ever done. A study of a genuine Indian brave, 

the Red Man as he really was. With fourteen illustrations, including a frontispiece in color, by 

the author. $1^50 postpaid. 

The Ghosts of Their Ancestors 

By WEYMER JAY MILLS, author of "Caroline of Courtlandt Street." 
^^A delightful satire on ancestor worship in America. It will make all those unfortunates 
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fVith illustrations in color and many decorations in black and white by John Rae. 
$1.25 postpaid. To be published March 31. 

Reminiscences of My Childhood and Youth 

A delightful book of recollections, whose intrinsic charm is as great as its literary and critica 
importance, which is of the first order. $2.50 net ; postage additional. Ready in May. 

The Book of Tea 

By OKAKURA-KAKUZO, author of "The Awakening of Japan." 
An interpretation of Japanese character, by one of the most talented of living Japanese. Articles 
in the magazines by Mr. Okakura have excited the widest admiration of his style and peculiar feli- 
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$1.50 net; postage additional. Ready in ApriL 



Spring announcement Number 

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l^ilerErs Criiirism, §bms5ipOfn, Eiijtr Information* 

ito™,Bv }rai5««..^xi,. CHICAGO, MARCH 16, 1906. ^^^l^aSer^' { ^ISTiJi^Tr 




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^■R ¥¥Ml.lEif\ 0\i#V^ I I niuatrated. $1.00 net. Postage extra. 

This new volume in the Literary Lives Series is a briUiant, sympathetic, and accurate 
biography written with all of Mr. Lang's skill and charm. 

lOQPPU iPirirpDeriM ^y francis wilson 

U\/Obrn UEiPrEinOV^PI lUustrated. $2.00net. Postage extra. 

Intimate and delightful reminiscences of Joseph Jefferson, his conversations, his opinions 
on literature and art — especially the art of the actor, — told by Francis Wilson, the 
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With an introduction by Kate Douglas Wiooin. 
The experiences of a group of wholesome, natural, and delightfully amusing children, 
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■"t PIEi¥¥ rt\f\ EiMO I $1.60 net. Postage extra. 

An illuminating and thought-provoking exposition of certain phases of the Far Eastern 

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TEACHER IN THE PHILIPPINES maBtr«ted. tl.aOnet. Po««eext™. 

A vivid, clear, and most interesting account of the work of American school-teacher 
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This book won the ' Bross prize of $6000 at Lake Forest College. <* It is the most 
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THE DEVELOPMENT OF By Frederick j. bliss 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION $1.60net. Postage extra. 

An able and accurate account of exploration and explorers in Palestine and Syria 
from the earliest times to the present day. 


166 THE DIAL [March 16, 




" Glad's * cheerfle ' philoBophy is sure to become contagions. * If things ain*t cheerfle, people's got to be,* and other 
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written with all the author's intelligent art for yivid, strong, and dramatic writing, and is a little masterpiece of its 
kind."— i^gw York Globe, Blustrated in color. $1.00. 


ORNITH FARM Being th« Full Narrative of "Tha Stolen 

By FRANCES POWELL, author of "The House on Story" 


The dramatic story of a unique imprisonment, under ^ dramatic and yivid story of the romance in the Ufe of 

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The entertaining adventures of an original small boy and ^J ^^ WARMAN 

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A thoroughly popular and yet authoritative account of the Apostolic Age, the Spread of the Gospel, and the Begin- 
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Bv GEORGE P FISHER ^^ '^ ^' BUELL. New edition. With an additional 

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Translated by Fraiik Thillt and W. W. Elwako 
A systematic account of the nature, org^anization, and historical development of the (German University. It offers the 
most helpful, practical guide to the solution of University problems ever published. 

$3.00 net; postage extra. 


1906.] THE DIAL 167 





THE MAYOR OF WARWICK By Hsbbbbt M. Hopkins. 

A IniUiaat noTel of oontempormiT American life. With frontispiece, in color, by Henry Hatt. $1JE0. 

THE EVASION By Buobnia Bbooks Fbothinghav. 

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BETWEEN TWO MASTERS By Gavalibl Bbadfobd, Jb. 

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CALMIRE : Man and Katubb. By Hbnby Holt. 

A widely discnsied novel hitherto published anonymously. (Sixth edition, rerised.) HJSO. 

STURMSEE: Man and Man. By Hbnby Holt. 

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WHAT IS RELIGION ? By Hbnby S. Pbttchett. 

Ave vigorous, broad-minded addresses to students by the Px^esident of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
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caeai<4ighted esnys by the President of Bowdoin College on American college life, methods, and ideals. |l.fiO net. 


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THE SUBCONSCIOUS By Josbph Jastbow. 

A distinctive contribution to an interesting phase of deecriptlye psychology. 

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168 THE DIAL [Maxchie, 


Nicanor, Teller of Tales 

By C. Bryson Taylor. With five plates in full color and decorations in tint 
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Well-planned, well-written, and carried out in a broad heroic style, " Nicanor** has the true romantic qualty, 
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For the Soul of Rafael 

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This new book by the author of << Told in the Hills ** is certain to have an immediate success. It is a glowing 
and picturesque romance of Old California, with a marked dramatic quality. The characters are all of the 
fine aristocratic Spanish type, at a period when Americans were regarded as godless invaders. It will be 
found a story of strong passions and a splendid renunciation. 

Dick Pentreath 

By Katharine Tynan, author of "The Dear Irish Girl," "Julia," etc- With 
four illustrations in pen-and-ink by George Alfred Williams. Large i2mo, $1.25. 

This new English story has more popular qualities than any of Miss Tynan* s many successful novels. She can 
always be counted on for a delightful expression of humor and sentiment which few writers in her field can equaL 

Literature of Libraries 

17th and 1 8th Centuries. Edited by Henry W. Kent, Librarian of the Grolier 
Club, and John Cotton Dana, Librarian of the Newark Public Library. Sold 
only in sets. Regular edition, limited to 250 sets, $12.00 net. Large paper edition^ 
limited to 25 sets, $25.00 net. 

Vol. I. *< Concerning the Duties and Qualifications of a Librarian/* Vol. II. "The Reformed Library 
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authorities on these subjects. The volumes in this series will be beautifully printed at the Merry mount Press. 

The Ghost in Hamlet 

And Other Essays in Comparative Literature. By Dr. Maurice Francis Egan. 
i6mo, $1.00 net. 

As professor of English at the Catholic University of Washington, Dr. Egan is well known both as a 
thorough scholar and a charming writer. The other titles aret Some Phases of Shakespearean Interpretation; 
Some Pedagogical Uses of Shakespeare; Lyrism in Shakespeare*s Comedies; A Definition of Literature; The 
Ebb and Flow of Romance; The Greatest of Shakespeare* s Contemporaries; Imitators of Shakespeare; The 
Puzzle of Hamlet. 

Old Tales from Rome 

By Alice Zimmern, author of " Old Tales from Greece." Fully illustrated. 
i2mo, $1.25. 

A popular presentation of some of the femous myths and legends. The book is divided into three parts, the 
first being given to «The Wanderings of ^neas/* the second to << Early Days of Rome,** and the third to 
"The Transformation.** 


1906.] THE DIAL 189 


Panama to Patagonia 

The Isthmian Canal and the West Coast Countries of South America. By 
Charles M. Pepper, author of " To-morrow in Cuba." With new maps and 
numerous illustrations. Large 8vo, $2.50 net. 

The author b a distinguished newspaper man who has travelled extensively, especially in the Latin-American 
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point out to the American commercial world the enormous advantages coming to this country from South 
America through the construction of the Panama Canal. 

The Glory Seekers 

The Romance of Would-Be Founders of Empire in the Early Days of the South- 
west. By William Horace Brown. Illustrated. Square 8vo, $1.50 net. 

These are ules of the daring adventurers who became notorious as the leaders of filibustering expeditions into 
the region which now forms the State of Texas. The author, William Horace Brown, knows his subject 
and endeavors to present a truthful account, with the statement that << justice and patriotism were not always 
the prompters of ^eir actions.** There is no question but that their exploits were dramatic and picturesque, 
and the narrative of them is not only instructive, but makes highly entertaining reading. 

Hawaiian Yesterdays 

By Dr. Henry M. Lyman. With numerous illustrations from photographs. 
Large 8vo, $2.00 net. 

A delightfully written account of what a boy saw of life in the Islands in the early *4o*s. The author was a 
distinguished Chicago physician, whose hthtr war a well-known missionary in Hawaii. His book is a most 
pertinent description of early conditions in a part of the world in which Americans are becoming more and 
more interested. 

Future Life 

In the Light of Ancient Wisdom and Modern Science. By Louis Elb£. With 
a portrait. i2mo, $1.20 net. 

This is the authorized translation of the famous book which has been creating so wide a stir in scienrific and 
religious circles throughout France, under the title "La Vie Future.** It will be received with widespread 
interest here, and will arouse very general discussion. The subject is one which is engaging not only scientists, 
but laymen, in ever-increasing numbers. This volume offers for the first time a complete presentation of all 
the available evidence hitherto to be found only in the most scattered and inaccessible forms. 

Remenyi, Musician and Man 

An Appreciation. By Gwendolyn Kelley and George P. Upton. With 
portraits. 8vo, $1.75 net. 

Miss Kelley was an intimate friend and devoted admirer of the famous Hungarian wizard of the violin, and 
he intrusted to her a number of biographical documents. To these have been added others contributed at 
her solicitation by his personal friends and members of his family, also some of his characteristic letters and 
literary sketches, the whole forming a volume of uncommon charm and a valuable work of reference. 


170 THE DIAL [March 16 


THE HEART OF THE RAILROAD By Profe«op frank parsons, pii.d., 

PROBLEM Author of " The City for the People." etc 

This hook revealB the facts in regard to railway favoritiflm and nnjnst diseriniiination. 12mo, doth. $1.50 net* 

THE FIGHT FOR CANADA By M«jor wiluam wood. 

Major Wood places the entire campaign of the fight for Canada on a new historical footing. With portraits, colored 
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The present work seeks to transfer the foundation of economics from wealth to happiness ; thus snhstitating vtilit»- 
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of pnhlic polity. Small 8to, doth. $2.90 net. 


iniL \Jr-lKJ-UI\lE^ yy I\l L iKCjOO Author of "SaUds. sandwiches, and Chafln* Dish Dainties," etc 

A hook of inestimable yalne in every household where a table girl is employed. With numerous illustrations in 
half-tone. 12mo, doth. $1.50 net. 


An exceedingly entertaining book by the great French astronomer. Dlustrated. 12mo, doth. $1.25 net. 

PETRARCH'S "TRIUMPHS." Special Limited Issue. -R^-uted by hknry boto. 

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THE GAME OF BRIDGE By fisher ambs. 

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1906] THE DIAL "1 


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[March 16, 

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174 THE DIAL [March 16, 


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[March 16, 

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182 THE DIAIj [March 16, 





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1906] THE DIAL 188 





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THE DIAL, ISne ArU BuUdino, ChieaQO. 


iToi 474. MARCH 16, 1906. Vd, XL. 



CELTIC UTERATUBK Charlts Leonard Moore . 186 


CELEBRITIES. Percy F. BickneU .... 188 


CAN DIPLOMACT. Frederic AuaHn Ogg . . 100 


ARTS. Frederick W, Gookin 102 


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For twenty-five centaries the stage of oar so-called 
drilized world was occupied by two great groape of 
aetoTS : Greek and Syrian they were, protagonists 
and antagonists, with chorus and semi-chorus from 
sarronnding tribes. They grew up side by side, 
they made their entrances separately, but soon they 
clashed and contended and wrought out the drama 
and spectacle of life. Occasionally they were swept 

aside by invading hordes — by Northern barbarism 
orMoslem culture, — ^but they soon regained their place 
in the centre of the stage, and to this day they are 
the dominant powers in our thought. Meanwhile 
what went on behind the scenes? 

It was not until toward the dose of the eighteenth 
century that the existence of vast poems and mighty 
systems of thought in India were revealed to the 
European world. Even to-day these great reservoirs 
of reason and imagination are hardly accessible to 
the student ; and they have not begun to flow over 
and fertilize the fidds of modem thought The 
intuitive profundity of many conceptions in Hindoo 
philosophy surpasses the reasoned deductions of Greek 
or Crerman metaphysic. And the closing scenes 
of the Mahabharata, at least, have a spiritual and 
ethical significance not equalled by any European 

About the same time the Teutonic race ''found 
itself" in the great myths of the Niebelungenlied 
and the Icelandic Sagas. And simultaneously the 
Celtic genius rose on the horizon, and spoke in a 
voice that thrilled Europe. MacPherson's Ossian, 
vague and confused as it is — full of interpolations 
which show the influence of Shakespeare and the 
classics, — has yet in it the fundamental characteris- 
tics of primitive and original literature. 

It must be remembered, however, that one branch 
of the Celtic myth tree had blossomed and bour- 
geoned long before, — had in fact become almost the 
main stem of English literature. The Arthurian 
legend was twice a changeling, for, bom in compara- 
tive simplicity or poverty in Wales, it was transported 
to France and decked with borrowed trappings of 
chivalry and Christianity. Then it was brought back 
by Malory, redacted by him, shorn of something of 
its over-blown glory, and made into the typical En- 
glish epic story. Milton indulged the dream of using 
the legend as the subject of his life-work, and it is 
perhaps a pity he did not finally choose it rather than 
the more high flying and difficult theme he under- 
took. At his hands we might have had something 
of the mystery and magic, the wild paganism, the 
primitive interpretation of nature and humanity, 
that is in the original Welsh legends. As it is we 
had to wait for Tennyson to make more prim and 
proper and conventional the already prim and proper 
and conventional version of Malory. For all the 
redactors of the Arthurian story have dealt as 
hardly with the Welsh originals as MacPherson did 


THE DlAl. 

[March 16, 

with his Irish ones. They transformed nature myths 
into chivalric romances and religious poems. While 
on one hand they deepened and humanized the 
legends, on another they wiped out all that was most 
characteristic of the C^tic nature. 

The originals, howeyer, remained, and it is hardly 
too much to say that their resuscitation and recogni- 
tion haye been the great literary find of the past fifty 
years. The Welsh cycle of legends and poetical 
relics came earliest into notice, and it is on these that 
the criticism of Renan and Arnold is mainly founded. 
Matthew Arnold's essay on Celtic Literature is ahouost 
the best critical treatise in the language, and it is 
certainly the most curious tour deforce of criticism 
which exists anywhere. Apparently he knew only 
a few words of Welsh, had examined only a few 
relics of Welsh literature, and was in absolute igno- 
rance of the great mass of Irish poetry. Tet by a 
diyination of genius which seems almost uncanny, 
he defined and described the Celtic genius as no one 
else has oyer succeeded in doing. Perhaps with the 
instinct of an artist for effect, he forced the note of 
difference, of uniqueness, in Celtic literature further 
than there is warrant for doing. It is difficult to 
belieye that the main characteristics that he found 
in this literature haye not existed in other litera- 
tures and in all ages. '< Melancholy," ^ Titanism " 
surely there is something of these qualities in the 
Bible and the Greek Tragedians, in Dante, Job, and 
Jeremiah. Prometheus, Orestes and CEdipus, the 
people of the Inferno, — these figures certainly 
express the emotions of pessimism and reyolt in a 
larger sense than Llywarch Hdn or Taliesin. And 
from the Iberian rather than from the Celtic race 
rose the arch-rebel, Don Juan. In style, too, it is 
pretty hard to differentiate the Celtic natural magic, 
which Arnold discoyered, from the charm of expres- 
sion in Sappho and Catullus. And the romantic inter- 
pretation of nature in the Celtic poetry ! Really there 
are fine things of this kind in the Bacch» of Euri- 
pides and in the wilder and weirder scenes of VirgiL 
Human gifts seem to be a pretty constant quantity, 
and one hesitates to belieye that an entirely new set 
of talents came in with the Celts. 

Howeyer, as this may be, the qualities which 
Arnold found in the Celtic genius are qualities of 
style — of persoualily . If one who has hardly more 
claim to scholarship in these matters may presume to 
judge, these qualities pertain rather to Welsh than 
to Irish literature. The Irish legends are the much 
larger body of important work ; they are destined, 
I think, to haye a greater future than the Welsh, 
but they are epic and impersonal. They are in many 
respects badly written. They haye neither the sense 
of style which the best Welsh fragments possess, 

nor the form and proportion which the best Welsh 
stories display. 

Very probably this lack of fineness of phrase and 
form was not so eyident in the original Irish poems. 
Dr. Douglas Hyde has told us of the poet eultore 
which went on in Ireland during that country's great 
period. There was a Druidic and Bardic organiza- 
tion, which must haye included a large percentage 
of the population of the state, supported at the cost of 
the state. There were colleges where the bards were 
trained and disciplined in the conception and execu- 
tion of poetry. There was an amajing list of model 
compositions which the students had to memorize^ 
and there was a manrellously intricate system of 
yersification which they had to master. If these 
accounts are facts, no race eyer inyented such a hot- 
house method for the production of literature. And 
from the hints and glimpses we haye, it is probable 
that the Irish bards did deyelop an almost unequalled 
technique in writing. Only their technique seems to 
haye been mainly concerned with the music of sylla- 
bles, whereas the Welsh poets cared more for the 
pictures in words. The difference obtains yet, if we 
may consider the English poets as the descendants 
of the Welsh bards. But the original productions of 
the Irish poets are gone. What we haye is th^ 
work reduced to writing by monkish scribes after 
centuries of merely oral existence. The music would 
be the first thing to go out of the poems under these 
conditions. Of some of the epic legends there are a 
number of recensions extant And these read as if 
the scribes had still other yersions to choose from, 
and were so anxious not to lose anything good that 
they, as it were, superimposed one upon another. 
In the descriptions we haye adjectiyes seyen deep 
heralding the arriyal of the nouns, and the same 
idea is repeated oyer and oyer again in slightly dif- 
ferent form. This excess of particularity and yiyid- 
ness has almost the same effect as MacFherson's 
yague monotony, and leayes the figures and stories 

If the Irish legends are inferior to the Welsh in 
mystic depth, in glimpse and gleam of reyelation, 
they are also inferior to the Icelandic Sagas in world- 
wide significance, in the power of imagination which 
grasps the beg^inning and end of creation and seeks 
to explain eyerything between. The Irish gods and 
their doings are about what a child might imagine. 
There was no theology in the primitiye Irishman's 
head. He was all for this world, and if he thought 
of the hereafter he conceiyed it merely as a place 
where there were improyed opportunities for eating, 
drinking, fighting, and the making of loye. He was 
absolutely healthy and cheerful He had a romantic 
regard for woman. All pleasurable things appealed 




to bim — splendid atdre, wine, song. Poetry has 
probably never been so much honored as by him. 
With a high sense of personal honor, he snbmitted to 
one singolar snperstitdon — a sort of taboo — called 
gwua. He thought that no honest man could object 
to having his head cut off in single combat if the 
play was fair. What, then, is the great value of the 
Irish epics ? It consists, I think, in the dear and 
nndistorted splendor with which absolutely natural 
hnmanity is bodied forth. Does not the description 
I bave given recall the Homeric world and the Ho- 
meric view of life ? 

Homer is indeed the name that leaps to our 
lips as we move about among the large humanities 
of the Irish epics. This is not because their heroes 
are half gods and perform deeds which put even 
the Greek Herakles or Achilles to the blush. These 
wonders detract rather than add to the vitality of 
the figures. But this vitality is so rich, so abounding, 
that in spite of extravagance or mediocrity of style, 
in spite of bad narrative form, a whole world of 
beings, splendid, magnificent, and real, rises to us 
from in the Irish legends. Essentially, taking the 
wbole round of his career, Cuchulain is a finer figure 
than Achillefl. The whole train of his mates and 
riTals, Fergus, Ferdiad, Conor, M^ve, are tremendous 
trinmphs of projection. The love stories of Naoise 
and D^irdre, of Diarmait and Graiime, rank with 
the most perfect in the world. For if the men of 
the Irish l^ends recall the men of Homer, the 
women have much of the quality of Shakespeare's 
beroines. The gayety, the charm, the constancy, 
the pathos of Bosalind and Imogen are at least im- 
plicit in them. And the world in which these figures 
are set, a world of joyous intercourse in splendid 
palaces, of out-door life in field and forest, a world 
of banquet and sport and war, might be set against 
the world of either the Greek or English poet 

What are we to do with this treasure trove of 
Cdtie literature? Shall we take Walt Whitman's 
invitation and '^ cross out the immensely overpaid ac- 
count of Troy, Ulysses wanderings," and turn to this 
new material for themes and inspiration ? Or must 
we accept the fragmentary and amorphous Welsh 
and Irish poems as final and sacred works of art? 
Benan said sadly, '*We Celts will never build our 
Parthenon — marble is not for us," but he claimed 
for his race the thrilling, penetrating cry which 
ihakes and inspires the world. I speak under the 
protection of Renan's name when I say that Celtic 
literature has produced no great work. Its most 
powerful and effective production, the Arthurian 
legend, owes only its germ and origin to Celtic 
genius; it was built up by many hands in many 
lands. Ireland is the home of Uie Fairy folk, the 

Aes Sfdhe, yet no Celtic work can compare with 
Shakespeare's fairy comedy. Wild Wales, both the 
real land and its mirrored image in song, overflows 
with glamour, but what Welsh poem equals Cole- 
ridge's ^'Christabel" in undefinable depths of magic 
meaning? Unconquered courage, stormy despair 
are in the Scotch Ossian, yet these qualities are 
carried to far greater heights in Milton and Byron. 
The Celtic charm of expression is keen and vivid, 
but Wordsworth and Keats outmatch it beyond com- 
pare. If we accept Arnold's view that many of the 
finest qualities of Fkiglish poetry entered it from 
Celtic sources we must decide that the Celtic genius 
is a fecundating pollen, powerful when blown abroad 
but almost inert when it remains at home. 

In fact the Celtic mind would seem to be either 
too fine and frail, or too extravagant and florid, to 
create perfect works of art It either has not the 
strength to build them at all or it overloads them 
until they break down. The relics of Celtic poetry 
rise before us somewhat like the circle at Stone- 
henge. This is not a quarry, for the sign of a mighty 
conception, the marks of human labor are there ; it 
is not a ruin, for it is built of materials too indes- 
tructible for decay. Or perhaps a better image of 
Celtic antiquity would be Milton's description of 
the aninoal creation, when all the beasts were strug- 
gling from the ground — ''the lion pawing to get 
free its hinder parts." Half vital, half encumbered 
and embarrassed by the matter of which they are 
noade, the Celtic legends start out into the world of 
art Neither the Heroic Cycle of Ulster, nor the 
legends of Finn, nor ''The Four Branches of the 
Mabinogi," can, in their old shape, hope to become 
world poems. The Celtic genius which wrought 
them had nearly all the poetic gifts, except the gift 
to look before and after, to group each part in refer- 
ence to the whole. 

Therefore this magnificent poetic material lies 
open to the piracy of the poets of the world. It lacks 
the defense which the greatest poetry possesses of 
being done better than any new hand can possibly 
achieve. Contemporary critics will probably say 
that the modern poet had best busy himself with the 
modern world. Contemporary critics probably told 
Homer and Virgil and Milton this same thing. If 
contemporary critics had had their way the world 
would never have seen any noble or serious poetry. 
For in the main such poetry requires great themes 
and figures, and dim backgrounds to project them 
against Such subjects are difficult to find, almost 
impossible to invent ; but the Celtic genius has given 
us by the basketful themes unsurpassed in literature, 
as yet only slightly wrought by art 

Chablbs Leonabd Moobe. 



[March 16, 

S^l^je ^tk §00ks* 

A GiBii's Impressions of Victorian 

To such of us as were young in the sixties 
and seventies, Miss Laura Hain Friswell's rec- 
ollections of those decades will bring a renewal 
of youth. (Be it here parenthetically observed 
that we use the author's pen-name, which is also 
her maiden name, her husband's name — unless 
it be also Friswell — being unknown to us.) The 
genial friends, the wise and witty sayings, the 
rare good times, the thrilling experiences, of 
those early years will never see their match ; and 
if a laudatrix temporis acti^ her memory kindled 
into a rosy glow with the enchantment of those 
distant and fast-&ding scenes, writes with some 
excess of fond enthusiasm for their vanished 
glories, she certainly merits, not the censure, 
but rather the thanks of her sympathizing con- 
temporaries. The famous men and women of 
the past can never be made too real and living 
to us, and it is for the vivid presentation of their 
personalities and peculiarities that we have much 
reason to thank Miss Friswell, especially as she 
offers, for the most part, what is best and most 
attractive in their characters. The bright daugh- 
ter of a gifted father, she enjoyed unusual op- 
portunities for meeting and mingling with the 
illustrious of her own time and country, as well 
as with some foreign notables, and she appears 
to have made good use of these opportunities. 

The writer's name will recall that of her father, 
James Hain Friswell, the once popular but now 
little read author of the veiy successful essays 
on ^^ The Grentle Life," and of numerous miscel- 
laneous works besides. Her own ^^ Gringerbread 
Maiden and other Stories," published in her 
teens, and her memoir of her father — to name 
no other of her writings — show her to be sealed 
of the tribe of authors. The references she has 
introduced to her own personal appearance, and 
to her extraordinary resemblance to Marie An- 
toinette, incline one to surmise that, besides in- 
heriting her other's literary tastes, she was also, 
in her physical endowment, matre pulchrafilia 
pulchrior. " I have tried," she pleads apologet- 
ically in her closing paragraph, ^' to keep from 
intruding too much upon my readers, but I fear 
I have not altogether succeeded ; therefore I 
would remind them, and my critics, that all rem- 
iniscences are bound to be leaves from the lives 

*In thk 81XTIB8 AiTD SKvmiTiK S. Impr e— iOM of Literary 
People and Others. B7 Laura Hain Friswell. Boston: HertMrt 
B. Tomer St Oo. 

of the writers, and, however one may wish to 
avoid egotism, it is not possible in a book of this 

Admirable, though often amusing, is the writ- 
er's championship, early and late and at all times, 
of the cause of literary folk. Bom and bred in 
a literary atmosphere, that atmosphere was to 
her, even as a child, the breath of life, and she 
could brook no disparagement of authors. Of 
the poet Gerald Massey, whose two little girl» 
were her schoolmates, and of his invalid wife, 
she writes : 

<« Mrs. Massey was very delicate, and it was said the 
poet did all his own housekeeping, and even bought hia 
children's clothes. This seemed to the schoolgirls not 
a man's business, and the elder girls did not scruple to 
laugh and jeer, which hurt his daughters' feelings, mak- 
ing the elder indignant, and the younger cry: and I, who 
lilted such behayiour, and would not haye literary people 
laughed at on any account, stoutly maintained that to 
do the housekeeping and to buy clothes was peculiar to 
poets, and therefore quite right. As I was looked npoii 
as an authority on literary manners, if not matters, the 
chaff ceased." 

Our author's detailed reports of long convert 
sations equal some of Madame Adam's a,mazing 
achievements in this' department of autobiog- 
raphy. After some pages of dialogue about an. 
expected call from Mr. Swinburne, the narra- 
tive proceeds as follows : 

<<A little man walked straight into the room; his head,, 
which was crowned by a quantity of auburn hair, waja 
held high, his eyes stued straight in front of him, and 
he was eyidently quite unconscious that he was not alone 
in the room. My mother walked forward and held out 
her hand. He started, and dropped his hat; my gover- 
ness went forward and picked it up; he almost snatched 
it from her. . . . Mr. Swinburne sat down on the edge 
of a chair. He bent slightly forward, his arms restung- 
on his knees, his hat balanced between his fingers, and 
he kept swinging it backwards and forwards, just as I 
had seen Mr. Toole do in a farce; he dropped it and 
picked it up several times. I think he was about twenty- 
nine or thirty years old at this time — not more than 
five feet six in height, and he had that peculiar pallor 
which goes with auburn hair; and this paleness was 
heightened by study, enthusiasm, and the fierce, rebel- 
lious spirit which seemed to animate that fragile body, 
and which glows and bums in his writings. My mother 

and Miiu» W did all they could to put him at ease, 

and I sat and repented that I had ever wished to see 
him, for I pitied him intensely, he seemed so very ner- 
vous. . . . My father now appeared, and by his conver- 
sational powers and tact soon set Mr. Swinburne quite 
at his ease. He ceased to fidget, and talked of Coleridge 
and other poets in a most interesting manner — to hear 
him and my father was an intellectual treat." 

Interesting memories are given of Toole and 
Irving and other actors. The author has much 
of Cluirles Lamb's fondness for the old pkkys and 
the old heroes of the footlights. With Irving 
the Friswells were on terms of intimacy, even to 




the point of making criticisms and adYising 
changes in some of his plays. Two passages 
leiflting to this lamented genius may well find 
space for insertion here. 

M My mother, and indeed all of as, often used to point 
out little details that had been overlooked. I remember 
one in The BeUs^ which my mother told Mr. Irring on 
the first night, when he returned to our house to supper. 
People who have seen the play may remember that the 
fiist scene is a small inn, in the depths of the country, 
and that there is supposed to have been a deep fall of 
now — in fact, it is stOl snowing. The innkeeper, < Mat- 
thiss ' (Irving), walked in, on that first night, in ordinary 
Usek boots, with no snow ujion them. My mother spo&e 
id it, and afterwards * Matthias ' wore high black boots, 
and stood on the mat while the snow was brushed off 
them. Remarks were made in the papers as to Mr. 
Irying's attention to the minutest details, and this was 
dted as an instance." 

''We had been waiting for < Bob Grasset,' and now he 
eame, but looked so different I could scarcely belieye he 
was the same man. Mr. Irving was then under thirty, 
bad a pale, serious, intellectual face, and long, rather 
wavy, black hair, and was as different from lus make- 
up as Bob Gasset as can well be imagined. We all got 
into a cab and drove home, Irving coming in to supper. 
My father talked about the play, and said how much he 
Hked it; but the actor talked very little; he gave me 
the idea of being melancholy, I thought he was tired. 
1 did not know tiben that silence and seeming lassitude 
vete babitual to him; but so it was, for, though I saw 
Um often for four or five years, I do not think I ever 
mm him cheerful, let alone hilarious. His face, voice, 
figure, proclaimed the tragedian — and yet how well he 
eaa play comedy every one knows who has seen him as 
'Jingle.' That night he quite annoyed me, for when 
we eame into the dining-room he suddenly put up his 
eye-glasses, and, after a careful scrutiny of my face, said, 
more to himself than to my father and mother: < Very 
pfetty — extraordinary likeness to Marie Antoinette.' 
1 be<aune crimson; but Irving was not in the least per- 
tmbed. I might have been a picture, from the cool way 
m which he looked at me, and I have never been able to 
determine whether he knew he spoke aloud." 

A rather melancholy picture of Du Maurier, 
sitting sadly in the twilight of increasing blind- 
neBB, is presented in the following, which evi- 
dently refers to a period later than the seventies. 

«I went and found the artist sitting alone and seem- 
ingly rather dulL He told me he was almost blind; and 
he qwke of my father's early death, of his hard work, 
his philanthropy and his Christianity. He talked of his 
own work, and seemed afraid he should not be able to 
keep on drawing much longer for Pvnch, * You think 
I eta see you,' he said; 'but though I know you are 
^idte near me, you are in a grey mist, and I cannot dis- 
tingidah your features.' ... He talked of the old days 
in Great Russell Street, and said < that then was his hap- 
piest time, and those were the palmy days of PuncA'. . . . 
He had not at this time written Trilby. 1 never saw 
him after that book eame out." 

A ^impse of Dickens, whose ^^ Old Curiosity 
Shop' the author says she almost knew by heart, 
will here be weloome. 

** My father was very fond of taking me out and about 

with him, so that at a very early age I became acquainted 
with authors, publishers, and printers. On one occasion 
we were walking do¥m Wellington Street, Strand, and 
just passing the office of Household Words, when a han- 
som cab stopped, and out stepped a gaily dressed gen- 
tleman ; his bright green waistcoat, yivid scarlet tie, 
and pale lavender trousers would have been noticed by 
any one, but the size of the nosegay in his buttonhole 
riveted my attention, for it was a regular flower garden. 
My father stopped and introduced me, and I, who had 
only seen engravings of the Madise portrait, and a very 
handsome head in my mother's photograph album, was 
astonished to find myself shaking hands with the great 
novelist, Charles Dickens. His manner was so exceed- 
ingly pleasant and kind to a young nobody like me that 
I was very much taken with him; and I was moreover 
very anxious to like the man who had created Dick 
Swiveller and the Marchioness, and Littie Nell and her 

No preface is required to the following real- 
istic description of Tennyson. The scene is laid 
in the Charing Cross Station. 

<' A train drew up, and out of it stepped a genUeman. 
My father said something which I did not catch, and 
going up to him stopped and shook hands. The gentie- 
man would have been tall, but his shoulders seemed 
somewhat bent; his hair was long, so was his beard; he 
wore an ugly Inverness cape and a large slouch hat; he 
looked like a bandit in a melodrama, and I thought him 
some poor actor who had come out in some of the stage 
properties. As he talked to my father I was conscious 
of his looking very often at me; at last he said: < So this 
is your daughter — you must be proud of such a daugh- 
ter.' My father smiled, and replied: < I could wish her 
to be stronger.' < Is she delicate ? ' exclaimed Tennyson. 
< Why, when I saw you coming she reminded me of the 
Groddess of the Mom — she quite brightens up this dull 
and dreary place,' and he looked with disgust round the 
station, which I had always liked. < She looks the incar- 
nation of youth and healtii,' he added." 

The writer indulges in a curious lamentation 
over what would seem to be the exceptionally 
fortunate circumstances of her upbringing. She 
says, ^^ I think now it was rather hard on us 
youngsters to always have so many clever and 
brilliant people round us ; we always seemed to 
be kept at attention." Readers of her book will 
not echo her regret. As a record of ^' Impres- 
sions of Literary People and Others," it is 
vivid, rapid, thoroughly entertaining and seldom 
frivolous, and, despite occasional ciu*elessness — 
such carelessness as one expects in a lady who 
is dashing off her reminiscences about as they 
occur to her, — generally well written. But as 
the writer takes occasion to r^;ret the modem 
decline in literary style and grammatical correct- 
ness among our host of '^ amateur " authors, she 
may pardon a reviewer for calling attention to a 
few alipe in her own pages. The split infinitive 
in the last quotation we pass over as likely to 
offend none but that terror of us all, the purist. 
But *'*' I put up with it like a good sister should 




contains a YiiIgariBm truly surprising in this par- 
ticular sister. Of Disraeli and his wife we read 
that ^' they mutually loved each other"; and in 
another place, ^^Then we settled down to talk 
of the people we had mutually known." On 
another page the writer speaks of playing '^ a 
Lieder of Mendelssohn's." The London Plague 
she makes break out in 1664, a year too soon. 
Last, and least, ^^ yodle " she spells *' joddle," 
and for '^ waltz " she writes ^^ valse." All these 
are small matters, introduced here largely in 
the hope of pleasing the author by proving to 
her how thoroughly her excellent chapters have 
been conned even by the reviewer, who, as we 
all know, is perfectly qualified to judge of any 
book by its weight, odor, and supei^cial aspect. 
' Percy F. Bigknell. 

The Msaniko and Influbncb of 


Many readers of ^'Harper's Magazine" 
during the past year or two have followed with 
rather nnjiiBiial interest a series of articles con- 
tributed by Professor John Bassett Moore, of 
Columbia University, on the significant aspects 
of American diplomatic history and practice. 
They, in common with a larger public, will be 
glad to know that these studies, after the ap- 
proved fashion in such cases, have been brought 
together in book form, and that by a consider- 
able amount of revision and amplification they 
have been made even more suggestive and illum- 
inating than as first published. The primary 
object of the work, in the words of the author, 
is ^^to give, not a chronological narrative of 
international transactions, but rather an ex- 
position of the principles by which they were 
g^ded, in order that the distinctive purposes of 
American diplomacy may be understood and 
its meaning and influence appreciated." A 
thoroughgoing and comprehensive history of 
American diplomacy would be a most welcome 
acquisition, especially if it came from the hand 
of such a master in the field as is Professor 
Moore ; but apparentiy for such a piece of work 
we have yet a good wlnle to wait. In lieu of it 
the next best ^ing, and perhaps for the reading 
public a really more useful thmg, is such a vol- 
ume as that now under review. In this we have 
at least a very readable presentation of the prin- 
ciples and spirit underlying the dealings with 

^AiOBBXOAN DxPbOMAOY, itfl Spirit and Achievemento. By 
John BaMett Moore, LL.D. mnstrated. New York: Harper A 

foreign powers, even though with only enough 
historical detail to afford a fair background for 

The point of view from which Professor 
Moore has approached his subject is set forth 
explicitiy in his prefatory note when he affirms 
that ^^ nothing could be more erroneous than the 
supposition tibat the United States has, as the 
result of certain changes in its habits, suddenly 
become, within the past few years, a ' world- 
power.' " The United States is declared to have 
been ^^ always in the fullest and highest sense 
a world-power." There is nothing essentially 
novel, of course, in the assertion, and yet in 
these times it calls for all the emphasis that 
Professor Moore has placed upon it. Six or 
seven years ago, amidst the excitement incident 
to war, conquest, and expansion, it became the 
custom to picture the United States as breaking 
forth with startling suddenness from her tradi- 
tional isolation and making a highly dramatic, 
not to say sensational, debut as a world power. 
Afterwards, however, when we became able once 
more to reflect sanely upon our international 
position, we discovered that never since we have 
constituted an independent nation have we been 
anything else than a world-power, and that our 
present status (whether for better or for worse) 
differs from that of ten or of fifty years ago 
merely in d^ree rather than in kmd. In an 
essay published as long ago as 1899 Professor 
Albert Bushnell Hart drove home the fact that 
historically the United States has never been an 
isolated power, and now Professor Moore builds 
his whole argument on the thesis ; in truth if one 
cares to trace the earlier development of the idea 
he will find it stated perf ectiy by Trescot in his 
treatise on the diplomacy of the American Rev- 
olution, written more than half a century ago. 

In his opening chapter Professor Moore gives 
us a succinct account of the beginnings of our 
diplomatic histoiy. After laying down the prop- 
osition that the advent of the United States into 
the family of nations was the most important 
event of the past two hundred years, he describes 
graphically the difficulties and embarrassments 
which the young power was called upon to face 
before it had won its way to an honorable inter- 
national standing. The sketch contains nothing 
that is new, but as a convenient summary it is 
distinctiy worth while. The method of the suc- 
ceeding nine chapters is topical rather than chro- 
nological. The first subject taken up is ^^The 
System of Neutrality." The years of the Con- 
f eideration have been designated as the* critical 




period of our early national history, but the ex- 
pression might be applied with almost equal 
propriety to the years between 1791 and 1796 
during which American independence was totter- 
ingunder the impact of European turmoil. As 
Professor Moore points out, the perils which the 
nation encountered at this time were greater than 
the old Confederation could have withstood, and 
were a very severe test of the efficacy of the new 
Constitution. The temptations to wander from 
the straight and narrow path of neutrality were 
all but oYerpowering. Almost alone among the 
statesmen of the time Washington kept a level 
head, and it was his decisive action more than 
anything else that warded off the danger. Pro- 
fessor Moore's account of the Genet mission, 
while very brief, is illuminating. Of Genet him- 
self it is remarked that he ^^ has been the subject 
of much unmerited obloquy ; in circumstances 
exceptionally trying his conduct was ill-advised, 
bat not malevolent." 

After an interesting chapter on the contribu- 
tions of the United States toward establishing the 
freed<nn of the seas, — especially with respect 
to the Mediterranean pirates, the impressment 
of seamen, the right of search, the African slave- 
trade, and the free navigation of sounds, straits, 
and other water channels, — we find a useful 
sketch of the fisheries questions which represents 
a chapter added since the serial publication of 
the studies. And of course there is a chapter 
on the much-discussed, if not over-woi^ed, Mon- 
roe Doctrine. For the most part this chapter 
is of necessity a rehearsal of facts already well 
known, but it contains also some general obser- 
TatioDS and conclusions which, coming from such 
a man as Professor Moore, are w<»ihy of the 
most thoughtful attention on the part of our 
peofple. &iys the writer: 

*<A toideiicy is often exliibited to attach decisive 
impoitaiice to particular phrases in President Monroe's 
message of 1823, or to the special circumstances in 
wiiieh it originated, as if they fiunished a definitive test 
of what should he done and what should he omitted un- 
der sll contingencies. The verhal literalist would, on 
the one hand, make the United States an involuntary 
party to all controversies between European and Ameri- 
can goyemments, in order that the latter may not he 
'oppressed '; while the historical literalist would, on the 
other hand, treat Monroe's declaration as obsolete, since 
the conditions to which they speoiaUy referred no 
longer exist. But when we consider the mutations in the 
voild's affairs, these modes of reasoning must he oon- 
feaaed to be highly unsatisfactory. The < Monroe Doc- 
trine' has in reality become a convenient tiUe by which is 
denoted a principle that doubtless would have been 
vronght out if the message of 1823 had never been writ- 
ten — the principle of the limitation of European power 

and influence in the Western hemisphere. . . . The 
Monroe Doctrine ... is now generally recognized as a 
principle of American policy. To its explicit acceptance 
by Great Britain and Germany there may be added the 
declaration which was spread by unanimous consent upon 
the minutes of The Ha^e Conference, and which was 
permitted to be annexed to the signature of the American 
delegates to the convention for tiie peaceful adjustment 
of international disputes, that nothing therein contained 
should be so construed as to require the United States * to 
depart from its traditional policy of not entering upon, 
interfering with, or entangling itself in, the political 
questions or internal administration of any foreign state,' 
or to relinquish * its traditional attitude toward purely 
American questions.' " 

The three topics of expatriation, intematioiial 
arbitration, and territorial expansion are taken 
up in order and traced rapidly through the whole 
course of our national histoiy. And finally 
there is the closing chapter on '^ Influence and 
Conditions," in many ways the most valuable in 
the book. Here Professor Moore attempts an 
estimate (which he would be the first to recog- 
nize as only partial) of American diplomacy in 
respect to its influence upon civilization at large 
and particularly upon the methods and condi- 
tions of intercourse among states. He finds 
that this influence has been at least three-fold. 
In the first place, the diplomacy of the United 
States has fostered political, commercial, and 
maritime liberty ; in the second place, it has 
emphasized the principle of legality in the con- 
duct of international affairs ; and lastly, it has 
promulgated ideals of honesty, good-faith, sim- 
plicity, and directness which foreign offices and 
diplomats have always been much too prone to 
ignore. To the general assertion witJi which 
t^e volume closes, to the effect that American 
diplomacy has been identified with the cause of 
freedom and justice, many individual exceptions 
might easily be taken ; yet that it is true in all 
essential respects no one at all acquainted with 
the subject would undertake to deny. 

Professor Moore's task in this book has been 
to search out the things which the United States 
has stood for in the realm of international poli- 
tics and to make an exposition of them in the 
light of briefly enumerated facts. This under- 
taking he has accomplished with signal success. 
One may question his assignments of space or of 
historical importance to one topic or another, or 
his judgments of men and events, though to the 
reviewer these seem on the whole to be admir- 
able ; but there are practically no misstatements 
of fact, and of affirmations of opinions which do 
not grow out of the most careful thought there 
are none at all. Frederic Austin Oqo. 



[March 16, 

Japanese Abchitecturb and 
Allied Arts.* 

The reader who takes up Mr. Ralph Adams 
Cram's " Impressions of Japanese Arohitecture 
and the Allied Arts " is likely to lay it down 
again with a sigh of regret that there is not 
more of it, albeit thick paper, wide margins, and 
the sixty full-page illustrations sweU its propor- 
tions to a good-sized volume. Four of the ten 
chapters were written for architectural period- 
icals ; one is a paper that was read before the 
Boston Society of Arts and Crafts. Necessarily, 
they deal chiefly with generalities, and there is 
some repetition, or rather reiteration, of the same 
ideas. This reiteration does not, however, de- 
tract from the charm of the book, and the ideas 
thus reinforced are sound and are cogently 
expressed. It is evident that Mr. Cram has 
studied his subject with painstaking care, keeping 
the larger rdations ever in mind; and the 
essays that make up this volume are thoughtful 
and discriminating. He tells us that we must 
consider the art of Old Japan, and particularly 
the religious architecture, as the visible expres- 
sion of the ancient civilization of China and 
Japan, which from the seventh to the twdfth 
centuries was the highest civilization then exist- 
ing in the world. But, as he says, — 

«< From the standpoint of the casual traveller, even of 
the architect, Japanese architeotore is at first abso- 
lutely baffling; it is like Japanese music, so utterly for- 
eign, so radi^dly different in its genesis, so aloof in its 
moods and motives from the standards of the West, that 
for a long time it is a wonder merely, a curiosity, a toy 
perhaps, or a sport of nature, not a serious product of 
the human mind, a priceless contribution to the history 
of the world. Partly by inheritance, partly by educa- 
tion, we have been qualified for thinking in one way, 
and in one way only. From Athens through Rome, 
Byzantium, the Auvergne, Normandy, the He de France, 
to Yorkshire and Somerset, there is running an easily 
traceable thread of unbroken continuity of architectural 
tradition; but from Athens through Ionia, Persia, Hin- 
dustan, China, and Korea, to Japan, while the line is 
equally continuous, it is through lands aloof and barred, 
and by ways that are blind and bewildering. We can 
think forward in the terms of the West, we can hardly 
think backward in the terms of the mysterious East. 
Yet when the revolution is accomplished and the rebel- 
lious mind is bent to the unfamiliar course, this strange 
architecture comes to show itself in its true light. It is 
more nearly Greek than any other, for it is the perfect- 
ing of a single, simple, and primitive mass by almost 
infinite refinements of line and proportion." 

This is a significant utterance, not only from 
the novelty of the view put forth, — no other 
author having ventured an appreciation of Jap- 


Abtb. B7 Balph Adams Cram, mostrated. New York: The 
Bakor A Taylor Oo. 

anese architecture at its true worth, — but be- 
cause it is the view that must prevail when that 
architecture is more widely studied. Still, as the 
Philistine in matters of art is not easily turned 
from his traditional notions, Mr. Cram's conten- 
tion would be more convincing were more of 
the details filled in. These, let it be hoped, will 
some day be forthcoming. Meanwhile, there is 
reason to be grateful for a competent and illum- 
inating summary of the historical development 
of the art, and some account of the more impor- 
tant buildings that have been preserved from. 
ancient times. 

All of the book is not given over to architec- 
ture. The chapter on "The Genius of Japan- 
ese Art" is a clear and forcible presentation of 
fundamental truths; the "Note on Japanese 
Sculpture" affords an excellent introduction to 
a much neglected subject; and very charming 
is the chapter on " Temple Gardens." In speak- 
ing of "The Minor Arts" there are lapses here 
and there into such extravagant phrase as " that 
from the very first whatever had been made by 
any workman had been beautiful." Would it 
were so I Strict regard for truth, however, com- 
pels the admission that not all Japanese work- 
men are artists. With little that Mr. Cram says 
is there occasion to quarrel. His spelling of 
"kaldmono " (whatever that may mean) instead 
of " kakemono " will not pass muster. The color 
print by Yeizan, not "of Yeizan " as he puts it, 
is well characterized as "not a masterpiece." 
But when he asserts that "it says as much, per- 
haps all we can ever understand, of the pictorial 
art of Japan," the statement may be challenged 
squarely. The qualities he proceeds to comment 
upon are for the most part wanting in the print 
he takes as a text, and of which a half-tone re- 
production is given. The other illustrationB are 
from photographs, selected with excellent judg- 
ment, but they might have been better reproduced 
and printed. Fbederick W. G<X)kin. 

The Greatest of French Dramatists.* 

So little has been written in English about 
Moli^re that admirers of le grand comique^ as 
Frenchmen call their genius of comedy, will 
hail Mr. Henry M. TroUope's biography as a 
conmiendable attempt to add a necessaiy work 
to a meagre literature. To quote Mr. Andrew 
Lang's article in the £ncyclop89dia Britannica 
on tibis great Frenchman, " ^e English bi<^- 

• Thb IjIfb op Moijkbb. Bj HeniT M. TroUope. 
portraits. New York: E. P. Datton A Oo. 





laphies of Molibre are few and as a rule abso- 
lutely untrustworthy." Considering that in the 
literature of the modem drama Moliere stands, 
after Shakespeare, in the foremost place, and 
that in the literature of France his is the greatest 
name, this dearth of English works about him 
becomes indeed remarkable. 

No point need be raised as to the timeliness 
of Mr. Trollope's book. The questions for con- 
sideration are its accuracy, construction, and 
charm. In the case of the first of these qual- 
ities only praise may be given. The author 
has examined all French authorities, both orig- 
inal and commentative, so thoroughly that the 
most captious critic would find it difficult to 
gainsay his knowledge of the topic upon which 
he writes. 

The earlier period of Moliere's life is veiled, 
to a great extent, in mystery ; yet it is a matter 
of small moment whedier he left Paris with a 
band of strolling players in the autumn of 1645 
or the spring of 1646 ; or just when he joined 
forces with a provincial actor named Dufresne. 
The points of human interest are that Moliere, 
the son of a well-to-do upholsterer to the king, 
preferred the stage to a shop-ridden life, and 
that after &ilure in Paris as an actor and im- 
prisonment for debt he had the courage, upon 
his release from gaol, to flee to the provinces 
and follow the calling of a strolling player for 
thirteen years rather than return to his father's 
shop. Nor does it matter whether ^^ L'£tourdi " 
was first produced at Lyons in 1653 or 1655. 
The fact which interests posterity is that an 
itinerant actor, who had previously written only 
rough caneva&—OT frameworks of plays — sud- 
denly turned his pen to verse and wrote a five- 
act comedy that electrified a Lyons audience 
and acclaimed the birth of a new king. 

The one contested point in Moliere's life of 
prime importance to biographers is the parent- 
age of his wife, Armande BSjart. Though pre- 
sented, in her marriage certificate and various 
other documents of the period, as the legitimate 
daughter of Jo